In order to fully understand the current operating mode of the voice-based knowledge payment platform to discuss the future development trend of the voice-based knowledge payment, a preliminary analysis of the current mature knowledge payment platform operation mode in China is conducted through case analysis, comparative analysis, literature analysis, observation method, and other methods combined with Newcomb A-B-X balance model and Ma- letsk’s “CMR” model, thereby providing reasonable suggestions for the de- velopment of a voice knowledge payment platform. The results show that as a new knowledge dissemination model, the new knowledge payment-based voice platform has specific innovations in terms of content production and communication structure. Its primary operation mode is to obtain the conti- nuous consumption of users through the improvement of the three aspects of product quality and payment, mode, and traffic import. In summary, know- ledge payment has changed the traditional way and ability to acquire know- ledge, opened new ways to acquire knowledge, and provided new choices for users to learn knowledge. In the future, the development of the demand for knowledge payment is inseparable from the renewal of new technologies and the improvement of services. Paying attention to tail content, strengthening sociality and introducing new technologies are particularly important for the development of the platform. The trinity of content, social interaction and scenario also contribute to the healthy development of knowledge payment market.
Abstract: As a big country of electronic products consumption, China has entered the peak period of electronic products scrapping. At the same time, the renewal of electronic products has also led to the development of reverse supply chain of electronic products. Many electronic products enterprises have also launched their own reverse logistics, but some manufacturers have blindly implemented reverse logistics without reasonable planning, which makes a large number of electronic products failed. Get reasonable recovery. This paper studies the selection of operation modes of reverse supply chain for electronic products, analyses the status quo of waste electronic products recycling, and introduces three common operation modes of reverse logistics, namely self-management mode, alliance mode and outsourcing mode, and analyses and compares the advantages and disadvantages of each operation mode. Combining with the principles of index screening and index system establishment, the evaluation index is screened and integrated, and the evaluation system of reverse logistics selection is constructed. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process is used to select the operation mode of reverse logistics for waste electronic products, and the feasibility and practicability of this method are verified by demonstration.
It can be observed that both the 5/6 short pitch winding and the 1.5 spp, fractional slot topology display significant torque ripple and eddy current loss in faulty operation when compared to the normal healthy operation (Fig. 5 and 6). On the other hand, the torque waveforms and the rotor eddy current losses in faulty operating mode remain the same as to those in healthy mode for both the overlap 2/3 shorted pitch winding and the non-overlap one (Fig.7 and 8). The underlying reason is the fact that tripplen harmonics are inexistent in the single phase MMF for a coil span of 120 degrees . Thus, the whole harmonic armature reaction air- gap field in faulty operation is identical to that of the healthy case. This also explains the fact that the torque waveforms and the rotor eddy current losses are identical in both healthy and remedial operating modes for the two latter winding configurations as shown in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8. This is of a key importance since the resulting extra losses in a fault tolerant operating mode are limited only to the additional winding losses which are less problematic in terms of thermal management.
However, the output line-to-line voltage obtained using the minimal loss FST approach has higher harmonic distortion (compared to the ULST approach) in its output voltage waveform because the voltage levels produced do not have adjacent level switching . Therefore, in this paper, the ULST operating mode is used for controlling the quasi Z-source NPC inverter. Assuming that the Z-source network is symmetrical (L1 = L2 = L and C1 = C2 = C), then VL1 = VL2 = VL and VC1 = VC2 = VC and the voltage expressions for the NST state are as follows:
2) In case of both PTFE wick and SUS wick, wick’s operating mode change from the mode of heat conduc- tion to mode of convection was observed. The mode change of SUS wick occurs at higher heat flux than that of PTFE wick because its high thermal conductivity makes the effect of heat conduction larger. It is clear that the effective thermal conductivity has the effect on the wick’s operating modes.
The PMA decides the operating mode of the system based on average current. The PMA is formulated with following operational objectives. (i) To identify the operating mode of the system and make decisions based on average current,(ii) To achieve power balance in every operating mode, (iii) To maintain Battery and supercapacitor within limits and to eliminate current oscillation of HESS at the edge of supercapacitor, (iv) To supply average power by battery only if the system is islanded, (v) To supply oscillating and transient peak powers by supercapacitor only, (vi) to minimize/maximize power drawn/supplied from/to grid during peak pricing and (vii) To provide minimum backup for critical loads in islanded mode.
The operating modes are connected to execute what we call management modes graph. The demand for change from one mode to another mode must be shown for security reasons because the system can fail on an operating mode OMj when some services are not available. The switching is represented by a boolean variable bij. The set of operating modes and the switching conditions bij are described by a graph named User Operating Mode Management (UOMM) in figure 4.
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Transverse magnetic modes in microstrip patch antenna are analyzed. Two radiation beams off broadsides are obtained by operating the patch antenna at the higher order mode TM02 instead of the fundamental mode TM01 which radiates a broadside beam. Antenna bandwidth is broadened by using a U-slot technique. Rogers RT Duroid with the relative permittivity 2.2 is used as a dielectric substrate material with the thickness of 3.175mm. The proposed patch antenna is designed and simulated by using HFSS. The antenna frequency range is 5.18-5.8GHz with VSWR less than 2, with the impedance bandwidth of 11.8%. The antenna resonates at 5.2 GHz, which exhibits two radiation beam
Alhamdulillah. Thanks to Allah SWT, whom with His willing giving me the opportunity to complete this Final Year Project which is title Auto Silent Mode for Android Smartphones. This final year project report was prepared for Faculty of Electronic Engineering and Computer Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), basically for student in final year to complete the undergraduate program that leads to the degree of Bachelor of Electronic Engineering (Computer Engineering).
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Solid State Transformers have been envisioned to eventually replace the huge oil/vacuum transformers currently operating in the electric grids. To enable simulation of such a system, made up of solid state transformers using simulation software such as Matlab, PSCAD etc. requires the development of average models which are far less computationally intensive when compared to their switching counterparts. Some of the effects which cannot be directly translated from the switching to the average model include the switching ripple originating from the toggling of the power devices, the common mode voltage, dc bus imbalance effects etc. However the average model developed gives a fairly accurate representation of how the actual switching model would behave under various test conditions. The average model is not truly average in the real sense. Circuit & control elements have been retained to effectively replicate transient responses of the SST. Descriptions of the various SST stages along with component sizing & control selection have been described in the following sections.
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This paper has presented a new steady-state model for the DAB converter. The square-wave operating mode of DAB is the best mode for high-power transfer. The operation of the DAB dc–dc converter has been verified through extensive simulations which in turn, confirm the accuracy of the model. The experimental results confirm that provision of snubber capacitors across the IGBTs reduces switching losses and device stresses and improves the converter performance. The simulation and experimental results are in good agreement demonstrating the effectiveness of the steady-state model. Therefore, the proposed model can serve as an important teaching-cum-research tool for DAB hardware design, soft-switching-operating range estimation, and performance prediction at the design stage.
In the PM Synchronous Motor (PMSM) the excitation is provided owing to permanent magnet instead of the field windings. Special construction causes that the PMSM Motor has sinusoidal back EMF. The motor requires sinusoidal stator currents to produce constant torque. PMSM is simple in construction due to its robustness PMSM used in the many industrial application and control to Adjustable Speed Drives. In this paper analysis of the z source inverter using PMSM is proposed. The z source network is a DC link Energy storage sub circuit was proposed in the paper z source network is used for AC-DC /DC-AC power conversion circuit due its advantages compare to the traditional LC, DC links. In the paper analysis of z source inverter and operating principle of the ZSI and the advantage of ZSI using the Adjustable Speed Drives is proposed. The proposed system topologies are validated by using the MATLAB/SIMULATION ,SIMULINK environment.
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Abstract: A wide band dual-beam micro strip antenna is proposed in this communication. Two radiation beams off broadside are obtained by Operating the patch antenna at the higher order mode instead of the Fundamental mode, this radiates a broadside beam. Broadening the antenna bandwidth is achieved by using the U-slot technique. Unlike previous work on the conventional U-slot micro-strip antenna, the effect of the U-slot inclusion on the performance of a patch antenna operating at the mode is studied across the entire achieved bandwidth. The antenna analysis is carried out with the aid of full wave simulation, and an antenna prototype is fabricated and measured for validation. Good agreements between the simulated and measured results are observed. The antenna operating frequency range is 5.18–5.8 GHz with VSWR less than 2, which corresponds to 11.5% impedance bandwidth. It exhibits two radiation beams, directed at 35% and % with 7.92 dBi and 5.94 dBi realized gain, respectively at 5.5 GHz.
A distribution system suffers from current as well as voltage-related power-quality (PQ) problems, which include poor power factor, distorted source current, and voltage disturbances. A DSTATCOM, connected at the point of common coupling (PCC), has been utilized to mitigate both types of PQ problems . When operating in current control mode (CCM), it injects reactive and harmonic components of load currents to make source currents balanced, sinusoidal, and in phase with the PCC voltages. In voltage-control mode (VCM), the DSTATCOM regulates PCC voltage at a reference value to protect critical loads from voltage disturbances, such as sag, swell, and unbalances. However, the advantages of CCM and VCM cannot be achieved simultaneously with one active filter device, since two modes are independent of each other.
Select a location for the transceiver that allows ade- quate air circulation, free from extreme heat, cold, or vibrations, and away from TV sets, TV antenna ele- ments, radios and other electromagnetic sources. The base of the transceiver has an adjustable stand for desktop use. Set the stand to one of two angles de- pending on your operating conditions. (see description at right page)
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It is important to also note the limitations of our study. First, a pertinent issue for future empirical work in the field of re-entry decisions is to further expand on what constitutes learning and what the sources of learning or unlearning may be. Our measures of organisational learning comprise how firms learn from direct experience. Prior studies have suggested that different types of learning may result in different organisational behaviour and performance outcomes (see Clarke et al., 2013; March, 2010). For instance, it would be beneficial to extend this study by examining whether firms learn from the experience of others, i.e. via business and or institutional networks, or whether learning from operating in one market may be transferred into a different market. Some experiences may be good teachers in certain organisational contexts but not others (March, 2010). Further, market changes, other than institutional changes or changes in the size of the host market, may affect the ability of firms to benefit from and exploit prior knowledge and experience at re-entry. Internal and/or external changes that may have occurred in the time-out period which have not been captured in this study could be considered in future studies either by focusing on specific industry sectors or by focusing on qualitative studies of specific firms. Only by understanding the contextual conditions that support the extraction of value from prior experiences, will we be able to provide recommendations as to how organisations should be designed to promote learning.
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reduction, voltage scaling and logic optimization .Though, these methods are not sufficient in many applications where ultra-low power consumption with medium frequency of operation is the primary concerns, such as portable computing gadgets, medical electronics etc., The system must have a miniaturized power supply in order to achieve portability . So a portable system must be designed for low power consumption. Supply voltage scaling is an effective way to reduce power consumption. For low power applications, sub-threshold operation is a better option. However, threshold voltage cannot be scaled down with the same rate. Because of trade-off between power and speed, low power systems are slower ones. At medium frequencies the repeater circuit operating in sub- threshold region is the best option. The sub-threshold logic operates with the threshold voltage Vt of the transistor is greater than power supply VDD. In this paper the sub threshold grounded-body biasing technique is proposed, having both PMOS and NMOS bodies grounded and calculation and simulation ensure the enhanced performance than the conventional repeater. Here ability to operate at higher frequencies without compromising with the power dissipation in sub-threshold region and emphasis is on the lower delay. The STGB style of the repeater works at higher frequencies having lower delay,
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Both active regions have their own GaSb separate confinement layers (SCLs) as indicated by the refractive index profile of the waveguide structure, represented by the dashed line in Fig 1. In order to compensate for the higher optical loss at longer wavelengths, so that both wavelengths would have similar threshold current densities, the LW active region comprised six stages while the SW active region comprised only four stages. In order to separate the two active regions and avoid absorption of the SW light in the LW active region, 2.5 µm of the short period InAs (2.43 nm) /AlSb (2.30 nm) superlattice was inserted between them. Due to the different active region designs and to account for the different optical mode distributions, the thicknesses of the SCLs were chosen to be 250 nm (SW) and 400 nm (LW). The calculated normalized profiles of the two modes are shown in Fig. 1 in blue (SW) and red (LW).
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A MAT LAB simulation is performed to verify the converter performance and the simulation circuit Fig.12 Dual Source lo w voltage powering mode shown in Fig.12(a), that both sources powerup the dc bus for electric motor and sufficiently maintains the dc bus voltage
Fig.2 shows, one VSI connected to the AC network using a shunt transformer and the second VSI connected to the AC network using a series transformer. The active power demanded by the series converter is drawn by the shunt converter from the AC network and supplied to bus m through the DC link. The output voltage of the series converter is added to the nodal voltage, at say bus k, to boost the nodal voltage at bus m. The voltage magnitude of the output voltage provides voltage regulation, and the phase angle determines the mode of power flow control .