there (Table 1). In addition, even though these are different habitats, the calls are aimed at the infant, which is rarely more than a few meters away in the canopy. This patterning among habitats is therefore consistent with the observation that call propagation properties of different habitats become apparent only at much larger distances than observed here , and that habitat differences have been used in primate studies to explain gradual changes of the same call types, such as subtle frequency changes, but not for the replacement of one call type by another [26,27,28]. The potential role of possible small-scale ecological variation between sites was not addressed and its potential influence on acoustic signals deserves more study. However, for various reasons we think that potential variation of small-scale ecological variation (e.g. leaf density, canopy structure) at best has a limited impact on our results. First, variation in habitat ecology in general is often considered to have an influence on the acoustic structure of long- distance signals, not of short-distance signals [43,44]. Second, the three sites on Borneo are all in the same peat-swamp forest block and consequently these sites are ecologically very similar [45,46], in which orang-utans show many similarities in foraging and nesting behaviour . Thus, it is unclear why we find completely different calls types rather than subtle differences within call types. Indeed, studies focusing on bird song that have described variation in bird song have mainly found differences between very different habitats such as open and closed ones within the same species [18,48,49], and where within-species dialects have been reported vocal learning has been the predominant explanation, with ecology or genetics given much less prominence (e.g. ). Finally, the influence of potential between-population variation in sound propagation for these calls is probably very limited because excess attenuation differences for the frequency range of the calls Figure 3. Average genetic distance between pairs of sites. Average genetic distance (maximum composite likelihood distance of HVR-I haplotypes, see Material and Methods) between pairs of sites in five orangutan populations, for two different situations: where nesting calls and mother-infant calls are the same in both sites, and where the two sites are different. If genes play a role in the production of these calls, pairs of sites with the same behavioural state should show smaller average genetic distance than pairs of sites with different behavioural states.
Orang-utans played a communication game in two studies testing their ability to produce and comprehend requestive pointing. While the ‘ communicator ’ could see but not obtain hidden food, the ‘ donor ’ could release the food to the communicator, but could not see its lo- cation for herself. They could coordinate successfully if the communicator pointed to the food, and if the donor comprehended his communicative goal and responded pro-socially. In Study 1, one orang-utan pointed regularly and accurately for peers. However, they re- sponded only rarely. In Study 2, a human experimenter played the communicator ’ s role in three conditions, testing the apes ’ comprehension of points of different heights and different degrees of ostension. There was no effect of condition. However, across conditions one donor performed well individually, and as a group orang-utans ’ comprehension perfor- mance tended towards significance. We explain this on the grounds that comprehension re- quired inferences that they found difficult – but not impossible. The finding has valuable implications for our thinking about the development of pointing in phylogeny.
Our sensitivity analysis revealed two important points. First, across all possible iterations of parameter values, the upper limits of our density estimates for remnant forest sites in oil palm were lower than half the upper limits for the logged forest, and density estimates were on average close to a third that of logged forest. These results provide strong evidence that, despite using parameters acquired from other sites in our density calculations, oil palm estates support <50% of the orang ‐utan density of the logged forest. Second, our sensitivity analysis corroborates previous research, that density estimates are highly sensitive to changes in nest decay rate (Marshall & Meijaard, 2009). However, our analysis also revealed that nest production rate could have a large influence on density estimates. High levels of disturbance may limit nesting opportunities or alter the abundance of tree species orang ‐utans preferentially use for nesting and increase nest reuse (Ancrenaz et al., 2004). If unaccounted for, high levels of nest reuse may potentially lead to an underestimation of orang ‐utan density. Therefore, to improve future density estimates in highly modified landscapes, further research is needed to assess
weighing 35·kg and males 78·kg on average; Smith and Jungers, 1997), which might be expected to influence vertical climbing behaviour. They possess exceptionally long arms, whereas their hindlimbs are relatively short (Jungers and Susman, 1984). Both fore- and hindlimb joints are very flexible (Morbeck and Zihlman, 1988; Tuttle and Cortright, 1988). Whilst their locomotor behaviour is best characterized as orthograde suspension (after Hunt et al., 1996), which incorporates clamber, brachiation and orthograde bridging behaviour (Cant, 1987; MacKinnon, 1974; Sugardjito, 1982; Sugardjito and van Hooff, 1986), vertical climbing accounts for approximately a quarter of all observed locomotion (Cant, 1987; Thorpe et al., submitted), although note that Sugardjito and van Hooff (1986) recorded smaller frequencies. Quadrupedal walking is less frequent, and leaping is rarely performed. Vertical climbing has been observed to occur with approximately the same frequency in adult females, adult males and adolescents (Thorpe et al., submitted), ranging from 22% to 26% of total locomotor bouts. These results reveal that classic predictions based on geometric scaling, which imply that large animals should climb less than smaller ones, are not borne out by orang-utan behaviour. However, it is possible that the lack of size-related differences in climbing behaviour may be partly explained by the presence of size-related, kinematically distinct, climbing strategies. Consequently, to obtain valuable results for the kinematics of vertical climbing in orang-utans that can be used for comparisons with the locomotion of other species, it is necessary to start by investigating the extent of intraspecific variation.
Response to novelty. We performed two separate tests to assess individual variation in novelty response. First, we examined how each subject reacted to novel food. In the zoos, the novel food was blue mash potato served with black olives on top. Zoo orang-utans receive a broad diet with many types of human food, but blue items are not common and olives were new to all individuals. In the rehabilitation stations we used purple rice or purple mash potato with dried purple sweet potato pieces. Second, we introduced a novel toy in the form of a wooden board equipped with six differently coloured, rotatable tennis balls. For both tasks, we recorded the latency from task begin (when set up was completed and individual was in max. 1 m distance to the apparatus) until first touch, as well as exploration duration of the novel toy. Maximum test duration was two minutes for both tasks, and each subject was tested individually.
Under the “do-as-I-do” test paradigm, the human demonstrator presented Rocky with random sequences (Runs test, Z = − 4.751, p < 0.001) of human wookie-versions varying in frequency (Hz) – low vs. high wookies. 513 trials were presented (272 low, 241 high), divided through 13 sessions (~49 trials/session, ~472 seconds/ses- sion) over the course of 5 days. The subject typically responded to the model signal within approximately 500 ms. Trial sessions were recorded at ~0.5 m distance from the subject with a ZOOM H4Next Handy recorder via the inbuilt mic standing on a miniature tripod. Recordings were collected at a sampling rate of 24 bit/48,000 kHz and saved in wav format. These settings obtained high quality audio recordings. Rocky only joined trial sessions voluntarily and never refused to participate. Rocky was never food deprived during trials sessions and trial ses- sions never interfered with normal feeding times or working schedule at the orang-utan enclosure so as to prevent imposing any stress. Rocky was tested when he and his cohort (four other orang-utans) were housed in their individual quarters.
Abstract: - Orang Asli community is continuously given attention by the government for their development so as not to widen digital gap with other advanced races in Malaysia. IT education and access to computers and internets seem to be one of the noble viable options for the young generations to nurture the knowledge society values. This is due to many adverse reports related to Orang Asli attitudes and behaviours in the media as well as research publications. Thus, our IT social inclusion project is timely and hoped to contribute to their development for better lives. This paper describes the proposed thin client configuration for Orang Asli community in Gombak area. It begins with literature reviews on previous studies, concepts and products available and description of Orang Asli schoolchildren in the area. Based on risk management assessment, thin client system is chosen for the community and the proposed architecture configuration is described and illustrated.
A total of 1419 subject' aged 2 years and ahove were chosen using cluster sampling from different locations in Peninsular Malaysia (Fig. I). The are:« were selecled based on degrees of social development and lifestyles. Different sampling strategies were chosen depending on the homogeneity of the popUlation. For Orang Asli subjects, the areas chosen were Lanai Post, Betau Post and Bukit Lanjan. In Lanai Post.'�most all eligible subjects from three randomly selected villages were invited to participate in the study. In Betau Post. three clusters comprising 6 villages were nmdomly selected with a participation rate of more than 85%. In Bukit Lanjan. all eligible subjects were invited. wilh a participation rate of more than 80%. For Malays, the are:« selected were Ulu Sungai, Sungai Koyan and Kg. Kerinci. In Ulu Sungai tmditional village, the response rate was more th:Ul 95%. In the Sungai Koyan reseulement scheme and Kampong Kerinci urban village, nmdllm
Various efforts have been done to help empower Orang Asli women in the tourism industry in Lenggong as well as increasing their potential, especially in the field of entrepreneurship, such as the creation of handicrafts. One of them is to create a special place in each village to ease the gathering of the womenfolk to produce handicrafts. This special place can also help them acquire formal training to learn more skills as well as techniques in handicraft making, supported by a skilled educational workforce. Orang Asli women who are skilled gain the opportunity to present their talents so that they can be highlighted. The Orang Asli Development Agency (Jabatan Kemajuan Orang Asli, JAKOA) was recommended to provide more courses on handicraft making where the educators would be found amongst the skilled of the Orang Asli. Apart from that, a special place ought to be created that can be used as a centre for handicraft material gathering, so that all products that are created can be gathered there as well. With this gathering centre, buyers from outside can purchase these handicrafts created by the Orang Asli women more conveniently. Apart from that, tourists can also get to see the creative process behind the creation of the handicrafts, especially interms of their type, materials as well as technique, in order to create a product that is beautiful and high in quality.
Orang Seletar being one of the minority ethnic races in Malaysia often find themselves vulnerable to exploitation, marginalisation and domination by the people in power or those who are of higher status. This has led to this community being recognised and protected under international laws by the United Nations. However, their plight started quite some time back when the country started to develop the coastal area. They have always been sea nomads and earned their living through water-based economic activities. However, with the rapid development of the country and the changing political scene, their living conditions has changed considerably.
Masyarakat Orang Asli memang terkenal dengan keistimewaan dan kebolehan mengenal pasti tumbuhan yang boleh dijadikan sebagai penawar kepada pelbagai penyakit di samping kepercayaan dan amalan ritual mereka yang banyak menggunakan hasil dari tumbuhan hutan. Namun, herba yang sering dikaitkan sebagai ubat tradisional yang sangat kaya dengan khasiat serta mampu dijadikan alternatif kepada pengubatan moden ini mempunyai kepercayaan dan pantang larangnya dalam proses pengambilannya yang perlu dipatuhi supaya herba itu tidak hilang khasiatnya.
experienced during the day time. In this research, Proposed Comfortable PPRT House Model has been suggested by adopting traditional orang asli house element and lifestyle as much as possible as alternative techniques for achieving passive cooling. The thermal comfort study in this research involved the use of computer simulation using Integrated Environment Solution (IES) technique. The specific software called Apache is used. Validation of IES Apache is done by comparing the computer simulation result with the field measurement result on existing house model. The result of the Proposed Comfortable PPRT House Model showed that the house model increased thermal comfort performance by reducing air temperature (until 2°C) and PMV index (until 1). The other important factor is that it can continuously maintain the comfortable condition in mid day regardless of the available outside climate condition. This effect is significant toward improving the thermal comfort performance of PPRT house designed for orang asli through passive cooling, thus provide comfortable healthy and low energy house.
Dalam konteks komunikasi secara lisan misalnya, proses komunikasi berlaku apabila pendakwah menggunakan medium bahasa pengantar tertentu untuk menyampaikan mesej dakwah kepada penerima melalui saluran lisan seperti pidato, khutbah, dialog dan diskusi. Ini bertepatan dengan kenyataan di dalam al-Quran (Sūrah Ibrāhīm: 4) sebagaimana firman Allah SWT yang bermaksud “Dan kami tidak mengutuskan seorang Rasul melainkan dengan bahasa kaumnya supaya ia menjelaskan (hukum-hukum Allah) kepada mereka. Maka Allah menyesatkan sesiapa yang dikehendaki-Nya (menurut undang-undang peraturanNya), juga memberi hidayah petunjuk kepada sesiapa yang dikehendakiNya (menurut undang-undang peraturanNya); dan Dialah yang Maha Kuasa, lagi Maha Bijaksana”(Al-Qur‟an Tafsir Pimpinan al-Rahman kepada Pengertian al-Qur‟an 2001). Menurut Yusuf al-Qaradawi (2011) bahawa ayat al-Quran tersebut tidak hanya menyatakan bentuk dan bahasa medium si penutur seperti Bahasa Inggeris dan Bahasa Jerman. Ia juga memfokuskan kepada fungsi dan peranan bahasa dalam pertuturan lisan. Sebagai contoh, apabila seseorang berkomunikasi dengan orang awam, maka laras bahasa yang digunakan adalah laras bahasa orang awam dengan mengambil kira tahap pemikiran mereka. Sehubungan dengan itu, bagi menjadi aturan berbicara secara lisan, Zulkefli dan S.Salahudin (2016) mencadangkan agar adab berikut diambil perhatian sebagai satu langkah seperti topik percakapan antara komunikator dengan penerima perlu yang berkaitan dengan perkara yang baik dan manfaat, perlu mengelakkan mengungkapkan perkataan yang tidak mendatangkan faedah, tidak berdusta dalam percakapannya, tidak membuka kekurangan orang lain, tidak mencela dan merendah-rendahkan orang lain dan menjaga adab perbezaan pendapat.
Page | 79 Constitution specifically empowers the federal government to legislate for the welfare of Orang Asli. 48 Article 8(1) is the equal protection clause of the Malaysian Constitution and states ‘all persons are equal before the law and entitled to equal protection of the law’. Article 8(5)(c) of the Malaysian Constitution permits laws ‘for the protection, well-being or advancement’ of Orang Asli ‘including, the reservation of land’ or the ‘reservation to Orang Asli of a reasonable proportion of suitable positions in the public service’ without offending art 8(1). Despite enabling positive discrimination laws in favour of Orang Asli, these constitutional provisions do not expressly oblige the federal government 49 to safeguard the position of the Orang Asli. In contrast, the state is obliged to safeguard the privileged status of the Malays and natives of Sabah and Sarawak on a potentially wider scope of protections. 50 Further, Malays and natives of Sabah and Sarawak have constitutional protection against laws that touch upon their respective customs. 51 Islam, the religion of all Malays (as defined in the Malaysian Constitution), 52 is the official religion of Malaysia and is constitutionally protected. 53 The Malay language is the national language. 54 Orang
orang tua terhadap pembinaan akhlak peserta didik masih sangat kurang, pemahaman orang tua tentang ilmu agama Islam masih minim, sehingga pembinaan akhlak anak dalam rumah tanngga atau keluarga sangat terbatas.
5). Dwi Noviatul Zahra dan Muhammad Afif Amrulloh, (2018) Jurnal: Pola Asuh Orang Tua dalam Membina Akhlak Anak di Desa Sidoluhur Lampung Tengah. Kesimpulan: “Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diperoleh bahwa pola asuh orang tua dalam membina akhlak anak dengan cara keteladanan, adat kebiasaan, nasehat, perhatian dan hukuman. Orang tua sudah berusaha memberikan pembinaan akhlak semaksimal mungkin namun masih ada yang melakukan akhlak buruk seperti berbohong, mengambil hak orang lain, berkelahi, membantah terhadap orang yang lebih tua. Kajian tentang pola asuh orang tua ini, sebaiknya akan muncul penelitian yang lebih mendalam lagi guna memperdalam kajian yang lebih baik.”
The housing for poor project (Projek Perumahan Rakyat Miskin Tegar – PPRT) was introduced under 7 th Malaysia Plan since 1996. Under this policy, Orang Temuan settlement in Bukit Lagong, Selayang has been resettled and reorganized into single storey concrete house. However, the provisioned concrete house do not achieved the minimum accepted mean neutral temperature in the tropical climate, which ranged between 23.3°C to 29.2°C [1-4] while the comfort mean air velocity from 0.2m/s to 0.4m/s  In order to improve the thermal performance of the settlement, the solution has to be environmental friendly, cost efficient, applicable to existing building especially low-rise building, cost-free or low maintenance. Passive strategy is one of the most effective methods to induce the natural ventilation and increase the thermal performance of the building. This paper intended to provide an alternative to enhance the thermal performance of the settlement with solar chimney via field measurement and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation.
There are five main chapters continued in this dissertation as a whole. Chapter 1 elaborates on the overview of this research. It outlines the research framework which includes the problem statement, research aim and questions, research objectives, significant of research and research scope. Chapter 2 provides one of the main support to this dissertation. It contains an overview of topics of discussions which covers topics such as housing, the Orang Seletar, sense of place, community attachment, housing trend in urban area and social spaces in housing from the perspectives of Orang Seletar against the urbanised high rise community. Chapter 3 elaborates on the methodology opted for this research with primary and secondary data. Chapter 4 presents the data that are collected as well as further discussions on the findings. Lastly, the dissertation concludes with Chapter 5 with a summary of the research findings in relation to the research objectives. Various limitations and suggestions regarding this research will be outlined as well.
Royal Belum is predominantly inhabited by the Jaihai sub-ethnics from the Negrito group and minority from Temiar. Kamaruddin and Jusoh  highlighted that most of the Orang Asli settlements in Royal Belum maintain their nomadic forest-based lifestyles. However, the Sungai Tiang settlement is equipped with basic facilities, such as a primary school, a clinic, a community hall, wooden houses, and solar system for electricity.
Hookworm Infection and Reinfection Following Treatment Among Orang Asli Children ORIGINAL ARTICLE Hookworm Infection and Reinfection Following Treatment Among Orang Asli Children M Norhayati, MSc* P O[.]
The study acknowledged distinctive consent from the Department of Orang Asli Development (JAKOA) and attained approval from the Ethics Committee of the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) (MEC Ref.824.11). Contribution in this study was virtuously voluntary. The volunteers were given a briefing on the project and were allowed adequate time for consideration. Written informed consent was acquired. An additional agreement form was completed by the parents or guardian of volunteers below legal age (less than 18 years old). The samples were prepared with rigid obscurity. All volunteers had completed a given questionnaire to identify symptoms they had experienced and their lifestyle. All volunteers gave written consent for the use of blood samples after the samples were made anonymous.