Organizational Behavior and Development

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Positive Organizational Behavior Variables And The Effects Of Boredom Proneness On Perceived Organizational Support

Positive Organizational Behavior Variables And The Effects Of Boredom Proneness On Perceived Organizational Support

ngoing pursuits for the development and application of strategies to maximize organizational effectiveness have led to the more frequent use of concepts and theories from positive organizational science. Positive organizational science allows understanding of the effects of human behavior on organizational strategies and why certain strategies and competencies are more beneficial than others (Cameron et al., 2003). This approach is related to developments especially in the recent 5 years in positive psychology (Seligman et al., 2005) and has the objective of creating a organizational system that realizes human potential (Peterson and Spiker, 2005). Positive organizational behavior is defined as practices of the study of human resource potential and psychological capacity, which can be measured, developed and effectively geared toward performance increase in today’s workplaces (Luthans et al., 2002). The psychological capacity mentioned in this definition is also referred to as “psychological capital” and is characterized as follows (Luthans et al., 2007): a) trust in one’s ability to put the effort to achieve difficult tasks (self-competence), b) positive expectation for current and future success (optimism), c) display of perseverance to achieve goals (hope), d) survive in the face of challenges and difficulties and to succeed in spite of everything (endurance). If positive organizational behavior variables are to be placed in a scale, on one side can be the variable positive states of happiness, joy and content while on the other can be the relative stable characteristics, innate abilities, or negative states. Between these two extremes, on the other hand, can be the relatively improvable positive tendencies and some more-difficult-to-improve personal traits (Luthans and Avolio, 2009). The concept “boredom proneness” seen in individuals has
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Influence of Transformational Leadership,  Organizational Culture, and Employee Green Behavior  (Egb) to the Performance of Tourism Personnel in the Development

Influence of Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture, and Employee Green Behavior (Egb) to the Performance of Tourism Personnel in the Development

Organizational culture has an influence on EGB. It is supported by the organizational culture against EGB to regulate organizational behavior at the collective employee level of the complete category (mandatory vs voluntary). Classifications of behavior are included within the boundaries of core tasks in the organizational culture explicitly to participate in the environmental management practices as EGB required. Classifying the culture of organizations that are outside the behavior of employees into the core work tasks of citizenship behavior for the environment or that require the initiative as a voluntary EGB.
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Effect Of Organizational Culture, Rewards, Competence, And Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Effect Of Organizational Culture, Rewards, Competence, And Organizational Citizenship Behavior

In General, Understanding Organizational Culture is a characteristic that is respected by the organization and becomes a role model for the organization as a differentiator between one organization and another organization. Organizational culture is also interpreted as values and norms of behavior that are accepted and understood jointly by members of the organization as a basis in the rules of behavior contained in the organization. Employee performance will be considered as the backbone organization because it leads to effective development. Employee loyalty depends on cultural knowledge and awareness that increases organizational behavior (Robin 2010: 58) Performance comes from English performance which means performance. The concept of performance stands for work energy kinetics. Performance is the output produced by the function or indicator of a job or a profession in a certain time [1]. Broadly speaking, performance can be understood as the work that can be achieved by a person or group of people in an organization in accordance with authority and responsibility, in order to achieve the objectives of the organization concerned legally, not violating the law and in accordance with morals and ethics.
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Exploring the relationship of ethical leadership with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior

Exploring the relationship of ethical leadership with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior

three years ("Executive summary: Oregon economic forecast," 2011). Participants who reported low job satisfaction and organizational commitment might very well change jobs in a better economy. Since unemployment is high in Oregon, they may not be able to do so. However, if they have innate, strong citizenship behaviors, they may still display those to some degree while they wait for the opportunity to change organizations. This could account for a disconnect between the data results on OCB and the data results on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Employees may also fear that they could be subject to future reductions in the workforce. This could prompt them to display greater organizational citizenship behaviors than would be their normal tendency in an effort to avoid such action. Future researchers should consider replicating the study in a more robust economic environment. It is certainly possible that employees' gratitude in having a job may influence their attitude toward their work and their organizations.
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ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR OF KNOWLEDGE WORKERS IN SRI LANKAN CONTEXT: A CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS

ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR OF KNOWLEDGE WORKERS IN SRI LANKAN CONTEXT: A CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS

It is very important for organizations to identify factors that have relationships with OCB in order to increase efficiency and effectiveness in the workplace. Antecedents of OCB mean important factors that lead to the creation of Organizational Citizenship Behavior of employees. Podsakoff et al. (2000) identified four major antecedents of OCB, namely: employee characteristics, task characteristics, organizational characteristics, leadership behaviors. Moreover Bateman and Organ (1983) focused on employee attitudes and dispositions and leader supportiveness as antecedents of OCB. Furthermore, Jahangir, Akbar andHaq (2004) argued that, like most behaviors, there is no single cause of OCB. It is subject to multiple antecedents. Jahagir et al. (2004) introduce seven categories, namely: job satisfaction and organizational commitment, role perceptions, leadership behavior and leader member exchange, fairness perceptions, individual dispositions, motivational theories and employee age Various researches have been done on the factors that influence OCB. Some of the factors are job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job involvement, organizational support, trust, organizational justice, personality characteristics, employee Characteristics and leadership behaviors etc (Podsakoff et al., 2000). Different researchers have described organizational citizenship behavior in a number of ways. But most of these researches were taken only two or three factors with OCB. In Sri Lankan context, so far only few studies have been done on the subject of OCB.
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STATUS QUO OF TALENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT IN INDIAN PUBLIC SECTOR BANKING

STATUS QUO OF TALENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT IN INDIAN PUBLIC SECTOR BANKING

engagement and create the positive impact on organizational performance when they sharply focused on employee's needs and satisfaction. Talent management strategies aim to support the succession planning, which has the weakest impact on organizational performance, particularly non-financial outcomes at both organizational and human level. If organizations found the pursuit of a strategy while focusing on attracting and retain talent to have the greatest effect on human resource outcomes, and its value for improvement in work quality and level of qualification. So if talent management practices aligned with corporate strategy, then it will lead to a higher impact on organizational outcomes like company attractiveness and the achievement of business goals and customer satisfaction.
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Impact of Organizational Climate and Organizational Strategy on Strategic Behaviors

Impact of Organizational Climate and Organizational Strategy on Strategic Behaviors

behavior in the following four categories: defenders, prospectors, analyzers, and reactors. Nicholson, Rees & Brooks-Rooney (1990) have expanded the typology of Miles and Snow (1978) through dividing ‘analyzers’ into two subgroups – ‘analyzers with innovation’ en ‘analyzers without innovation’. Another typology of strategy is developed by Porter (1985). He is one of the most cited authors in strategy-oriented, leading academic journals in the field (Gibcus & Kemp, 2003). Porter (1985) states that there are two basic types of competitive advantage a company can process: low cost or differentiation. Furthermore a difference can be made for the scope of activities for which a company wants to realize its competitive advantage: broad target versus narrow targets. These two competitive advantages, combined with the scope, lead to four generic strategies: cost leadership, differentiation, cost focus and differentiation focus. A firm that engages in each generic strategy but fails to achieve any of them is so-called ‘stuck- in-the-middle’. The typology of Porter was further developed by Dess and Davis (1984) and Beal (2000). They split the differentiation strategy into four sub-strategies: ‘innovation differentiation’, ‘service differentiation’, ‘marketing differentiation’ and ‘quality differentiation’.
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Organizational Learning Principles and Behaviour

Organizational Learning Principles and Behaviour

learning culture is an exchange of valuable knowledge leading to innovation, improved performance, and sustained competitiveness (Lopez et al., 2005). The study showed that organizational learning culture has a significant effect to knowledge sharing behavior (Holotezi, 2002; Issa and Haddad, 2008; Kouchaki et al., 2012; Bidokhti et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2011a, 2012; Idris et al., 2015; Shahhosseini and Nadi, 2015). Organizational learning culture was a moderator variable (Guo et al., 2014). Therefore, the improving of organizational learning culture would growth knowledge sharing behavior. But according to Goudarzi et al. (2009) showed that has no significant correlation between the organizational learning culture and knowledge creation. Thus, the increase of organizational learning culture would not provide a significant improvement to the knowledge creation. Organizational learning culture also has a significant effect on OCB (Somech and Drach- Zahavy, 2004; Islam, 2012). Furthermore, the more of organizational learning culture, the higher of OCB employees too. However, Pormand et al (2011) in Karimi and Akbari (2013) showed that has no significant correlation between organizational learning ability and OCB. Thus, it’s proposed the hypotheses as follows: H2: organizational learning culture moderates OCB toward the correlation between job attitudes and knowledge sharing behavior. Thus, conceptual framework in this study can be seen in the following Figure.
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Personality, temperament, organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior of volunteers

Personality, temperament, organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior of volunteers

d. Organizational Climate Questionnaire by L. von Rosenstiel and R. Bögel Adaptation K. Durniat – this German tool is used to investigate organizational climate, it was imported to Poland by S.A. Witkowski, and Z. Zaleski, now in its revised form validated and adapted to Polish conditions by K. Durniat. There are six dimensions in assessing the climate of the organization: The relationship between employees, supervisors directing style, organization of work in the company, Information and communication in the company, representing the interests of the employee, creating opportunities for staff development (promotions, evaluations, motivation). Reliability of the subscales ranges from 0.81-0.92 (Durniat, 2008, p. 120-144, 298-317).
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The Impact Of Leadership Behavior On The Business Growth Through The Organizational Innovation And Managerial Practices

The Impact Of Leadership Behavior On The Business Growth Through The Organizational Innovation And Managerial Practices

structure are mechanistic (technique) and organic (Cumming, 1999), the mechanistic approach reinforce the previous behaviors while the organic structure promotes organizational learning and generating business knowledge (Cumming, 1999; Bacts, 1998; Davenport and Prusak, 1998). Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer depends on the member personal network and willingness (Jones and Jorden, 1998; Ruggles, 1998). Organizations are beginning to organize the reporting lines and firm structure not around the functional department. Team work are becoming the main organizational component for new economy (Shephered and Ahmed, 2000; Kayworth and Leindner, 2000). Similarly, Employees motivation and rewards system are the key elements in maintaining the interests of employees (Bukowitz and Petrash, 1997). Furthermore, there are various reports for practical incentive mechanisms which linked with measuring and rewarding the new idea generation and knowledge sharing. Many firms still use traditional performance measures which are inappropriate indicators of organizational success.
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Study of Organisation Citizenship Behaviour, Job Autonomy and Organisational Resources Towards Organisation Commitment in Private Schools in Malaysia

Study of Organisation Citizenship Behaviour, Job Autonomy and Organisational Resources Towards Organisation Commitment in Private Schools in Malaysia

The relationship between organization citizenship behaviour and organization commitment is accepted. The results are consistent with Noor,(2005) who highlighted in the study that there is a positive correlation between OCB and organization commitment in a study among university lecturers. These results were also supported by Foote et.al., (2005) who stated that when teacher’s OCB increased so does their commitment towards their students. OCB is an intrinsic motivation adhered by teachers in their passion towards educating students. Citizenship behaviours exhibited by teachers can be preparing special assignments for students and giving them extra time in coaching so students are able to The relationship between job autonomy and organization commitment was found to be significant in this study, which was consistent with Kirkwood (2006) where there was a positive relationship established between global scale of professional work autonomy and affective commitment. The results of this relationship was also consistent with Naqvi, Ishtiaq, Kanwai and Ali (2013) where they explained that when employees are related to certain important tasks this will increase organizational commitment. The relationship between organization resources and organization commitment was accepted in this study. There has been a lack of study in this area so this research has contributed in filling the gap because most researches focused on human resources ( one of the dimensions of organization resources) and organization commitment ( Logan,2007; Buck, 1999 ; Magae, 2011). The results were consistent with a study done by Li, 2014 who also supported this relationship. When private schools increase organization resources available to schoolteachers in assisting them to prepare their materials or present their materials more effectively to students this will increase organization commitment towards private schools also.
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Relationship of Workaholism with Teachers’ Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Relationship of Workaholism with Teachers’ Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Other findings of the current study indicated that workaholism and its components (work involvement, feeling of being driven to work, and work enjoyment) were significantly and positively correlated with organizational citizenship behavior. Moreover, the results of simultaneous multiple regression analysis demonstrated that all three components of workaholism could predict teachers’ organizational citizenship behavior. These results showed that with an increase in teachers’ workaholism, their organizational citizenship behavior increased and vice versa. These findings are in line with the results of Spence and Robbins (1992), Gorgievski, Bakker, & Schaufeli (2010), Taris, Geurts, Schaufeli, Blonk, & Lagerveld (2008), Burke (2004), Snir and Harpaz (2004), Karasek and Theorell (1990), Ahmadi, Tahmabi, Babashahi and Fatahi (2010), Khaef Elahi, Nargesian, and Ba- bashahi (2012), Ziaee and Nargesian (2012). To explain these results, it can be noted that since workaholic teachers’ degree of work involvement is high, they feel a great tension towards their work and enjoy it; hence, they have a better level of organizational citizenship behavior including optional behaviors which are not among their formal responsibilities and are not directly considered by school and Department of Education. Teachers believe that these behaviors increase the overall effectiveness of the school; therefore, they conduct them. Em- pirical research conducted to predict factors leading to organizational citizenship behavior put an emphasize on some personality characteristics, including workaholism, which aid an individual to be motivated with a strong inner desire rather than external motivators (Spence & Robbins, 1992). Workaholics work harder and harder to achieve more success. Work involvement aids people to feel energetic and emotionally connected to their work, such that it provides the ground for working harder and enjoying the work more (Gorgievski et al., 2010). The study of Taris et al. (2008) demonstrated that workaholism may lead to spend a lot of energy and time much more than what the employee expected and committed to do and lead people to participate more in the work. A study conducted by Ahmadi et al. (2010) indicated that workaholics have high levels of life satisfaction, job performance, and organizational citizenship behavior and have low levels of stress and voluntary turnover.
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Organizational citizenship behavior and perception of organizational justice in employees of a Turkish university hospital

Organizational citizenship behavior and perception of organizational justice in employees of a Turkish university hospital

Chen et al. (1998) conceptualized levels of OCB performance as a behavioral predictor of employee turnover and empirically examined the strength of this relationship. Our findings are inconsistent with Chen’s. We found that the highest level of OCB and organizational justice perception was in the workers who were working in this hospital for four years maximum. Sahin and Taskaya (2010) found that procedural and distributional justice levels were lower than the levels of other subdomains of justice in health professionals. They also found that organizational justice perception was significantly related to educational status, duration of work in this institution, number of night shifts per month, having managerial tasks and the number of patients seen per day. Our findings are consistent with this study. The study of Moorman (1991) showed that the workers perceiving fair practices of managers provide more OCB. According to Ortiz (2006), the consciousness of OCB depends primarily on the organizational justice perception. Konovsky and Pugh (1994) conclude that the trust toward managers strengthen the relationship between procedural justice and OCB. The interactional justice perception is an important tool to forecast the practices of citizenship behaviors (2005). Our finding suggests that organizational justice perception has a meaningful correlation with OCB and this agrees with Cropanzano’s study (2007). Williams and others (2002) determined positive and significant relationship between formal procedural justice, distributive justice and interactional justice and OCB intent of workers in various sectors including manufacturing, finance, ICT, banking in a city at the southwest of USA. In another survey, Blakely and others (2005) asserted that there is a positive relationship between organizational justice perception and OCB among full time personnel in different organizations. Chiaburu and Lim (2008) found out that there is a positive relationship between procedural justice and OCB among employees in a firm in USA. Chegini (2009) determined high correlation between
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View of The Perspective of Leader-Member Exchange and Its Relation with Workplace Empowerment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Nurses
							| Evidence-Based Nursing Research

View of The Perspective of Leader-Member Exchange and Its Relation with Workplace Empowerment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Nurses | Evidence-Based Nursing Research

This study finding was in the same line with Ahmed et al. (2015), who conducted a study about the "effect of working condition and fatigue on performance of staff nurses at Mansoura University Hospital." They stated that nearly two-thirds of studied staff nurses showed a moderate level of working conditions (structure empowerment). Also, Davies et al. (2011), who conducted a study about "nurses’ participation in personal knowledge transfer: The role of leader-member exchange (LMX) and structural empowerment" and Garcia-Sierra, and Fernandez-Castro, (2018), who conducted a study about "relationships between leadership, structural empowerment, and engagement in nurses." They concluded that nurses had moderately structurally empowered. Furthermore, Eskandari et al., (2017), who conducted a study about "investigation of the relationship between structural empowerment and organizational commitment of nurses in Zanjan hospitals," the study found that hospital-working nurses’ perceived the "structural empowerment" as moderate.
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ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS: CORRELATES WITH JOB SATISFACTION, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT, AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR IN SENEGAL 

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS: CORRELATES WITH JOB SATISFACTION, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT, AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR IN SENEGAL 

It is also important to mention that the findings still cannot be strongly endorsed as strong empirical evidences about the effects of OP in organizations in Senegal. Stronger evidences on the relationships between OP and employees’ work attitudes in Senegal would be possible if more studies are conducted. Vigoda and Talmud (2010) noted that ‘too little is known about the exact nature, boundaries, development, interpretation, and aftermaths of such politics’. This gives room for more subsequent studies to deepen knowledge about OP and all issues surrounding the concept. There is a sharp lack of literature on the study of OP in Senegal. Therefore, similar research can be conducted by incorporating a larger sample size on a long time span and by targeting participants in places other than their work places. This may help reach more participants into order to collect more accurate information.
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Is Symbolic Interactionism the Fifth Paradigm of Leadership?

Is Symbolic Interactionism the Fifth Paradigm of Leadership?

There is a series of views on leadership that cannot be classified readily into any of the above approaches, yet they have sufficient in common to be considered as a school of thought. They are strongly cognizant of influences from culture and society, and evermore from a global viewpoint (Smith & Peterson 1988; Martinko & Douglas 1999). The Constitutive perspective covers some but not all of them (Grint 1997). They are related but not identical to Cognitive approaches, especially insofar as the latter emphasise interactions between thinking individuals, and between individuals and their environment (Jaques 1986; Smith & Peterson 1988; Jaques & Clement 1991; Cowan Fiol & Walsh 1992; Jacobs & Lewis 1992). In terms of social science epistemology, they usually mix Hermeneutics and Interpretivism, and often Positivism (Blaikie 1993). They are generally concerned with social interaction, role development, stories, and attributions in the leader-follower equation. Leadership effectiveness is often either recast into quite different terms or cast aside for another way of explaining the nature and importance of leaders. Pondy (1978) identifies the key element of this approach as:
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Volume 02  Issue 01: (2013) Jan.-Feb. 2013

Volume 02 Issue 01: (2013) Jan.-Feb. 2013

As part of its holistic HR policy, Infosys had opened a satellite centre in the heart of the city to enable its employees (particularly new and to be mothers) to cut down on travel time to work. The company has also initiated a pilot project for employees giving them an opportunity to opt for a one-year sabbatical at any point in their careers. This could be used for childcare, eldercare, higher studies or for health reasons9. Many working mothers and to be mothers have also been encouraged to work on their projects from their homes. Flexi timing of the working mothers also help these techniques to have enough time with their kids and family. Apart from these the company also emphasizes on organizing counseling programme for their employees so as to provide solutions for better work life balance. Infosys had always considered its people as its most valuable assets and had seeked opportunities for further improvement in performance, business development by fostering innovation and creativity in the workplace. In the coming years, how the company’s HR philosophy would help the organization to steer into the new decade would well be worth watching and a learning experience for HR specialists [9-17]. Conclusion
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The Effect of Psychological Capital and  Organizational Support on Innovational  Behavior and Silence Behavior of Technical Innovation Personnel in Strategic Emerging Industry

The Effect of Psychological Capital and Organizational Support on Innovational Behavior and Silence Behavior of Technical Innovation Personnel in Strategic Emerging Industry

The current study validated the effects of psychological capital and organizational support on employees’ silence behavior and innovative behavior. It verified the interaction between the psychological capital and organization- al support. As for the research results, the article will show more detailed discussion in the following paragraphs. The study showed that the silence behavior of technical innovation employees is connected to their organization and their personal factors. Silence behavior is considered as the obstacle of decision-making quality because of its potential damage to the organization. Employees choose silence as a safe way to keep their jobs. There are some reasons for employees to keep silence, like being afraid of the revenge of their leaders or the tease by their fellows. Good organization support provides a sense of psychological safety and then motivates the psychologi- cal capital in this way, therefore the employees are pleasant to provide lot of suggestions actively. Besides, good organization support can improve the loyalty of the employees, make them consider the development of their organization and increase their motivation. For these reason, employees would like to express themselves and provide useful information rather than keep silence. From the perspective of employees, individuals with good psychological capital are more likely to face the problem and then figure out how to solve the problem perso- nally or cooperatively. You need confidence and courage to speak out your idea, which is supported by the study. Organization support and psychological capital have obvious effect on innovational behavior of technical inno- vation personnel. They have strong concept of innovation and self-efficacy when supported by better organiza- tion. They will have superior psychological capital over time. Thus they can get more concept of innovation and solution to a new problem in the course of their work. In the meantime, they are able to introduce their innova-
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Spiritual intelligence and organizational commitment: the mediating role of psychological capital

Spiritual intelligence and organizational commitment: the mediating role of psychological capital

Organizations need to employ committed individuals for their survival and development as well as to achieve their short- and long-term goals. In account of this, successful organizations are those with committed managers and staff. Therefore, it is important to investigate the factors influencing organizational commitment. The aim of this study was to investigate the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between spiritual intelligence and organizational commitment among employees of Ardabil University of medical sciences using a correlational method (structural equation modeling). Regarding the desirable size of the sample (n=125) for structural equation modeling, 183 employees were selected using convenience sampling method. The results showed that the direct effect of spiritual intelligence on organizational commitment and the direct effect of psychological capital on organizational commitment are statistically significant. Also, the spiritual intelligence may effect organizational commitment through psychological capital as mediator (p≤ 0.01, β=0.41).
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The Relationship between Nurses’ Organizational Commitment and Services Quality

The Relationship between Nurses’ Organizational Commitment and Services Quality

Walter (2006) proved the effect of performance on continuance commitment and Sharif (2006) found that continuance commitment would increase through im- proving skills and providing material recompenses (Vanderberg 2008). Based on the above research, orga- nizations could improve continuance commitment and consequently decrease the number of leaves and re- placements, and increase the staff effectiveness through giving their staff the opportunity for participation in decision-making and improving their jobs horizontally and vertically. Regarding the positive link between nor- mative commitment and service quality and the results of Sadeqi (2004) study, indicative of a positive relation- ship between normative commitment and performance among high school teachers, and also findings of Seggie and Achill’s (2006) study demonstrating a positive link between management’s commitment to service quality and performance, we conclude that organizational com- mitment plays a modifying role. In contrast, Siratdoust (2004) found no relationship between normative com- mitment and performance.
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