This international survey showed that up to nine different organizationalmodels for out-of-hours care are currently used in western countries, often different models along- side each other. The A&E department, which exists in almost all countries, was perceived to be associated with many weaknesses. Patient satisfaction was the only strength mentioned. The rota group exists in a considera- ble number of countries. It had many strengths, according to our informants, but it was associated with lowered job satisfaction among physicians [2,3]. GP cooperatives were perceived to have many strengths, but reduced continuity of care was mentioned as a possible weakness. Interest- ingly, the only perceived strength of PCC was good acces- sibility. Furthermore, the performance of the integrated care model seemed positive, but more information is needed to evaluate this specific organizational model.
In North America and in several Western European countries university-industry relations have a long-standing tradition and they have developed into a multitude of organizationalmodels. In Latin America and Asia, relations have been developing rapidly over the past decade. In other regions, in particular in Africa, relations are not as densely interwoven and less structured. The African continent perhaps with the exception of Nigeria and certainly of South Africa, has a much lesser developed profile of university-industry relations. Five categories of interaction relation to different stages in the evolution of university – industry relations from the most
The non-financial information which reveals the anthropomorphic and the organizationalmodels must be briefly and clearly revealed, including the disclosure of details of the parties responsible for the corporation, the characteristics, policies, and practices in corporate governance, implementation, and control of corporate legal culture, constraints faced when audits are carried out, etc , which are reflections for facilitating the corporate mens rea verification when problems arise. In this case, it can be evaluated more easily on public accountants who really have carried out their duties and liabilities independently. With the disclosure of the non- financial information on the audit reports, positive results for public accountants were obtained such the stronger independence and integrity as well as better levels of prudence and expertise, while the positive results for corporations are to anticipate potential dangers and/or prevent potential risks related to unlawful acts.
Survey data were first downloaded from the SurveyMon- key platform into Excel and SPSS spreadsheets and were then reviewed for exactness and missing/extreme values. To describe characteristics of organizations, descriptive statistics were carried out. In order to explore the existence of different organizationalmodels, multiple correspond- ence analyses using frequency data of organizational vari- ables were conducted [34-36]. This type of analysis allows to examine associations between nominal variables in a contingency table, as well as between categories of each variable [34-36]. It is also viewed as a graphic approach, as points relating to rows and columns of the contingency table are projected onto a bi-dimensional graph [35,37]. It was used previously to examine practice and continuing education profiles of physiotherapists [5,38].
MAS organization can be considered as a process to dynamically reorganize the system-to-be to adapt environment dynamic changes. Or, it can be considered as an entity facilitates the partitioning of the system-to-be. Organizations are a typical way to structure and manage interactions among agents. Establishing an organizational structure that specifies how agents in a system should work together helps the achievement of effective coordination in MAS. This chapter provided a comprehensive overview about MAS organization including its motivations, paradigms, models, and other related concepts such as self-organization and emergence. In MAS literature, we found very large number of organizationalmodels proposed to support dynamic reorganization of the MAS, this large number of organizationalmodels indicates that concerning organizational aspects within MAS is currently a very active and interesting research area and that till now there is no a fit-to-all MAS organizational model that can be used for engineering all possible application domains. This conclusion motivates us to propose a novel organizational model for engineering complex and highly distributed large-scale MAS such as modern industrial networks (i.e., SCADA ).
Nursing administrators and staff nurses should consider how the selection of a specific EBP model fits with the con- cept of quality improvement. While the concept of continu- ous quality improvement (CQI) has been used for decades, it is most appropriate to include it under the larger umbrella of EBP. CQI and EBP work in tandem; CQI may trigger a review of EBP. Conversely, a review of evidence can lead to new CQI initiatives. Thus, it is more vital now than ever before for administrators, clinicians, and research- ers to work together, using EBP models to evaluate need for practice change, feasibility, context, barriers, facilita- tors, cost and benefit, and most importantly, patient outcomes.
In addition to organizational characteristics, dissemin- ation and implementation research has increasingly called for attention to the outer context, which includes social, policy, and financial environments , and a system ’ s perspective that takes into account the interre- lationships among system elements and rules . These two perspectives can either complement or contradict each other when implementing and sustaining new prac- tices. Finally, concerns about scaling up and sustainabil- ity have expanded the focus of implementation research to go beyond adaptation of particular interventions to examine on a larger scale how practices are imple- mented in naturalistic environments . Most research has examined scaling up and sustainability of a specific EBP , but more recently, studies have examined re- gional or state-based scaling up and sustainability of EBPs generally [2, 4, 27]. These studies have shown the importance of examining multiple sources of data at different levels of implementation to increase under- standing of the complex processes associated with widespread adoption of multiple evidence-based prac- tices within systems.
Theory of management has a set of assumptions about human atitudes and behaviors, managerial actions consistente with these assumptions and expectations about employees mental models if these actions are implemented. Human relations models are nowadays adopted to analyse the reality of organizations. Organizational strategy, in the field of organizational studies, refers to an intentional activity, specifically situated in a given labor context. Its validity is reached by interaction between social organizational actors and their shared believes and social perceptions. Little attention is given to embrace psychological and sociological approaches to investigate organizational strategy. The psychological contributions applied to organizational studies relate to the understanding of the forms of human interaction at work and their relational dynamics. The effects of organizational structure on the norms of conduct, social practices and the establishment of rules, visible or invisible, are also studied. This paper aims to discuss ways to interpret strategy, based on the identification of collective beliefs and perceptions socially shared by individuals and groups. We discuss the use of concepts arise from psychology and sociology needed to strategy investigation, considering the organization as social and collective entities. We conclude that strategy must be investigated based on the adoption of socio/interactionist interventions native of social psychology and collective social cognition.
which power is defined as the ability to equip human and material resources to achieve organizational achievement. Success over personality traits Cantor says empowerment is largely influenced by structural factors within the organization, and an empowering work environment ensures that employees have access to information, resources, support and learning opportunities. Other factors that facilitate access include specific job characteristics and relationships. The model tested in this study examined structural empowerment along with areas of work life, conflict, burnout, and organizational commitment. , Was able to achieve effective performance that led to a better understanding of the job in the area above, so that empowered employees feel more in control of the workplace and in this context they are more involved in the job activity. It was the kind of predictive and inexperienced one that included 496 newly graduated nurses studying in Ontario. Of these, only 226 returned the questionnaires in a usable manner. But the sample was sufficiently representative to conform to the research criteria. The majority of sample members (93.4%) were women and more than half (52.2%) were married or had a formal or informal life together. Their mean age was 27 years and had 20 months of nursing experience.
Abstract: The formation and evolution of digital service platforms is changing the balance of powers in the ICT industry. In particular, telecommunications operators feel the need to gain more control over the creation and provision of new services and to revise their roles in different service ecosystems. Therefore, both researchers and practitioners call for a better understanding of emerging digital services, such as smart home services, and corresponding platform strategies. Therefore, we assess the roles of leading telecommunications operators on smart home service platforms based on data gathered from in-depth desk research. Drawing on platform theory and the industry perspective on the smart home market, we identify how operators control technological and organizational assets to act as system integrator, enabler, broker and neutral platforms. Further, we discuss operators’ strategies and major challenges in establishing common service platforms in a varied smart home ecosystem. Additionally, we point out aspects of interest for further research.
We observe that models of organization search in which firms combine explorative with exploitative search activities (inside and/or outside their boundaries) have a positive and significant impact on firms’ innovation performance. As expected, given that radical ambidexterity is the model that combines the largest number of search strategies, it is also the model with the most significant impact on innovation performance. Conversely, the models based on specialization, be it internal or external, are not statistically significant determiners of performance. By using the Wald test, we further conducted a comparison between the models in terms of their effects on performance. We found that the adoption of radical ambidexterity has a statistically greater impact on performance than that associated with the adoption of radical specialization (p-value smaller than 0.001). We also found that the adoption of a type I diversification has a statistically greater effect on performance than that attributed to the adoption of a type II diversification (p-value = 0.077). Finally, we observe that the null hypothesis establishing no differences between external and internal ambidexterity in terms of their effects on performance cannot be rejected at conventional levels. In order to identify any synergetic effects arising out of the combined adoption of implementation strategies (single and simultaneous), our next step is to test for the existence of complementarities.
Students will be able to engage in self-analysis of the knowledge, skills, and abilities of Critical Thinking (CT) and Emotional Intelligence (EI) as they buttress effective leadership. Activities include hands-on opportunities to apply CT/EI to the competencies fundamental to organizational leadership and will be utilized throughout the entire curriculum. Focus is on student’s ability to articulate values, decision making, essential
In summary, this study represents the benefits of employing soft-computing approaches in decision-making under the study of HSCB modeling. For future studies, it would be a basic review for HSCB researchers and decision makers to expand on the toolset for the domain of HSCB. There are still a lot of unknowns about HSCB and the model will probably never be good at making exact predictions of what will happen. It is anticipated that by examining these soft-computing advantages, this study may increase attention to the soft-computing based studies in literature and their contributions to HSCB modeling. In this context, it is hoped that this study would give HSCB researchers new tools and ideas on how to approach HSCB models using soft-computing methodologies besides geographical and agent-based approaches.
Abstract—Due to the extensive use of Internet services and emerging security threats, most enterprise networks deploy varieties of security devices for controlling resource access based on the organizational security requirements. These requirements are becoming more fine-grained, where access control depends on heterogeneous isolation patterns like filtering network traffics, trusted communication, and payload inspection. However, today organizations are looking to design usable and optimal security configurations that can harden the network security within enterprise budget constraints. It requires analyzing various alternative security architectures in order to find a security design that satisfies the organizational security requirements as well as the business constraints. In this paper, we present ConfigSynth, an automated framework for synthesizing network security configurations by exploring various security design al- ternatives to provide an optimal security design. The main design alternatives include different kinds of isolation patterns for traffic flows in different segments of the network. ConfigSynth takes security requirements in terms of isolation, business constraints in terms of usability and deployment cost, along with the network topology, as inputs. Then it synthesizes optimal and cost-effective security configurations satisfying the constraints. ConfigSynth also provides optimal placements of different se- curity devices in the network according to the given network topology. ConfigSynth uses Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) for modeling this synthesis problem. The scalability of the tool is also demonstrated using simulated experiments.
Variables related to international legislation and international business activities were significant. The domain of these variables by the managers makes them scarce and not easily transferable resources, according to the RBV (WERNERFELT, 1984; BARNEY, 1991). Both Uppsala (JOHANSON; WIEDERSHEIM- PAUL, 1975; JOHANSON; VAHLNE, 1977, 2009) and RBV (BARNEY, 1991), assume that human resources are elements that lead the company to differentiated market positions. The presence of organizational resources committed to exports represented by research in the export market, visits to foreign markets and the release of specific export products was shown, in accordance with Katsikeas, Piercy and Ioannidis (1996); Lado, Martínez - Ros and Valenzuela (2004);
Decreasing the score as a result of the verification visit is practically non-existent. The expert conducting the audit as part of such a visit usually raises the final grade in order to personally reward the organization for the mere fact of making a decision on participation in the competition. On the other hand, if these experts were very strict about the participants, significantly lowering the self-assessment result, there is a high probability that these participants would resign from participation in the competition and cease to act as “good ambassadors” of the initiative. This could give the impression that the time devoted to completing a comprehensive, rather complex, questionnaire was wasted. According to the authors, this approach is not conducive to increasing the credibility and prestige of competitions based on models of excellence, both at the local and national level. however, it is also an important dilemma of the organizers of this type of initiatives who have to take into account a number of risk factors and adopt a strategy that will allow them to ensure the stability of the venture.
Similar to other managerial concepts, various definitions are provided on organizational commitment. Becker (1960) was among the first researchers who provided a definition on organizational commitment. he believes that commitment is tendency to continue services in an organization in order to conceive change and instability (turnover) costs (Meyer et al, 1991). Kundi & Saleh (1993) defined organizational commitment as propensity to behaviors that give priority to organizational interests than personal or collective ones. Hunt et al (1985) defined organizational commitment as the degree of employee‘s psychological link to organization in which he/she is hired. Mowday et al (1982) recalls that a profession or organization may be the reference of psychological link. It means that the employee may be committed to his/her job not organization; or he/she may be committed to organization not his/her job; or he may or may not be committed to both (Darden et al, 1989). Kiesler (1971) believes that commitment is the degree of being obliged to a behavior or a set of behaviors. He clarifies that commitment motivates or enforces someone to conduct a behavior; additionally, due to its obligating features, it impact on the person‘s response to forces which enforce us to a certain action (Kiesler, 1971). Bucanan (1974) believes that commitment is an affective attachment to organizational values and goals as the result of individual/organization values and goals consistency and compatibility (Kacmar et al, 1999). As defined by Porter et al (1974), commitment refers to attachment and loyalty. It is the relative strength of the individual‘s identification with, and involvement in, a particular organization. It consists of three factors:
ABSTRACT. The Article reveals the essence of autonomy of universities and proves the necessity of its activation in modern economic conditions. The main types of autonomy of universities are distinguished: financial, personnel, academic and organizational, the key indicators are systematized for the estimation of the level of each of them. The practice of realization of freedoms in some countries, its features and possibilities is analyzed. The assessment of the organizational autonomy of universities of European countries made it possible to rank them at the level of individual forms of manifestation of freedoms. The analysis of the level of academic autonomy of universities allowed identifying several models, depending on the ability to decide on the number of students and the level of standardization of education. The latter leads to the formation of a certain set of knowledge, skills and abilities that a Specialist must possess, but at the same time these standards may become a limit in the autonomy. Personnel autonomy concerns the freedom of personnel recruitment and the rules on recruitment, dismissal, incentive, punishment and remuneration. The rankings of European countries on the level of personnel autonomy have been carried out in the Article. Financial autonomy involves the freedom of the higher educational institution to use financial resources at its own discretion. The largest restrictions apply to public funding, which requires a large amount of accounting documentation, the availability of certain rules for using these funds, and performance criteria. Money received from business also has a predominantly intended purpose: personnel training, performing specific works, studying specific processes or phenomena. The assessment of the financial autonomy of European universities revealed the greatest differences in individual countries.