Organizational Theory

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Organizational Theory, Design, and Change

Organizational Theory, Design, and Change

Using Transaction Cost Theory to Choose an Interorganizational Strategy 82 Summary 86 • Discussion Questions 87 • Organizational Theory in Action: Practicing Organizational Theory 87. [r]

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Organizational theory for dissemination and implementation research

Organizational theory for dissemination and implementation research

Implementation strategies consist of practical ap- proaches to promote EBI adoption, implementation, and sustainability [81]. Domains of implementation strategies include planning, education, financing, restructuring, quality management, and attending to the policy context [82]. Applying organizational theory to implementation strategies helps to explain why these strategies promote implementation and may promote more effective strategy selection. For example, TCE suggests that quality manage- ment may promote implementation by decreasing trans- action costs associated with desired behaviors. TCE also encourages implementation practitioners to account for the transaction costs associated with a given strategy; the transaction costs associated with resource-intensive re- structuring, for example, may outweigh its potential bene- fits to implementation. Institutional theory suggests that some strategies may have objective benefits to implemen- tation as well as conferring legitimacy on the organization implementing the EBI. For example, the legitimacy associ- ated with engaging in quality management, regardless of its objective benefits, may be sufficient to use such a strat- egy. Contingency theories suggest that strategies are not one-size-fits-all—organizations must select and tailor strategies to their internal and external contexts—a per- spective that has been advocated to promote implementa- tion strategies’ effectiveness [83]. RDT suggests that some strategies may be successful in promoting implementation by maintaining a balance between autonomy and depend- ence on others. For example, education of staff may act as a mechanism for gaining autonomy from EBI experts. Organizational leaders may benefitting from select imple- mentation strategies with a desired balance between au- tonomy and dependence on other organizations in mind.
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Strategic Management and Supply Chain Management in Organizational Theory Perspective: A Synergistic Approach

Strategic Management and Supply Chain Management in Organizational Theory Perspective: A Synergistic Approach

implementing.! Most! relevant! industries! within! the! population! were! automobiles,! furniture,! electronics,!metallurgy,!machinery,!chemical,!non<mineral,!wood!and!paper,!textiles!and!food.!! As!explained!previously,!this!study!tried!to!test!the!green!marketing!strategies!on!performance! and! to! what! extent! environmental! culture,! practices! and! intrinsic! organizational! resources! supports! green! marketing! strategies! to! enhance! organizational! performance.! ! The! results! indicated!that!green!marketing!strategies!had!two!unique!dimensions!in!B2B!context:!market! oriented! activities! and! process! oriented! activities.! Researchers! defined! market! oriented! activities! as! “undertaken! with! the! purpose! of! projecting! externally! a! greater! environmental! commitment”! whereas! process! oriented! activated! referred! as! “environmental! actions,! including! transformations! of! products! and! internal! processes,! that! are! aimed! at! reducing! environmental! impact”.! For! second! research! questions,! the! results! showed! that! companies! with! strong! environmental! culture! always! showed! more! enthusiasm! in! developing! green! marketing!/!environmental!friendly!marketing!strategies.!Based!on!the!article,!there!are!some! recommendations!for!future!researchers.!In!order!to!measure!environmental!practices!along! with!their!consequences,!subjective!measures!were!used!which!may!reflect!social!desirability! bias! in! results.! Being! a! cross<sectional! study! in! nature,! researchers! did! not! evaluate! the! dynamics!in!environmental!decisions.!!!
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What Do We Mean by Performativity in Organizational and Management Theory? The Uses and Abuses of Performativity

What Do We Mean by Performativity in Organizational and Management Theory? The Uses and Abuses of Performativity

framework challenges dominant notions of gender, opposing fixity with instability, traits with social norms, teleology with fracture, and homogeneity with declassification. Organization and management theory queer theorists draw on Butler’s work more broadly, indicating the importance of her work for ‘working at the site of ontology’ of business schools (Ozturk and Rumens 2014, p. 513). Parker’s (2001) seminal advocacy of queer theory for OMT identifies the potential in Butler’s work for ‘queering theory itself’ (p. 37), i.e. disrupting the power of the academy to constitute organizational ‘reality’, opening possibilities for exploring the performative work of organizational theory. Rumens (2010) uses both Foucault and Butler to explore new ways of ‘performing masculinity’ through analysing workplace friendships between gay men, while Harding et al. (2011) explore how leadership’s unsaid/unsayable performatively constitutes ‘the follower’. This category of Butlerian analysis therefore challenges ontologies of, within and through organizations.
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Moving towards a geocentric, polycultural theory of organizational paradox

Moving towards a geocentric, polycultural theory of organizational paradox

Organizational paradox scholars have long drawn insights from the East (Schad, Lewis, Raisch, & Smith, 2016). Exemplars have used Eastern symbols to explain paradox theory (e.g., Chen, 2008; Smith & Lewis, 2011), Eastern cases to illustrate paradox practice (e.g., Eisenhardt & Westcott, 1988; Johnston & Selsky, 2006), and Eastern-based studies to examine paradox behavior (Keller, Loewenstein, & Yan, 2016; Leung, Miron-Spektor, Liou, & Chan, 2014; Zhang, Waldman, Han, & Li, 2015). Yet despite such attention, resulting paradox theory remains largely shaped by the Western roots of modern organizational theory. In contrast, indigenous perspectives lack such filters, enabling inquiry directly inspired by and true to Eastern philosophical sources of knowledge. (Leung, 2012; Li, Leung, Chen, & Luo, 2012)
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Organizational Behaviour in 21st Century – ‘Theory A’ for Managing People for Performance

Organizational Behaviour in 21st Century – ‘Theory A’ for Managing People for Performance

Organizational behaviour (OB) is a scientific subject of study of organizations performance based on analysis of human behaviour individually and in groups while making decisions. It mainly focuses on impact of individuals, groups, and structures on human behaviour within the organizations. Normally OB is applied in an attempt to create more efficient business organizations in changing internal and external environment. A large number of research studies and conceptual developments are constantly adding to its knowledge base. It is also an applied science, in that information about effective practices in one organization is being extended to many others. "Micro" organizational behaviour refers to individual and group dynamics in organizations. "Macro" strategic management and organizational theory studies whole organizations and industries, especially how they adapt, and the strategies, structures, and contingencies that guide them. The major goals of Organizational behaviour are: (1) To describe systematically how people behave under variety of conditions, (2) To understand why people behave as they do, (3) Predicting future employee behaviour, and (4) Control at least partially and develop some human activity at work. (5) To know how people can be motivated and directed on to their responsibility to enhance the individual and group performance to boost the productivity of the organization. Effectiveness in Organizations is usually accomplished through practicing certain values such as
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Planning, problem solving, and Kirton's A-I theory within an organizational framework

Planning, problem solving, and Kirton's A-I theory within an organizational framework

The important comparison I want to make between these two constructs is that the CSI defines a measure of cognitive style in concert with the split-brain theories which use the descriptive terms analytic and intuitive for the extreme ends of a bipolar continuum. Allinson and Hayes (1996) make clear their bias toward a simplifying theory of cognitive style similar to the work of Agor (1984). The analytic end of the continuum includes word descriptors like deductive, rigorous, constrained, convergent, formal, and critical. On the intuitive end of the continuum descriptive words like the following are used: synthetic, inductive, expansive, unconstrained, divergent, informal, diffuse, and creative (Nickerson et al. 1985:50). Except for the term creative at the end of the Nickerson list of intuitive descriptive words this sounds very much like the high innovator as advanced by Kirton. And, the list of terms used for the analytic is quite congruent with the terms used to describe the high adaptor. These terms may be easily compared by viewing Table I-1 above. I will concur with A-I theory in asserting that all people are problem solvers and, therefore, creative. But for that single term the CSI should be highly congruent with KAI scores. Certainly the two should be sufficiently close in conceptual measurement as to suggest comparable preferable cognitive styles. A complete comparative analysis of the two measures of cognitive style is outside the scope of this investigation.
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The Impact of Social Exchange Theory Implementation Over Organizational Attitude and Behavior

The Impact of Social Exchange Theory Implementation Over Organizational Attitude and Behavior

Abstract- Medical sales representatives are sales force that is spearheading the sales and distribution of products in the health care organization. The tasks performed by medical sales representative have a high degree of difficulty that requires the support of the company and good communication with your boss. Research objectives to be achieved are: 1) To analyze the direct effect of organizational support on job satisfaction; 2) To analyze the direct effect of leader-member exchange (LMX) on job satisfaction; 3) To analyze the indirect effect of organizational support on organizational commitment; 4) To analyze the indirect influence of leader-member exchange (LMX) on organizational commitment. The approach used for this research is a quantitative approach. The population in this study is a medical sales representative at the Government General Hospital in Surabaya, dr. Soetomo and Haji General Hospital. The number of samples is four or five times the number of variables or attributes are specified by 72 respondents. Data were collected in person by the distributing questionnaires to number of respondents to obtain primary data. Analysis using path analysis. The result of the study is 1) The best medical support from the medical team ; 2) Perception of medical sales representatives to leader-member exchange (LMX) are better, it could increase job satisfaction directly; 3) Support organization is also better to have an impact on increasing organizational commitment; 4) Leader-member exchange (LMX) brings indirect effect on organizational commitment
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Decision and intuition during organizational change : an evolutionary critique of dual process theory

Decision and intuition during organizational change : an evolutionary critique of dual process theory

ii/ The last part of Dane and Pratt’s definition proposes that content involved in intuiting and forming holistic associations is emotional in nature. This proposition finds support in the work of Kahneman and Tversky (1979) and Kahneman (2003) who propose that in memory terms the availability heuristic dictates how a situation is understood. The degree to which memories are available, impacts the likelihood of forming certain perceptions of the faced environment. It has been established in research that emotional memories (i.e. memories with emotional content) are more readily available as fragments of enduring content stored neurology underpinning hypothesized system 1 (LeBar and Cabeza, 2006). We support Dane and Pratt’s proposition and additional propose that: given - Proposition A – emotional content involved in intuition requires exploration through an evolutionary lens. Specifically, emotion in terms of types (basic or complex emotion), need to be recognized in the context of evolution and its implications for dual process theory of intuition. It is established that emotion is an evolutionarily older response compared to reason. It is also established that emotion is categorized as that which is evolutionarily important for physical survival, and more complex emotions are required for social survival in information rich environments, which were not encountered by early hominids (Massey, 2001). Certainly, it is worth considering that there are emotions that are visceral and which had use in early human communities on the plains of Africa because they provided sensorimotor responses necessary for vending off predators. Here, researchers would look to biological markers and tendencies. In parallel, there are also emotions that are highly social in nature. That is, they are learnt within
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Mediating Organizational Cynicism: Exploring the Role of Hope Theory on Job Satisfaction

Mediating Organizational Cynicism: Exploring the Role of Hope Theory on Job Satisfaction

Some criticism may be directed towards the small effect size of the findings. Including hope into the regression model only explained an additional 3 percent of variance. However, it should be noted that Snyder’s Hope Theory, from which the scale used in this study originated, was originally designed for psychological counseling. Future research may seek to develop a more optimal measure for dealing with hope within the context of organizational and work research. Despite the small effect size observed in this study, the potential benefits to employee well-being from adding hope to the organizational research agenda makes it a worthy topic to pursue.
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A theory of organizational readiness for change

A theory of organizational readiness for change

organizational readiness addresses a fundamental concep- tual ambiguity that runs through the literature on the topic: is readiness a structural construct or a psychological one? The theory that I describe seeks to reconcile the struc- tural view and psychological view by specifying a relation- ship between them. In this theory, resources and other structural attributes of organizations do not enter directly into the definition of readiness. Instead, they represent an important class of performance determinants that organi- zational members consider in formulating change efficacy judgments. This view is consistent with Bandura's [21] contention that efficacy judgments focus on generative capabilities--that is, the capability to mobilize resources and orchestrate courses of action to produce a skillful per- formance. Thus, organizations with the same resources, endowments, and organizational structures can differ in the effectiveness with which they implement the same organizational change depending on how they utilize, combine, and sequence organizational resources and rou- tines. It seems preferable to regard organizational struc- tures and resource endowments as capacity to implement change rather than readiness to do so. This distinction between capacity and readiness could move theory and research forward by reducing some of the conceptual ambiguity in the meaning and use of the term 'readiness.' Second, the article's discussion of determinants illumi- nates the theoretical basis for the various strategies that change management experts recommend for creating organizational readiness. For practitioners, it might not seem necessary to explain in theoretical terms how or why a strategy works. For researchers, however, theoretical explication of the pathways through which these strategies affect readiness is important for advancing scientific knowledge. The theory that I propose suggests that strate- gies such as highlighting the discrepancy between current
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Customer uncertainty: a source of organizational inefficiency in the light of the modularity theory of the firm

Customer uncertainty: a source of organizational inefficiency in the light of the modularity theory of the firm

(Constitutions) defend formally the existence of fundamental rights – lower level institutions (ordinary national and regional laws and regulations) define strict standards concerning how to perform the production process. In this way, in fact, the human right content of such needs is challenged as regulation may force organizations to introduce bureaucracy and standardization and exclude the customer from the production process. As UPC are likely to be high, the organizations implicitly adopt the risk-pooling strategy against input uncertainty. Today, high standardization of the organizational processes is wrongly justified by the need to increase control over production and is enhanced by the prospects of Industry 4.0. In the highly-standardized health care and long-term care sectors, hospitals and nursing homes make implicit use of risk- pooling strategy by paying insurance premiums against the risk of patient claims. Indeed, all these organizations need to ensure themselves but only those not investing in production capabilities (reducing UPC), are likely to make larger use of risk-pooling. Such strategy, however, is costly as may lead customers to start litigations even in the absence of workers’ errors. It has been shown that in the US most malpractice claims indeed do not actually involve a negligent injury as two important studies implicitly show; the Harvard medical practice study (Brennan et al. 1991) and Utah/Colorado medical practice study (Studdert et al. 2000). Also, emotion distress and psychological injuries can cause claims (Stevenson and Studdert 2003) and, hence, increase the level of LTC insurance premiums. Therefore, by adopting a risk-pooling strategy, input uncertainty - along with producing UPC in the production process 39 – affects the organization’s reputation and
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THE ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION OF INCENTIVE THEORY AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

THE ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION OF INCENTIVE THEORY AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

The essence of a business culture is the behavior of the organization in the process of achieving its mission (maximizing profit, personal vision of the boss, transforming an industry, changing the world, etc.) The convergence of values. There are enterprises, there must be corporate culture. Good corporate culture is to help companies achieve their goals efficiently, and vice versa. Corporate culture at least two main sources, one industry culture, and second, the boss culture. Industry culture is the characteristics of the industry itself and the formation of practitioners in the industry who have generally embodied the value of norms and behavioral characteristics. Boss culture is in the process of entrepreneurship will be reflected in the personal values in all aspects of the enterprise. There is a more extreme argument, in the first few months of business creation, corporate culture, the gene was implanted into the enterprise which. Large to the enterprise's organizational structure, performance evaluation, rules and regulations, small staff to the popular Dress Code, communication, have revealed the corporate culture.
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Exploring the organizational proliferation of new technologies:an affective actor network theory

Exploring the organizational proliferation of new technologies:an affective actor network theory

Organisational scholarship has long been concerned with how new technologies proliferate across work organisations (Orlikowski and Barley, 2001). Across recent decades research has not only considered how specific socio-institutional contexts influence the proliferation of new technologies, from neoliberal capitalism (Fleming, 2018) to professional associations (Swan and Newell, 1995), but also how those contexts and technologies are shaped by encounters with human agents, including: opinion leaders (Fitzgerald, 2002), professionals (Korica and Molloy, 2011), and entrepreneurs (Hung, 2004). Related organisational research (Cochoy, 2009; Harrison and Laberge, 2002; Joerges and Czarniawka, 1998; Locke and Lowe, 2007)., strongly influenced by Actor-Network Theory (ANT) (Callon, 1986; Latour, 1987), has also challenged the idea that the proliferation of new technologies involves the circulation of discrete material objects and fixed designs and uses. Technological proliferation is instead reframed as a socio-material process where technologies spread through adaptations of their designs and uses as human and non-human agencies are transformed and enrolled in support of technologies (Akirch et al. 2002). Recent organisational studies of technologies are thus increasingly defined by explorations of how lived encounters between humans and non-humans influence the development, circulation, use and transformation of new technologies.
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An Investigation of Perceived Organizational Support from a Self-Determination Theory Perspective.

An Investigation of Perceived Organizational Support from a Self-Determination Theory Perspective.

Organizational support theory maintains that when employees perceive support from the organization they become affectively committed to it because they feel obligated to repay the organization for its benevolence (Eisenberger et al., 2001). Based on social exchange theory (Gouldner, 1960), when an organization provides employees with desirable resources such as favorable job conditions, employees feel obligated to reciprocate with behaviors and attitudes that benefit the organization. Examples include maintaining a positive mood at work, expressing a desire to remain with the organization (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002) reducing their absenteeism (Eisenberger et al., 1986), and increasing the extent to which they perform conscientiously on the job. The organization may also benefit from employees that are inspired to “give back” to the organization by discovering innovative ways to improve performance on the behalf of the organization (Eisenberger et al., 1990). In support of this explanation, Eisenberger et al. (2001) found that when employees perceived support from their organization they tended to develop higher levels of affective commitment, have higher in-role performance, and exhibit fewer withdrawal behaviors all due to the employee’s felt obligation to repay the organization. The first hypothesis of this study aims to replicate the relationship between perceived organizational support and felt obligation found by previous research.
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Why (we think) facilitation works: insights from organizational learning theory

Why (we think) facilitation works: insights from organizational learning theory

Internal absorptive capacity refers to meta-routines invoked once new knowledge is imported into an organization. Some meta-routines, like brainstorming or offering time and space for informal interactions, pave the way for change and facilitate internal variation [9]. Techniques founded on scientific management prin- ciples, like lean manufacturing, are also sources of vari- ation that generate new knowledge about how to improve work processes. Pilot studies or organized ex- periments (Ng S, Berta W, Barnsley J. Realizing the adaptive potential of evidence-based knowledge: how, what & why learning occurs (or does not) during clinical practice guideline implementation: a multiple case study. Unpublished.) are routines that inform internal selection among alternative change initiatives. Routines including experiential training opportunities promote reflection and updating, while procedures like results reporting may also prompt replication [9]. Learning retention is another aspect of internal absorptive cap- acity. Routines relating to embedding or routinizing (sustaining) changes to work practices in the larger organizational context, or in micro-systems [44], are important. Equally important may be routines that facilitate replacement of existing routines and unlearn- ing old ways of doing [23].
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Utilizing The Social Transaction Theory Of Social Ontology To Understand Organizational Culture Change

Utilizing The Social Transaction Theory Of Social Ontology To Understand Organizational Culture Change

If social structure is being continually negotiated and renegotiated in the present, then the same applies to organizational culture and other social and economic issues for that matter. Each time members of an organization socially transact, the underlying negotiation may implicitly or explicitly change the previously negotiated social order. Although culture may not noticeably change on an hourly or weekly basis, it can be argued that it is continually changing, although that change is most frequently very subtle or not even noticeable. Culture certainly changes as other changes are introduced to the organization. Changes can range from internal changes, such as new personnel, new assignments, new products and services, and new policies and procedures; to external changes, such as changing clientele, markets, competitors, or shifts in the business cycle. With each change, the individuals within the organization transact and negotiate what those changes mean to both themselves and the organization. The emergents from these transaction/negotiations may range from barely detectable to blatantly obvious. More importantly, leaders and managers take part in these negotiations whether they intend to or not. They are just as much a part of the social transaction from which culture emerges as any other member. The emphasis is intentional. Even though management expects that their organizational power and authority grants them significantly greater influence, most often that influence is limited in how well it can determine social outcomes within the organization. More often, the outcome can differ from the desired result through no fault of the change initiator.
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Identification and Prioritization of the Organizational Capital Attributes in the Petroleum Industry in Iran using Grey Systems Theory

Identification and Prioritization of the Organizational Capital Attributes in the Petroleum Industry in Iran using Grey Systems Theory

The organizational capital is one of the important components of the intellectual capital. The organizational capital can be regarded as one of the infrastructures for organizational learning which represents the capability of the organization to acquire new competencies and knowledge. Regarding the changes in the in- tangible assets of organizations in gaining and sharing knowledge in the today’s knowledge-based world, the organizations that have vigorous organizational cap- ital can provide a safe and supporting environment for the staff in order to exert their capabilities to create and share the knowledge. Therefore, the organizational capital is an infrastructure in term of organizational successes so that it plays a vital role in achieving the goals of organization. Managing and directing “Or- ganizational Capital” entails identification and measurement of its attributes. Al- though the literature on the intellectual capital is rich, the review shows that few researches have studied the organizational capital models and the related attrib- utes. Hence, at first, this study aims to collect the organizational capital attributes through reviewing the literature and classify them as a comprehensive model. Then, a Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) approach in uncertanity situation has been utilized in order to prioritize and rank the classified attributes by gathering the opinions of experts. In this study, the Grey systems theory has been used for the first time as a method to deal with uncertainty inherent in the in the organizational capital measurement. Whereas the presented comprehensive model can be applied in different situations and industries, it seems that this mod- el may have different attribute weights with regard to the nature of organizations’ activity and internal and external conditions of the specified industry. Finally, the proposed methodology has been utilized in the petroleum industry in Iran and prioritization procedure and ranking results have been illustrated step by step. A B S T R A C T
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Communicating about the Rural Advancement Foundation International – USA : an application of organizational identity, organizational image, and the situational theory of publics to a public relations plan

Communicating about the Rural Advancement Foundation International – USA : an application of organizational identity, organizational image, and the situational theory of publics to a public relations plan

As public relations scholars Sam Dyer, Teri Buell, Mashere Harrison, and Sarah Weber (2000) recommended, the work of good nonprofit public relations needs not only a better understanding of the implications of communications, but a clearer understanding of whom the organization is contacting. Hirsch (1990) and Snow, et al. (1986) suggested that the relationship of a public's identity to an organization's identity can help move people to action and create strong ties between stakeholders and organizations. This literature indicates that finding and using the intersections of personal and organizational identity may be a more powerful tool for targeting a campaign than demographics or other segmenting techniques. James Grunig's (1989) situational theory of publics applies this idea within the structure of public relations theory and scholarship. This theory has been applied to activist scenarios in several studies, and provides insight into the particular ways a nonprofit organization can mobilize its members and stakeholders.
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Designing the organizational cultural model based on the grounded theory emphasizing on collaborative learning culture

Designing the organizational cultural model based on the grounded theory emphasizing on collaborative learning culture

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to provide an optimal model of organizational culture in educational organization of Khorasan Razavi. Methodology: To reach this purpose, a qualitative data research method or grounded theory had been used. Fifteen experts on the subject were interviewed in order to obtain the required data in this study. After conducting interviews, data analysis was performed using open coding, axis coding, and selective coding of Strauss and Corbin. Findings: After data analysis, the paradigm or optimal model of organizational culture for educational organization of Khorasan Razavi was extracted and obtained. This model had a causal condition, grounded conditions, interventional conditions, strategies and outcomes. Discussion: Based on the results of the present research, suggestied such as addressing the current and future needs of learners, changing on the basis of community changes, paying attention to the modern ability of individuals to recruit new forces, the use of active and modern methods of teaching and learning, earning income for schools, decentralization, clear and transparent performance criteria, and the involvement of stakeholders in decision making.
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