milk man, extraneous dirt, environment or un- clean water may be the reason of milk contamination. Though, the application of many OCPs in agriculture have been banned in India, in the past several OCPs were extensively used in the cultivation of paddy, wheat, maize, gram, oilseeds, many fruits and vegetables. The feed of the cattle supplied in the city are from the villages around the city. The pesticides used in the past to protect agricultural crops from pest damage in the farms of these villages are highly persistent in nature due to which their residues remain in the soil, water, air etc and enters the leafy vegetables, straws of wheat, rice, maize, grasses etc and through the cattle feed these residues enter into the animal body.
A recent inventory on pesticide use within Uganda  has shown a 6% re- sponse use of dieldrin among the commonly used pesticides in the country, sug- gesting that the pesticide was still being used by farmers to control various pests. Slow degradation of pesticides in the environment and extensive or inappro- priate use by farmers can lead to environmental contamination of water, soil, air, several types of crops and indirectly, humans  . Organochlorine pesticides can enter the environment after pesticide applications, disposal of contaminated wastes into landfills, incinerator emissions or runoff, or releases from manufac- turing plants that produce these chemicals . OCPs are harmful to
The cow, milker, extraneous dirt, environment or un- clean water may be the reason of milk contamination . The possible number of ways in which pesticides can reach milk are as follows: 1) high level of pesticide residues in foodstuffs from post-harvest treatment or by drift during commercial aerial application, inhaled air or contaminated water, 2) foodstuffs manufactured from plant material that has been treated during the growing season with insecticides i.e. contamination through feed, grass/hay , 3) use of insecticides directly on the ani- mals against disease vectors, 4) use of insecticides in sta- bles for the treatment against flies, 5) in milk processing factories for hygienic treatments against insects. The contamination of milk from source 1) and 2) with pesti- cide depends on the stability of the compound, its mode of application, the duration of intake or exposure and its metabolic fate in the animal. Due to their lipophilic properties , pesticides are primarily stored in fat-rich tissues and subsequently translocated and excreted through milk fat [24,25].
A study was conducted to obtain systematic monitoring data on the contamination levels of selected organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables sold on Ghanaian markets. A total of 309 samples of fruits and vegetables were purchased from the main urban markets and supermarkets in Greater Accra through the months of July, 2009 to May, 2010. The analysis was carried out on GC-ECD employing multi residue analytical technique. The obtained results showed the predominance of methoxychlor in most of the analyzed samples. The detected concentrations of it in pineapple, lettuce, cabbage, cucumber and onion exceeded the European Commission Maximum Residue limits (EC MRLs), as did the concentrations of lindane in papaya, pineapple, cabbage and onion as well as dieldrin in papaya, banana, pineapple and cabbage. Residues of endrin in lettuce and carrot were higher than the EC MRL, as was chlorpyrifos in pineapple. Based on the observations made in these studies, it is proposed that more extensive investigations covering all foodstuffs in Ghana be carried out so as to generate data for policy making, development of consumer information laws and curtailment of the use of some of these pesticides.
of water bodies near to lands, rivers and estuarine bodies [31, 32] resulting in high concentration in aquatic life especially fish, prawns, otters, shrimps etc. [33, 31]. The consumption of biota from contaminated aquatic body is considered to be an important route of exposure to OC insecticides  in humans resulting in variety of health hazards particularly endocrine dysfunction, births defects, breast cancer, lower sperm count and testicular cancer [35, 36, 37]. OC insecticides are still detectable in fish from various waterways [38, 39]. Use of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) including DDT have been banned in Bangladesh after signing Stockholm Convention [40, 41] but evidences of the presence of OCP were found in environmental samples like fish, dry fish, and poultry feed [87, 43] and also through the food chain in human blood samples [ 44, 45].The cause may be illegal trafficking of banned OCP from neighboring countries where OCP are allowed to use in health sector and pilferage from large stockpiles of OCP in the three godowns of Bangladesh . Fish is one the most suitable bio-concentrators to identify OCP .
From Table 1, among the organochlorine pesticides studied, the following were detected in different matrices p,p’-DDT, ∂ -BHC, ɣ-BHC, Dieldrin, Aldrin and Endosulfan II (Figure 1). Among DDT analogues only the p,p’-DDT was detected in all the samples. Figure 2 shows that pumpkin has the highest value with the mean value of 0.75 mg/kg (range of 0.605 - 0.902 mg/kg) followed by spinach with the value of 0.319 mg/kg and the least is sorrel with the value of 0.219 mg/kg. All concentrations of the DDT in the three vegetables were much higher than the EU set maximum residue limit (MRL) for total vegetables which is 0.05 mg/kg. The high concentration of DDT and its metabolites, obtained in the result of this study indicates that high concentration of DDT pesticides could have been used in killing pests or other plants that also grow with these vegeta- bles. This also confirms that like other developing countries organochlorine pes- ticides are still in use here. Although the use of DDT and its metabolites have been banned in Nigeria since 2008, DDT and its metabolites have been classified by NAFDAC as probable human carcinogens, although it is still illegally used by farmers for the control of pests .
The manufacture and use of chlorinated pesticides have been banned or restricted in developed countries. Although these bans and restrictions were enacted during the 1970s and 1980s, some developing countries are still using OCPs for agricultural and public health purposes because of their low cost and versatility in controlling various pests. Again, they are being used in most developing countries, including Nigeria, due to a lack of appropriate regulatory control and management of the production, trade and use of these chemicals (21-24). Organophosphates have been found in sewage sludge in Sweden and Norway with maximum concentrations in the milligrams per kilogram range. Organophosphates were also detected in river water in relatively high concentrations. Wastewater does not seem to be the only source. Organophosphates were also detected in rain and snow from Germany with concentrations up to micrograms per liter. Moreover, there is evidence for global occurrence in the atmosphere. It is thus no surprise that Organophosphates were also detected in soils that had no history of sewage sludge application or irrigation (25-30). The aim of this research is to determine the contamination levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues in the water and sediment in the dynamic aquatic environment of the Ondo coastal area which is subjected to anthropogenic inputs from activities such oil exploitation, transportation, farming practice, domestic and cottage industrial effluents into the water ways in the Ondo coastal area which finally emptied into Atlantic Ocean in the southern part. In the present study, in order to evaluate the levels of sediment contamination, Enrichment factor (EF), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), ecological risk index, risk assessment code and contamination degree (Cd) for each of the metals was calculated.
Concentrations of organochlorine compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, industrial chemical) and the insecticide DDT and its metabolites, have declined in the environment and foodstuffs in many parts of the world. Background in utero exposure to the environ- mental pollutants may, however, still be a risk factor for neurological, hormonal and immunological effects in infants and children [1-4]. Serum/plasma concentrations of organochlorine compounds are often used in assess- ment of body burdens of the compounds among pregnant women, and of fetal exposure [5-8]. Studies of concentra- tions of organochlorine compounds in serum/plasma of pregnant women often report large inter-individual varia- tions in concentrations . The reasons behind this varia- tion are still to a large extent unknown, although several studies have investigated if lifestyle/medical factors can explain at least some of the variation [10-12]. Such deter- mining factors may confound results in epidemiological studies. Moreover, a better understanding of determinants of body burdens of organochlorine compounds during pregnancy will increase possibilities for future actions and recommendations, with the purpose to lower body bur- dens during pregnancy.
The present study was first known analysis of Organochlorine (OCPs) and Organophosphates (OPPs) pesticide distribution in water of river Jhelum. The water of river Jhelum is polluted by these OCPs and OPPs. A relatively high level of these compounds was observed in most study areas. Most of the organochlorine pesticides found in this study were officially banned but they were still seen in the river. Regular monitoring and strict law enforcement is needed to develop a strategy to manage the environmental hazards due to these elements and improve environmental protection of this area. Further it is also suggested that we only take four pesticides into consideration in this present study but there exists number of pesticides in the river of Jhelum which were not taken into consideration and were not analyzed in this study, so further work is needed to determine the bioaccumulation of these toxic elements in the food web and the associated risks to the ecosystem and human health.
this study. However the study results are limited by the fact that it was conducted over a short period of time. Further investigation of pesticide residues is required to track down the trend and sources of these pesticides in the region. Therefore, in addition to addresssing challenges associated with watercontamination, there is need to consider chemicals management issues related to transport from contaminated sites and atmospheric depostion due to high volatility of the OCPs. The findings of this study, therefore, show the need to impose stricter regulations on management of contaminated soils and routine monitoring of transport and deposition of pesticides residues in environment. This study has shown that several peristent organic pollutant pesticides occur in detectable quantities in Kargi area. Potential sources could be attributed to atmospheric deposition and residues from past applications in the country. The pesticide residues detected in water samples from Kargi area had considerably lower concentration compared to levels measured in lakes, rivers and marine water others regions in the country, 7,8,9 however bioaccumulative properties of these compounds allow them to build up in the food chain and causing risk to human. Therefore consideration of biota matrices could provide additional information on the levels of these pesticides in the food chain.
The title compound, (I), was produced as a key intermediate in the preparation of a hapten suitable for generating anti- bodies speci®c either for the organochlorinepesticide aldrin which has been shown to accumulate in fatty tissue or for dieldrin, the compound to which aldrin is metabolized by epoxidation in mammals. Both aldrin and dieldrin are known to persist in the environment and have been reported to possess carcinogenic properties by the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA (Stevenson et al., 1999).
Some organochlorine pesticides evaluated in this study some are lower and some are higher than previously documented values. The still high incidence and levels of some pesticides especially p, p`-DDT, o, p`-DDT, o, p`- DDE and p, p`-DDD enforce the responsible aspects to take more effective and continuous defenses. Frequent and continuous monitoring of these pesticides will help to take cautions in consuming food of animal origin, fishes, vegetables, fruits and grains from contaminated areas. The results obtained from this research work revealed that there are still residues of some organochlorine pesticides in the environment. Sixteen different organochlorine pesticides namely p, p`-DDT, o, p`-DDT, o, p`-DDE, p, p`-DDD, γ-HCH, β-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, Endrin, endrin-aldehyde, endrin- ketone, γ-endosulphan, endosulphan-sulphate, γ- chlordane, dieldrin, and methoxychlor were detected. Four out these fourteen organochlorinepesticide residues; p, p`-DDT, o, p`-DDT, o, p`-DDE and p, p`- DDD. Total number of pesticides detected in blood samples from Aljebal Alakhtar was 4 out of 16 pesticides analysed which indicates that each person is exposed to and carries a body burden of multiple pesticides, which might be due to a combination of direct and indirect exposure to these pesticides. Major contribution to total pesticide concentration in blood samples from Aljebal Alakhtar is of organochlorine pesticides. Presence of organochlorine pesticides in blood means that they do persist n the body for good amount of time. It also indicates the presence in the body of the pesticide in its form as a primary compound. It can be concluded from this study that human pesticide residue is a biological index of pesticide exposure and studies on blood can be used for assessing the total body burden data of pesticides in the occupationally exposed and unexposed population. This study revealed that long-term exposure to various pesticides leads to signs of cytotoxicity resulting particularly in biochemical alterations. It can be concluded that chronic exposure to organochlorine pesticides can cause effects in hematological systems. So further researches on large scales are needed to confirm these findings and to obtain detailed information about mechanisms of toxicity. Also, official regulations and interventions to reduce farmer’s overexposure to pesticides are needed. These findings reinforce the need for heightened efforts to better protect from pesticide exposure among farm workers. As an adjunct to the regulation of pesticides, regular monitoring is necessary to ensure that control measures are satisfactory.
or DDT (Table 2), whereas the soil in the DSIR orchard contained more DOT than ODD or DOE (Table 1). ODD, though still the second most abundant organochlorine in nestlings, was approxi- mately twice as prevalent as in eggs (Table 2). Toe differences reflect the metabolic pathways that the fat-soluble organochlorines have taken before entering the lipids of eggs or nestlings. No experimental work has been done to determine how much organochlorinepesticide is needed in the diet of mynas to achieve these levels of residues in the eggs or nestlings. However, Collett and Harrison (1968) analysed soil, blackbirds (Turdus rnerula), song thrushes (Turdus philornelos), earthworms and apples in a commercial orchard near Christchurch, New Zealand, and found that 12 soil cores (150 mm deep 25 mm diameter) taken at random in March averaged 22.2 ppm DDT equivalent. This is similar to the average amount found in the area with highest residues in the soil in the DSIR orchard (Fig. 3). Blackbirds and thrushes collected, or found
A total of 25 settled dust samples were collected from carpet’s vacuum cleaners (number=5)and filters of air conditioners(number=20).Sampling was performed during the periodDec 2015 to Feb 2016. The carpet dust samples were collected using a 2,000 W and 1400 W household vacuum cleaners; while samples from filters of air conditioners were collected fromWindow type A/C, Split A/C and Tower A/C.Settled dust was carefully removed from the filters and collected onto a clean paper and transferred into sterile petri dishes and transported to the microbiology laboratory at the college of Medicine, Aljouf University,and processed within 1-10 hours of collection.
The task of building structures of these built-in parts is to ensure airtight envelope of clean room and its cleanability, among other things. In practice, we meet with regard to the terms of realizations and implementation of various subcontracting division into smaller units with the problem of the continuity of individual technical professions and lack of time to properly clean the installation and cleaning around the built- in surrounding. On pipe installations in ceilings occur large amounts of dust, rubble and various mounting unused portions of the connecting and assembling material. Especially fine particles sized from 0.1 to 1.0 microns, with regard to their own weight, they do not settle and are thanks to different air streams transported from the surroundings to the clean built-in spaces. Pressure conditions in the built-in space, which of course varies during realization (overpressure, underpressure, opening doors, etc.), have a considerable influence on the transport of these particles from surrounding to the built-in inner space. Another factor, which in turn affects the inner cleanliness and continuous contamination of the interior space, is a lack of discipline of staff involved in its construction.
All the analytical standards of the studied pesticides were of high purity and certified were purchased from Dr.Ehrenstorfer GmbH, Augsburg Germany, with purity >99%. The solvents of Acetonitrile (ACN), acetone, methanol, n-hexane were of HPLC-grade from Merck Limited, India. HPLC-grade water was obtained from Merck Limited, India. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) and Sodium chloride (NaCl) obtained from Merck were used. The rice
Surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as separate resources, although they are interrelated. Groundwater is the water located beneath the earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations while surface water seeps through the soil and becomes groundwater. Conversely, groundwater can also feed surface water sources. Groundwater is recharged from, and eventually flows to, the surface naturally; natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps, and can form oases or wetlands. Agricultural, municipal, and industrial use groundwater which is withdrawn for by constructing and operating extraction wells. In this world, about 0.61% of the entire world's water, including oceans and permanent ice is groundwater, which is about twenty percent of the world's fresh water supply. Global groundwater storage is roughly equal to the total amount of freshwater stored in the snow and ice pack, including the north and south poles.
The dam which delimits this reservoir is built with clay since 1969. It drains an essential part of the water from Nanon catchment which stretched away on 2410 sq.Km between latitudes 9 ˚00'N and 9˚80'N and longi- tudes 2 ˚31'E and 3˚08'E. The reservoir initially contained about five million cubic meters in 1975. It is mainly used for drinking water supply. Due to increasing population and the siltation or sediment filling the reservoir, water will drastically shorten in a close future. The water depth now varies between 1.5 meters and 8.5 meters. Meanwhile, that water resource is increasingly coveted for irrigation as an adaptation to climate change since the land occupation is essentially by agricultural and cattle farm (80%) and weakly by urbanized areas .