of the decade not brought together the Marrists and advocates of proletarian culture as a single institutional force hostile to the critical processes at work within both philology and orientalstudies. The misleading proletarian rhetoric was employed to justify fundamental changes in policy that transformed the nature of the state and the tasks set for the Communist Parties in the colonial world. They now needed to orient fully on establishing governments supportive of the USSR in any conflagration rather than prioritizing social transformation. The exploratory works produced by VNAV did not serve this imperative any more than the new critical approaches emerging from the various research institutes working on languages and cultures. Thus leading members of the Association came under attack in the pages of a number of prominent journals and, dangerously, were even accused of concealed Trotskyism (Mamet 1930; Tamazishvili 2008, pp. 102-03, 112-23). In 1930 VNAV lost its autonomy as it was incorporated into the Communist Academy. To confirm the ubiquity of the shift, Safarov, seeking rehabilitation after the defeat of the Leningrad opposition in 1927, published a directly Stalinist assessment of the Ôposition on the orientalstudies frontÕ in 1931 (Safarov 1931). The harassment of orientologists coincided with the appearance of notorious hatchet-men such as Valerian Aptekar ʹ and Sergei Bykovskii establishing the institutional dominance of Marrism in linguistics.
been established by cultural relations between the two nations. In 92/711, the Arab-Muslim Umayyad commander Muḥammad b. al-Qāsim al-Thaqafí invaded and conquered Sindh in the western Indian. With the arrival of Arab Muslims to this province and settlement there, the Sindh’s inhabitance became the first of Indian who were acquainted with both the religion of Islam and the Arabic language, which became the official language of the government and administration there. Moreover some Indians began to convert to Islam, which meant that Indian converts to Islam came into contact with Arabic, as a religious language. Thus made the cultural ties between the two nations became stronger. Hazrat Hasanuzzaman, “Development of Arabic studies in India,” Pratidhwani-A Journal of Humanities and Social Science, (Department of Bengali karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam, India, Issue-II, October 2012, pp.16-23): Vol. I, 16-17, accessed September 24, 2013, Online ISSN 2278-5264. https://www.thecho.in/files/Development-of-Arabic-studies-in-India.pdf; Adrīss, Al-ʾAdab al-ʿArabī fī Shibh al-Qārah al-Hindiyyah ḥatā Awākher al-Qarn al-ʿEshreen (Cairo:ʿAin le al-Baḥothwa al-Derāsāt al-Ensāniyyah wa al-Ejtamāʿiyyah, 1998), 10-11.
This volume thus approaches the world of Orientalstudies between, roughly, 1870 and 1930, through the prism of scholarly persona. Its key question is a heuristic one: to what extent does the persona concept (in the third variant) contribute to a better understanding of unity and disunity among European Orientalists around 1900? In pursuing this question, the chapters that follow touch upon a range of sub-questions. What were the crucial factors that made some scholarly personae more successful, or at least more visible, than others? How did scholarly personae relate to non-scholarly ones, or to hybrid role identities like the “missionary–scholar,” the “political professor,” and the “public intellectual”? How did such personae affect day-to-day practices, such as the writing of book reviews – a genre in which evaluative standards often became quite explicit? And how different or similar were the subfields of Arabic, Semitic, Sanskrit, Chinese, and Japanese studies in these respects? Although this volume cannot possibly pretend to address these questions in satisfactory depth, it tries to put them on the agenda, so to speak, by showing in some detail what kind of historical analysis can be done through the prism of scholarly personae.
From the point of view of our current concerns, perhaps the most interesting publication from this period is Tubjanskij’s 1935 article ‘Certain Problems of Mongolian Literature of the Pre - Revolutionary Period’ (Tubjanskij 1935b), which was written in response to a programmatic article by the prominent linguist, ethnographer and then Head of the Mongolian Section of the Institute of OrientalStudies, Nikolaj Poppe (1935). 26 Poppe had argued that the study of Mongolian literature needs to focus exclusively on artistic literature in the Mongolian language, but had proven unable to draw a sharp line between such literature and folklore, historical and geographical texts (Tubjanskij 1935b, p. 11). This, Tubjanskij argued, was because Poppe failed to appreciate the historicity of the boundary between ‘literature in the narrow sense and written culture in the broad sense’, noting that for literatures of the feudal and pre-feudal epochs one needs to understand literature as meaning all written culture and folklore (Tubjanskij 1935b, pp. 11-12). The insistence on Mongolian language material was also misguided because in Mongolia the Tibetan language played a similar role to that of Latin in mediaeval Europe so that, for the most part, literature of the feudal era in Mongolian largely consisted of translations from Tibetan:
James Pearson, BA (London) M.Phil (Cantab), read for a bachelor’s in Chinese and Korean at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London, a master’s of philosophy in OrientalStudies at the University of Cam- bridge and was a student at Beijing Normal University (BNU) in 2008-2009. At SOAS, he was awarded the YC Liu prize in Chinese Studies for research that detected replicable patterns in the rise and fall of contemporary Chinese nation- alist sentiment. He is currently based in Seoul where he is the correspondent for NK News, a news website covering North Korean affairs. He is also founder and editor of koreaBANG, a popular website that translates posts from South Ko- rean websites into English, and a manager at chinaSMACK, its Shanghai-based counterpart. Pearson is due to join Reuters as a Korea correspondent in 2014.
Manuscript studies, as the discipline dealing with material hand-written text witnesses, are of fundamental impor- tance for the study of all literate and literary cultures, and scholars working in the different branches of philology, including Orientalstudies, have long been aware of this fact. Over the past decades, numerous studies devoted to various issues of manuscript studies have emerged, focusing on codicology, palaeography, text criticism, and also issues of manuscript preservation and restoration. The most progressive trends in approach and meth- odology have, as a rule, been pursued by scholars of ‘Occidental’ disciplines: text-criticism with scholars in Romance, Biblical and Classical Studies at the forefront; codicology, which has evolved into ‘manuscript archae- ology’ under the impulse of Latin and Greek manuscript studies; digital philology, which has evolved particularly rapidly in the Classical and Medieval European fields.
AUTOMATIC DICTIONARY ORGANIZATION IN NLP SYSTEMS FOR ORIENTAL LANGUAGES AUTOMATIC DICTIONARY ORGANIZATION IN NLP SYSTEMS FOR ORIENTAL LANGUAGES V Andrezen, L Kogan, W Kwitakowski, R Minvaleev, R Piotr[.]
Another major category of objects which might bear cuneiform inscriptions are cylinder seals. Seals are small, usually an inch to two inches long, normally made of semi-precious stone, and engraved with figures, geometrical patterns, and, sometimes, inscriptions indicating ownership. They could be rolled on a damp clay document as signature or on lumps of clay to seal shipments of goods or to secure doors from undetected entry. Contrary to most museums where the majority of the seal collections were purchased on the antiquities market, nearly the entire collection in the Iraq Museum was from controlled excavations, thus assuredly authentic (the only other major collection largely from authorized excavations is in the Oriental Institute, Chicago). It has now been confirmed that the Iraq Museum's entire collection of seals accessioned before 1990 has been looted. The Director of the Iraq Museum, Dr. Nawala al-Mutawalli, has stated that 4,795 seals were stolen. Typical examples, illustrated with modern impressions, from the Oriental Institute's excavations in the 1930s, are given in Figures 4—6.
during this period), were written in the different places Böhtlingk was working on the dictionary: St Petersburg and small spa villages and summer resorts nearby, such as Lepelä or Wendelä (1852–1868); a number of cities visited by Böhtlingk during his trip to Germany and Switzerland in 1866 (Berlin, Jena, Weimar, Zürich, Bern); Jena (1868–1881); and Leipzig (the last letter, dated 28 April 1885). This historiographic treasure was recently discovered by Gabrielle Zeller (Tübingen University) in the Tübingen University Library and published by her and Heidrun Brückner (University of Würzburg). The editors thus rendered an immense service to all those interested in the history of Sanskrit studies in Europe.
Thank you for choosing Oregon College of Oriental Medicine to pursue your graduate studies in Chinese medicine. As you know, OCOM is one of the oldest and most respected acupuncture and Oriental medicine colleges in the United States. For 30 years, the college has prided itself on providing future practitioners with a superior academic and clinical education. Since our beginnings in 1983, we have focused on building a culture of excellence through continuous quality improvements in our academic, clinical and research programs. Today, the college continues in this spirit with great enthusiasm and an optimistic vision for the future. Our state-of-the-art campus in Portland’s Old Town Chinatown neighborhood provides a wonderful facility to pursue academic studies, research and practice. Our location in the heart of the city allows the college to create deep and meaningful partnerships in the community as we explore sustainable solutions to health care challenges in Oregon and nationally. Most importantly, OCOM’s ever-expanding commitment to academic excellence ensures that you will have an optimal educational and clinical experience.
Sigmodontinae) cause HFRS and HPS in Asia, Europe, Africa, and North America . To date, 23 distinct hantavirus species are recognized by the ICTV . In China, two main hantaviruses, Hantaan virus (HTNV) carried by the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and Seoul virus (SEOV) carried by the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), cause HFRS . In 2012, we reported a novel hantavirus harbored by the Yunnan red-backed vole (Eothenomys miletus) . In this study, we identified another novel hantavirus in the small oriental vole (Eothe- nomys eleusis, subfamily Arvicolinae), designated Fugong virus (FUGV) because it was recovered in Fugong county, Yunnan Province, China. The small oriental vole is distrib- uted widely in Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou, China .
Cupping is a commonly used traditional intervention with a wide application all around the world for various conditions: pain [11,37], hypertension  and stroke rehabilitation . Despite its common use, recent sys- tematic reviews have suggested that the evidence for wet-cupping is not sufficient to make a firm conclusion. Methodological flaws and the scarcity of good RCTs are the main reason for the negative results. To establish the effectiveness and safety of cupping therapy, rigorous studies are needed in the future.
species are sterile. Therefore, many studies have been conducted to restore fertility via mitotic chromosome doubling (mitotic polyploidization). Despite the presence of large genomes in lilies (76 pg/2C) and a fairly large basic chromosome number (x=12), nu- merous polyploid cultivars have been successful in this crop [5, 7]. Additionally, interspecific hybridiza- tion followed by polyploidization has contributed to the development of useful breeding materials as well as cultivars . In many cases, spindle inhibiting or chromosome doubling agents such as colchicine or oryzalin have been successfully applied for the in- duction of polyploids . However, in some cases numerically unreduced (2n) gametes have been shown to be useful for inducing polyploids using in- terspecific hybrids that are otherwise sterile . Fur- thermore, Asano (1984) analyzed the behaviour of meiotic chromosomes and the fertility of pollen and found abnormal chromosome separation at meiosis I and the formation of unreduced gametes .
Oriental traditional medicine in East Asia, including Korea, China, and Japan, uses acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, herbal medicines, and manual therapies . In Korea, traditional Oriental medicine is called Hanbang and is an inseparable component of Korean culture and Korean medical services . Traditional Oriental medicine is included in the national health care system in Korea. National policies have been developed based on its histor- ical and cultural background in a way that differs from its use as a complementary and alternative medicine in West- ern society . Korea has the highest percentage (15.3%) of traditional Oriental medical doctors in hospitals and clinics in East Asia, followed by mainland China (12.6%) and the Taiwan region (9.7%)  Korean patients with cerebrovascular accidents (ICH or cerebral infarction), advanced cancer, facial palsy, and old age tend to seek traditional Oriental medicine more often than patients with other acute illnesses . Because traditional Oriental medicine uses different treatment modalities than West- ern medicine, the etiology of fever might be different. As far as we know, this is the first study on the incidence and etiologies of hospital-acquired fever in patients hospital- ized at OMHs.
Before 1870, Catholics in France were a major financial supporter of the global growth of Catholic missions in the 19th century. Although there were funding branches throughout various European countries, from 1822-1872, two-thirds of all funds for global Catholic mission work came from French contributions. The rate of departures of Catholic missionaries from France steadily increased from 1830 on, including priests, brothers, and members of female religious orders. In China ， where French missionaries had already been a substantial fraction, the French soon became a strong majority of all Catholic missionaries—as much as seventy percent or more. When, in 1870, the first Vatican Council defined papal infallibility and affirmed the immediate jurisdiction of the pope throughout the Catholic Church, anticlerical zeal was stoke in France and elsewhere. The Franco-Prussian War saw the capture of Napoleon III himself by Prussian forces and later his departure in to exile. In Paris, the short-lived Commune seemed for a time to revive the Terror of 1793-1794 and its violent anticlericalism. In May 1871 the archbishop pf Paris was executed as were five Jesuits. The establishment of the Third Republic, with its deal of a muscular laïcité , would lead, in 1880, to a decree dissolving the Society of Jesus in France. Of the nearly 3,000 French Jesuits at the time, approximately a third were young Jesuits in formation. For them, houses of studies were established outside France, on the
Summary. In this article analyzing of factors of the term forming of Academies and their scientific works in Oriental countries. Author of the article analyzes Arabic, Turkish and Persian terminology academies in Oriental countries, theoretical ideas of each school on terminology, as well, the role of these academies in the term making. There are many ideas about term formation and theory of term making in these languages and their ways of scientific screening the terms. There are have given conclusions about different and similar parties of terminology works in Arabic, Turkish and Persian terminology.
Most youth groups have a couple of super responsible, super bright students, so why not use their gifts to help them raise money to get to camp?! Setup an after-school tutoring and snack time where these students help other students keep up with their studies. You can limit it to twice a week for a couple of hours after school, and ask your church to let you use one or two of the classrooms. 5. Cow Pattie PLOP