are then: (1) to examine ERPT in import prices for a highly traded, homogeneous commodity; and (2) to examine in a general testing and estimation framework the role of nonlinearities in ERPT. Specifically, we examine the (potentially nonlinear) impacts of exchange rates on U.S. import prices and Canadian export prices for oriented strand board (OSB). Oriented strand board represents an interesting case study for which to examine ERPT at the product level. It is a homogeneous product that is widely used in residential and commercial construction throughout North America. As illustrated in Figure 1, in recent years the U.S. has produced more OSB than Canada, but Canada exports both a far higher amount as well as a greater percentage of its total production than does the United States (on average 84% versus 1.6%). Moreover, as also illustrated in Figure 1 the overwhelming majority of all Canadian OSB exports are destined for the United States. While prior work has examined pass–through issues for international trade in various timber products (see, e.g., Uusivuori and Buongiorno, 1991; Bolkesjø and Buongiorno, 2006), to our knowledge similar questions have not been addressed for panel products manufactured wood products. Taken together the evidence suggests that additional insights into ERPT at the product level can be attained by conducting a careful analysis of U.S. and Canadian OSB price relationships.
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Environmental pressure managed to prohibit forest har- vesting; consequently, wood shortage-shut down of wood industries, unemployment etc. can be seen in some coun- tries including Iran. For instance, after closure of the largest plywood plants in Germany and France , Iran’s plywood plants discontinued their production too. The demand for wood composite products such as oriented strand board (OSB), plywood, medium density fiberboard, hardboard and veneer products has recently increased dis- tinguishably throughout the world . Natural fiber com- posites are also claimed to offer environmental advantages such as reduced dependence on non-renewable energy/ material sources, low density, low cost, non-abrasive nat- ure, easiness of processing, lower pollutant emissions, lower greenhouse gas emissions, enhanced energy recov- ery, and end of life biodegradability of components [2–5]. Alternative raw materials such as fast-growing species, underutilized species, and agricultural residues can play an important role in the particleboard industry in the future .
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and possibly regional OSB price relationships. These include, for example, new capacity that came on–line in 1996-1997 in Canada and in 2006–2007 in the Southeast. As well, an alleged price–fixing scheme among many leading OSB manufacturers was apparently in operation dur- ing much of the 2002–2006 period. For these reasons the basic smooth transition framework was augmented, where appropriate, with time–varying features that allowed for either permanent or transitory changes in regional price relationships. The result is that for each price pair considered a variant of a time–varying STAR, or TV–STAR model was ultimately fitted to the data. By using several measures of goodness–of–fit and model performance we find that the TV–STAR models do a superior job of explaining relative price movements compared to their linear counterparts. Aside from providing confirmation that the Law of One Price—augmented to account for trans- actions costs bands—holds for oriented strand board markets in North America, the TV–STAR results imply that market shocks are more persistent than linear models would suggest.
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The tested wood-based boards were particleboard (PB), oriented strand board (OSB), and medium density fiber- board (MDF). For each type of board, about 30 boards (each measuring 900 9 1,800 mm) were cut into about 540 specimens (each measuring 300 9 300 mm). Twelve 300 9 300 mm specimens were collected as one set for use in the 5-year outdoor exposure test. The weight of each 300 9 300 mm specimen was measured, so as to roughly correspond to the weight of each set when twelve 300 9 300 mm specimens were collected. One set was used for testing the modulus of rupture; another set was used for testing nail joint property. The 300 9 300 mm specimens were set on an exposure stand that faced south at an angle of 90° to the ground, and then four 300 9 300 mm specimens were collected for testing every year. Two 300 9 300 mm specimens were for the modulus of rupture and another two 300 9 300 mm specimens were for nail joint property. The boards were commercial products that did not include such detailed information as binder content. Table 1 lists the abbreviations and basic properties of the boards exposed outdoors. Further details are provided in Ref. .
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was mainly horizontal web shear or buckling, which directed our thinking power to investigate the balance of strength between web and flange parts by either using web materials having different strength properties, e.g., plywood or oriented strand board (OSB) in addition to particleboard and medium density fiberboard, or fabricating low flange density I-beam. However, reason- able compaction ratio (defined as the ratio of the flange density to the strand raw material density) was still required in order not to affect the bending properties as cited in literature. 4,5
KRÁL PAVEL, KLÍMEK PETR, MISHRA PAWAN KUMAR, WIMMER RUPERT, DĚCKÝ DAVID. 2015. Speciﬁ c Modulus and Density Proﬁ le as Characterization Criteria of Prefabricated Wood Composite Materials. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 63(2): 433–438. Wood based product industry has developed and modiﬁ ed a wide range of products to cater changing demands of construction industry. Development of a product necessitates characterization to ensure compliance to established standards. Traditionally a product was characterized by properties like bending properties, density and swelling factor etc. Whereas, advances in technology has introduced more sophisticated parameters which represent a combination of various classical factors and provide more practical and detailed information. In this study, we procured four diﬀ erent types of commercial products, viz. Gypsum board, cement board, oriented strand board and gypsum ﬁ ber board and tried to characterized them using density proﬁ le ratio and stiﬀ ness ratio. We observed some interesting empirical relations between various parameters as represented in various plots.
Abstract Wood-based composites (medium density fiber- board, hardwood plywood, softwood plywood, particle- board, and oriented strand board) treated with a mixture formulation of 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC) and silafluofen using supercritical carbon dioxide as a car- rier solvent were evaluated for their resistance to biological attack in a laboratory study. The formulation was pre- pared by mixing 10 g of IPBC and 1 g of silafluofen in ethanol solution (20 ml). Treatments were conducted at 35°C/7.85 MPa, 35°C/9.81 MPa, and 55°C/11.77 MPa with the direct introduction of 20 ml of the formulation into the treatment vessel with a capacity of ca. 2000 ml at a rate of 2 ml/min. Laboratory tests indicated that the treatment conditions used significantly enhanced the resistance of the treated wood-based composites against fungal and termite attacks. Because no significant difference in efficacy against both biodegrading agents was noticed regardless of the treatment conditions, the treatment at 35°C/7.85 MPa was thought to be the most economical in terms of energy con- sumption and performance of treated materials. However, the amount of biocides in a formulation must be carefully selected in accordance with the required treatment condi- tion to ensure satisfactory performance of the treated wood-based composites against any biological agent. Key words Supercritical carbon dioxide · Biological efficacy · Wood-based composite · 3-Iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC) · Silafluofen
To confirm that uncoating is linked to reverse transcrip- tion, we performed experiments to perturb reverse tran- scription and measure uncoating. To do this, we utilised the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor nevirapine (NVP) to modulate reverse transcription, and took advantage of the ability of TRIMCyp to bind the HIV-1 capsid shell and inhibit replication  to indirectly measure uncoating using a previously published cyclosporine A (CsA) washout assay . HIV-1 particles are only sensi- tive to TRIMCyp inhibition until they have sufficiently uncoated [9, 18–21]. Furthermore, introducing CsA into cells blocks the interaction between TRIMCyp and CA, thus allowing replication to proceed in the presence of TRIMCyp. This can be used to measure uncoating by infecting OMK cells that contain endogenous TRIMCyp in the presence of CsA, and then measuring the abil- ity of TRIMCyp to recognise the CA shell and restrict infection at various times post-infection by removing the CsA . Figure 1a shows the effect on TRIMCyp restric- tion of adding different concentrations of NVP for the first two hours of infection. We observed that: (1) more cells were infected the later CsA was removed from the media presumably as more particles uncoat with time, as previously reported  and (2) NVP treatment increased the length of time that virus particles were sensitive to TRIMCyp in a dose-dependent manner. Further experi- ments were then performed varying the time of addition of 10 μM NVP (Fig. 1d). NVP was added for 4 h start- ing at 0, 1 or 2 h post-infection. This additionally showed that (3) delayed NVP treatment appeared to temporarily pause uncoating until NVP was removed and (4) recov- ery after NVP washout was incomplete. Viral cDNA was isolated from parallel infections following the same NVP treatments and quantified using qPCR (see Table 1 for products measured and primers used). This showed that synthesis of both early (−sscDNA) and late ((+)strand
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Board Examination is productive and induces courage in the minds of students, but in reality it brings more fear. Parents teachers give them too much of pressure for making them to score higher to hit the professional course. This pressure develops stress in students where they are not educated with values but only attaining scores. State board examination in comparison with CBSE has failed to inculcate reasoning ability in students, where they are not able to face the challenge ofcompetitive exams. But in practice board examination BOARD
restriction enzymes, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, and transferred to nylon membranes as specified by the manufacturer (GeneScreen; Dupont NEN Research Products). The probes were hybridized to the nylon membranes and subsequently exposed to autoradiography film (Kodak) and/or a Phosphor- FIG. 1. Structures of SNV-based retroviral vectors and experimental proto- col to determine the relative rates of direct repeat deletions during minus-strand and plus-strand DNA synthesis. (A) All vectors contain a neomycin phospho- transferase gene (neo) and the pBR and F1 origins of replication (ori). The vectors pRB-LLP, pRB-LPL, pRB-PPT, and pVP212 contain a 400-bp lacZa fragment (lac). pWH342 contains the promoter region of the lacZa fragment. pRB-LLP contains a direct repeat of the lacZa fragment 59 of the PPT. pRB- LPL contains one copy of lacZa 59 of the PPT and a second copy of lacZa 39 of the PPT within the U3 region of the 39 long terminal repeat (LTR). The dis- tances between the two copies of the repeated sequences are the same in pRB-LLP and pRB-LPL. All vectors also contain a 110-bp direct repeat (open boxes). The PPT and att site were deleted from both pRB-PPT and pWH342. pVP212 contains one copy of lacZa fragment 59 of the PPT and att site. (B) Experimental protocol. C3A2 helper cells were cotransfected with pRB-LLP or pRB-LPL in the presence of pBSpac, an expression vector which confers resis- tance to puromycin. Pools of puromycin-resistant helper cells were expanded; virus was harvested from the helper cells and used to infect D17 target cells. The infected D17 cells were selected for resistance to G418. Genomic DNAs were isolated from either single-cell clones or pools of G418-resistant cells. The DNAs from single-cell clones were analyzed by PCR, and the DNAs from pools of cells were analyzed by Southern hybridization. Some of the single-cell clones were also analyzed by Southern hybridization.
produced boards differed in the strand orientation distri- bution. Two distinctive orientation types were prepared: (1) bamboo fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member (LBSL) (t = 28 mm); and (2) a typical three- layer assembly with aligned strands on the two surface layers and orthogonally oriented strands in the core layer (BOSB) (t = 15 mm). The weight ratio set of face-to-core- to-back layers of BOSB was 1:2:1. The LBSL and BOSB were used as flanges and webs, respectively. After that, the boards were conditioned in a chamber at 25–30 °C with 60–65% relative humidity. LBSL and BOSB boards were produced in Yunnan Yonglifa Industry Co., Ltd. According to ASTM D1037-12 , bending, tensile and edgewise shear test procedures were adapted to deter- mine mechanical performance of the two boards. The test results are summarized in Table 1 and each experi- ment had six replications.
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Computational model Previous to performing the PTE experimental tests, FEA studies were conducted. Computational models were created using the commer- cial software COMSOL Multiphysics . The first model created investigates the transient heating of a composite material single strand when an incident laser beam in continuous wave (CW) mode shines upon it for a given time. Since the thermal conductivity values in x and in y are different due to the carbon fiber thermal behavior (one is much bigger than the other), an elliptical pattern is expected to be formed on the xy-plane. The mesh used in the simulation is showed in Fig. 8 (the scale is in millimeter). An elliptical boundary was created on the top surface to represent the zone of heat input and a finer mesh was used in this region.
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Women with children work less (-11.5 p.p. in the employment rate) than women without children, while men with children work more than men without children (+6.8 points). This strong influence of parenthood on employment participation is linked to traditional gender roles and the lack of childcare facilities in many Member States. Despite an increase in the provision of childcare over the last few years, in line with the European targets 3 , the coverage rates remain below these targets in many countries, especially for children under 3 years of age. Caring for other dependants also has a strong influence on the possibility of women and men to remain on the labour market, a challenge aggravated by the ageing of the population. In 2005, more than 20 million Europeans aged 15-64 (12.8 million women and 7.6 million men) had care responsibilities for adult dependent persons. This care responsibility plays a role in the low employment rate of women aged 55- 64 (36.8 % in 2008, 18.2 points lower than men’s rate). The lack of adequate work- life balance measures may also influence women’s and men’s decision not to have children or to have fewer children, which is problematic as regards the ageing of the population and the future labour market supply, and consequently economic growth. In countries with favourable conditions for childcare, parental leave and flexible working arrangements, both female employment rates and birth rates are higher. While there has been an increase in the number of women involved in decision making or appointed to decision-making posts in the EU over the last years, power is still firmly in men’s hands in the political and economic spheres. In the EU, on average, only one out of four members of national parliaments and senior ministers in national governments is a woman, even if the situation varies across Member States. Some progress came after the 2009 elections to the European Parliament, where the share of women rose from 31 % to 35 %. In the economic sector, figures are less positive and, for instance, women represent only one out of 10 board members in European blue-chip companies and 3 % among the leaders of the boards. 2.2. Policy and legislative developments
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Southern analyses of DNAs from all three pools of cells gave similar results. A representative example of the Southern blots is shown in Fig. 5B. The expected 2.8- and 1.85-kb bands were observed in DNA samples digested with NcoI plus NotI. When DNA samples were digested with NcoI alone, only the 2.8-kb band was observed. The lack of any detectable 2.0-kb band indicated that DNA initiated from the 5 9 PPT was rarely if ever used for strand transfer. Our Southern analysis can easily de- tect the 2.8-kb band from 1/10 of the amount of DNA used in these samples (Fig. 5B). A 1.6-kb DNA fragment was used in a random-priming reaction to generate the probe. The NcoI site in neo divides the DNA fragment used to generate the probe into two portions; the 5 9 portion contains two-thirds of the DNA length, and the 39 portion contains one-third of the DNA length. As a result, upon an NcoI-plus-NotI double di- gestion of the genomic DNA, the 1.85-kb band is twice as strong as the 2.8-kb band. Because we can easily observe the 2.8-kb band in the 1/10 DNA digest, we should be able to detect half of that amount of the 1.85-kb DNA fragment. The 2.0-kb NcoI fragment hybridizes to the same portion of the probe as the 1.85-kb band; therefore, the detection sensitivities
polymerase collisions. (A) The replication of poliovirus RNA in infected cells and in cell-free replication reactions in vitro is fundamentally different. The initial concentration of viral RNA in the cytoplasm of infected cells is very low. In the infected cell, protein synthesis and RNA replication are codependent since protein synthesis requires RNA replication and vice versa. During the course of the infection, this results in the amplification of the input viral RNA and leads to a circular replication pathway. In contrast, a relatively high concen- tration of input virion RNA is used in the in vitro reactions to achieve maximum rates of protein synthesis. In this case, amplification of the input RNA is not required to achieve maximum rates of protein synthesis and RNA replication in vitro, which leads to a linear replication pathway. (B) Poliovirus RNA is trans- lated before it replicates (30). Translating ribosomes move 5⬘ to 3⬘ on the viral mRNA, while the poliovirus polymerase must initiate negative-strand RNA synthesis at the 3⬘ terminus of the viral RNA and move in a 3⬘-to-5⬘ direction. The results of this study indicate that the poliovirus polymerase is not able to dislodge translating ribosomes from viral mRNA. This suggests that the virus has evolved a different mechanism to regulate the switch from translation to RNA replication to avoid this dilemma which would impede the efficient replication of the viral genome.
In a series of in vivo experiments designed to examine the causes of sequence similarity-induced, high-frequency, posi- tive-to-positive-strand template switching associated with sgm- RNA synthesis in a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) defective in- terfering (DI) RNA system (32, 43, 44), one set was designed to test whether a positive-to-negative-strand template switch could be similarly induced, thereby directly demonstrating by the nature of the product that the RdRp was undergoing neg- ative-strand synthesis at the time of the switch. Such a template switch was found and is reported here. The data also reveal that the switch necessarily occurred in trans from the positive- strand DI RNA donor to the negative-strand viral antigenome acceptor and that an 89-nt-wide acceptor window, a hot spot on the viral antigenome (nt 35 through 123 from the 3 ⬘ end), was used. Interestingly, the 89-nt acceptor hot spot is largely complementary to a previously described 65-nt acceptor hot spot on the positive-strand genome (nt 33 through 97 from the 5 ⬘ end) used for a positive-to-positive-strand template switch (44). In addition, both hot spots overlap cis-acting signals for RNA replication (7, 33) (S. Raman and D. Brian, unpub- lished). The results together lead us to suggest that the coro- navirus template switch-facilitating apparatus, perhaps a component of the transcription complex, is a partially double- stranded structure that contains both the viral genome and antigenome.
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This paper describes the Spot the Difference Corpus which contains 54 interactions between pairs of subjects interacting to find differences in two very similar scenes. The setup used, the participants’ metadata and details about collection are described. We are releasing this corpus of task-oriented spontaneous dialogues. This release includes rich transcriptions, annotations, audio and video. We believe that this dataset constitutes a valuable resource to study several dimensions of human communication that go from turn-taking to the study of referring expressions. In our preliminary analyses we have looked at task success (how many differences were found out of the total number of differences) and how it evolves over time. In addition we have looked at scene complexity provided by the RGB components’ entropy and how it could relate to speech overlaps, interruptions and the expression of uncertainty. We found there is a tendency that more complex scenes have more competitive interruptions.
The moisture contents of fi berboards were determined using fi ve specimens (50 × 50 × 4 mm) from each sample and calculated from the weights of specimens in the above conditions. The factorial design used included three factors: fi ber species (pineapple, ramie, and sansevieria), fi ber type (untreated and steam treated), and board orientation (unioriented and cross oriented). The 12 treatment combi- nations and 2 replications resulted in 24 boards. The list of treatments and board types and the notation used to describe the samples are shown in Table 3.
While one might expect to observe more outside director weighted boards in light of the need for owner representation given the separation of ownership and control (Berle and Means 1932), the utter lack of insider- dominated boards in the broader sample, even when considering affiliated directors as more closely aligned with managerial interests, was surprising. The dominance of agency-oriented boards might be a manifestation of change in board demographics due to Sarbanes-Oxley requirements, or the preponderance of outsider directors could be a response to a dynamic environment that requires greater access to external resources afforded by network connections of the directors. Regardless of the source of an outsider-dominated board, a theoretical expectation set forth under the tenets of agency theory is that a board of this composition performs monitoring of and to some extent exerts control over the actions of the management team. While the evidence did not establish a relationship between board composition and strategic persistence, the prevalence of persistence necessary to attain significant correlations within a sample comprised almost entirely of agency-focused boards calls into question the effectiveness of the board in its monitoring role. Potential sources of this perceived ineffectiveness include the lack of will, organizational knowledge, or political power to influence the TMT, an inability to overcome organizational inertia, a belief that the firm is pursuing beneficial strategic persistence, or an inability to identify dysfunctional strategic persistence. This study did not address the fundamental difference between beneficial persistence and dysfunctional persistence, which may have adversely affected the results as an agency-oriented board might choose to allow or to pursue strategic persistence when a firm is performing well. Future inquiries into strategic persistence might benefit from the incorporation of trends of multi-period performance to better capture the effects of past performance on persistence (Anderson, Banker et al. 2003; Banker, Ciftci et al. 2008).
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This is a good indicator for estimation of the curve of the standard distribution angle for the shape of the curve. In addition, this may be used to predict the strength proper- ties of the panels. As illustrated in Fig. 4, we found a linear relationship between the k value and MOR, which was the mean of eight measurements, with correlation coeffi cient values of 0.81 and 0.93 for UNID and 3LYC boards, respec- tively. The value of MOR increased linearly with increasing value of k, and MOR of UNID board was higher than that of 3LYC board. Similar to the trend in MOR, a linear rela- tionship was also found between k and MOE with correla- tion coeffi cient values of 0.85 and 0.94 for UNID and 3LYC boards, respectively.