Verhoeven, 2003; Koda, 2007). This achievement gap has his origins in the student’s home language environment. Many of the families of L2 students mainly speak their native language in the home setting and the L2 children enter primary education with limited or no proficiency of the Dutch language. Therefore L2 students start learning to read in a language they have not yet fully mastered (August & Shanahan, 2006; Verhoeven, 2011). This achievement gap has an impact throughout the school career of L2 students (Dagevos, Gijsberts, & Van Praag, 2003; Verhoeven & Vermeer, 2006). It has indeed been found that Dutch children with high educated parents make more progress during elementary school than children of poorly educated immigrant parents (Driessen, Van Der Silk, & Van Der Bot, 2002; Luyten & Ten Bruggencate, 2011). Also, the student engagement of second language (L2) students can be affected by the discrepancy between the L2 students’ language skills and the language being used in the school curriculum, making them less confident about their abilities (e.g. Guthrie, Coddington, & Wigfield, 2009).
coastline, _, are controlled for. Larger artiﬁcial units sustain more languages. Areas that entirely belong to a single country display systematically lower ethnic fragmentation, whereas the more real countries a virtual country falls into, the more languages it sustains. This evidence points towards the eﬀect of state formation on ethnic diversity. The distance from the equator itself enters negatively and signi ﬁ cantly, consistent with the prediction that more climatically variable environments lead to lower ethnic diversity. Average land quality does not seem to aﬀect linguisticdiversity signi ﬁ cantly. The variable capturing under water areas, , enters negatively and is marginally statistically signi ﬁ cant losing signi ﬁ cance in the rest of the speciﬁcations. This raises the issue of whether water bodies are a barrier or a facilitator of population mobility. Finally, the distance from the shoreline of an artiﬁcial country, _ does not systematically aﬀect linguisticdiversity. Overall, these geographical characteristics capture 45% of the variation in linguisticdiversity across virtual countries.
To reconcile linguisticdiversity with a largely uniform biological basis for language, our results point to an evolved genetic predisposition to accommodate to the continual cultural evolution of language. Only then can we explain the observed pattern of (i) great variety across the world’s languages; and (ii) that genetic origins have little or no impact on ease with which people learn a given language. We speculate that the cultural evolution of language may have recruited pre-existing brain systems to facilitate its use , , just as reading and writing appear to rely on prior neural substrates . Constraints on these ‘recycled’ neural systems may accordingly have shaped the cultural evolution of language without promoting additional language-specific genetic changes , , , . Thus, linguisticdiversity arises from an evolved genetic adaptation for cultural linguistic evolution, additionally shaped by non-linguistic constraints deriving from a largely uniform biological basis of general perceptual, cognitive, and pragmatic abilities that predate the emergence language.
The tropical zone is strictly defined as the area between the tropics o f Capricorn and Cancer, but for the present purposes, the broader definition o f the area between 30°N and 30°S is preferable, as it captures more o f the area o f the climatic regimes we know as 'equatorial' and 'tropical'. Countries were included if they fall wholly or mostly within this region. I have not extended the analysis to the temperate latitudes for a number o f reasons. Firstly, the growing season formula ceases to realistically reflect the possibilities of food production as one moves out of the tropical zone. In European countries, months may be classified as productive on the basis o f temperature and precipitation, but actually produce no plant growth due to night frosts and short periods o f daylight. Overall, plant growth is much slower than in the tropics due to lower temperatures. It is thus rather meaningless to equate the ecological risk o f the Atlantic coast o f Ireland with that o f Southern Cameroon, on the basis o f the nominal 10 or 11 month growing season that they both have. Secondly, the economies o f the tropical countries are more rural and more dominated by subsistence activities than those o f most o f the temperate countries. The linguistic mix o f many European countries today tells us more about the industrial revolution and subsequent waves o f economic immigration than about traditional patterns o f subsistence and exchange. Thirdly, most temperate countries have far less linguisticdiversity than tropical ones - often approximating one country, one language, so there is much less variance to work with from a statistical point o f view, and the figures are likely to be proportionately highly affected by recent population movements.
33 these systems, there are some good reasons for using the IUCN Red List system deve- loped by biologists to assess the status of a language. Firstly, if children are no longer speaking their parental language, unless there is great e ort to revitalize the mother tongue, it is inevitable that the language will move up through the categories towards extinction. However, if a language that is close to extinction were to undergo a massive revitalization e ort, it would not move back down through the categories as irst the grandparents, then parents and inally children learn to speak the language once again. The linguistic categories assume there is one way tra c up the ladder to extinction. But it should be possible to track a reversal in the fortunes of a language dropping back down the categories, which is the case if the Red List criteria are applied. Secondly, the status of a language may change from location to location, or even from family to family, as children could be speaking their mother tongue in some places, while only parents or grandparents use the language in others. The Red List criteria are not concerned with the age of the speakers, only the total numbers. Of course, the end result of a breakdown in inter-generational transmission will be a decline in speaker numbers, so the Red List cri- teria are focusing on the ultimate e ect rather than the direct causes of endangerment. The linguistic criteria recognize that a language may be safe or vigorous even if it is only spoken by a very small population, as long as inter-generational transmission is uninterrupted. The biological criteria conversely consider a language to be threatened simply if the number of speakers is below a critical threshold (1,000 for vulnerable, 250 for endangered, 50 for critically endangered), even if there is no decline through the generations. This is justiiable as it is precisely when the mass of speakers is small that a language could be threatened by a shift away from the mother tongue towards a more dominant language by means of unforeseen events extraneous to the process of intergenerational language transmission.
If this is the case with just 2 families, one can only imagine what happens when evaluating 3, 4 and more families. Our objective was not to impress but to demonstrate the significance of our results. There are various problems when dealing with clan AA. In fact, this enzyme group is a conundrum that cannot be resolved with elegant analyses but by doing a lot of work usually in the border of the sig- nificance, which should be therefore confirmed by vari- ous analyses. Upon that, the set developed in this study works, we tested the different HMMs and MRCs with a genome project, where they proved excellent to detect and annotate new sequences. However, as the point we see the large diversity of clan AA, each protein family is a particu- lar case to study and the study of all cases gives the back- ground to evaluate the whole enzyme group. Our database project describes different tools (and will proba- bly describe more, see our response to referee 2) which can be used in many aspects. However, it is also a long term research where we investigate the origins and diver- sity of clan AA. To have significant results we should made different analyses in different ways. For instance, the only way to resolve by significant means the DTG/ILG tem- plate, as a logo as an informative profile, was by anchor- ing the MRCs and reconstructing various intermediate states by AMLR. The whole pipeline is a daunting task, but it has given as various clues to programme several scripts to process and align not only clan AA but also other fast evolving protein families. We have rewritten the manu- script with a more appropriate language and have removed unnecessary material as much as possible such as the former Tables of BLAST statistic included in the database (to show that the different HMMs and MRCs were tested). We hope that this additional correction will give a more appropriate and easy-to-use aspect to the data- base. See also our response to referee 2.
is monomorphic in genotype A. However, phenetic variation is well established on the latter continent. Several strains tend to lose sporulation and become waxy, with an abundant produc- tion of colored metabolites. Such cultures are phenotypically similar to T. gourvilii and T. soudanense. If we take into account that T. violaceum and T. yaoundei also have a degenerate, nonsporulating morphology, it may be that these phenotypic transitions in the fungus have taken place in tropical Africa, since they are not observed on other continents. Local trans- mission may take place in resident populations by contami- nated skin flakes, either directly from human to human or via environmental propagules. The emerged diversity underlines the probability of an ancient African history of the T. rubrum complex. The widespread occurrence of genotype A in (rural) Africa, with phenetic variants already known since the early 20th century, suggests that the African origin of the species must antedate the supposed pandemic that started in Asia. This seems in conflict with the low degree of molecular varia- tion in Africa, i.e., with only genotype A being present. If we consider T. rubrum to form a single species complex with T. violaceum (C) and T. yaoundei (D), the highest degree of molecular variation in T1 is indeed found in Africa. The Asian genotype A then probably originated from Africa through an early bottleneck.
Finally, a word on methodology is in order. Although tracing the Arabic origins of English, German, French, Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit words works well by, actually cannot be carried out without, following the routes outlined in their etymologies such as Harper (2015), there are countless instances in which the derivation is not only uncertain or unknown but also seems implausible, complicated, and too lengthy. In many cases like accredit, abide, allow, appeals, authentication, authorization, bequeath, canonical, conciliation, consultation, court, credentials, criminal, decree, discipline, extradition, facilitate, justice, legal, loyal, plead, register, record, sheriff, summons, violation, etc., a direct derivation from Arabic is shorter and more logical, which, at the same time, preserves both the form and meaning of cognate words.
On one level, their idea is not controversial: in order to substantiate any claims about linguistic and cognitive universals, the diversity of this world needs to be taken into account. Yet, our generalizations about human language and cognition tend to be based on a biased sample of languages from the so-called WEIRD populations (i.e., Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic; a term coined by Henrich et al. 2010), bear- ing in mind that the extent of the bias is different in different subdisciplines (outlined below). Problematic aspects of this bias are explored in typological research (e.g., Cysouw 2002; 2011; Dahl 1990; Haspelmath 2001; Henrich et al. 2010; Lüpke 2010a), anthro- pological research (e.g., Schieffelin and Ochs 1986 and, more generally, within the language socialization paradigm) and cross-cultural psycholinguistic research (e.g., Keller 2007; Lieven and Stoll 2009). This research shows that, on the one hand, the languages of our sample are too similar to each other: many of them are related, they share typological features and they are spoken and acquired in similar socio-cultural environments. On the other hand, our sample is probably unusual from a world-wide perspective: it exhibits sometimes unusual typological features, and it is spoken and acquired in unusual socio- cultural environments. More generally, our sample does not reflect the diversity attested in the world, and this has obvious consequences for the validity of our models and theories (for some illustrations of the relevance of cross-linguistic data for theory-build- ing, see, e.g., Slobin and Bowerman 2007 (for language acquisition), or Norcliffe et al. 2015 (for language processing)).
As signalled by Exley et al. (in press), there are also tensions in ‘exporting’ both functional and process writing approaches into a Pacific context, opening the potential ‘to irreversibly erode or displace local cultural values, and at a more subversive level, raise concerns about the reproduction of traditional colonial hierarchies of power and control, especially when Western facilitators deliver to non-Western participants’ (p. 2). However, the project can also be seen as a multinational rather than imperialistic tool, offering opportunities for active and discerning engagement by participants (Exley et al., in press). Findings can be aligned with those of Frank, Carpenter and Smith (2003), who discovered when working with a group of linguistically diverse teachers, that ‘by engaging in the process of writing themselves, these teachers begin to regard themselves as active knowledge generators, learning how to create a more culturally relevant curriculum in their own classrooms’ (p. 194). ITAP can be seen as a valuable resource for supporting Fijian teachers to provide contextualised instruction towards ensuring, as stated in the Fijian curriculum framework, proficiency in the vernacular and English, and preservation of the country’s ‘rich cultural diversity’ (p. 30).
The entire millennial experience of humankind, traversed from one pre-language to today's more than seven thousand languages, attests to the constant process of enriching cultures. Children who enter rural schools directly from the family home (and there is an overwhelming majority in the world) bring with them ready-made forms of thinking in the mother language: knowledge about all the phenomena of nature, the surrounding world, social life, etc. Such diversity contains in itself the superhuman beauty of special and unique formation of the human personality, as well as the special and unique formation of worlds in the infinite universe. Therefore, artificial attempts undertaken by individual representatives of various philosophical or ideological schools of thought to return humankind to the original proto-language and monoculture is, in our deep conviction, destructive and capable of casting back humankind many million years back.
The separation of Japanese varieties has slowly been negated by sustained contact between communities that are geographically close: contact leads to accommodation, which causes varieties to resemble each other more and more as time passes. As a result, we found negative coefficients for time since divergence in our analyses. This effect appears to be strongly driven by the Tokyo variety. The time calibration by Lee and Hasegawa  puts it among the oldest clade, but its status as mixed variety (of Eastern and Western Japanese characteristics) that has become the de facto standard has caused it to resemble varieties from both subgroups over time. Interestingly, the relationship between geographic and linguistic distance was linear throughout the entire area, which goes against the general sublinear trend found in other lan- guage areas (Bantu, Bulgaria, Germany, US East Coast, the Netherlands, and Norway; see ). This indicates that Japanese is a true dialect continuum without any gaps, whereas the sublinear trend found in previously studied language areas could point to the presence of clearly defined, i.e., more isolated, subgroups. It appears that the isolation of subgroups
As signalled by Exley et al., (in press), there are also tensions in ‘exporting’ both functional and process writing approaches into a Pacific context, opening the potential ‘to irreversibly erode or displace local cultural values, and at a more subversive level, raise concerns about the reproduction of traditional colonial hierarchies of power and control, especially when Western facilitators deliver to non-Western participants’ (p. 2). However, the project can also be seen as a multinational rather than imperialistic tool, offering opportunities for active and discerning engagement by participants (Exley et al., in press). Findings can be aligned with those of Frank, Carpenter and Smith (2003), who discovered when working with a group of linguistically diverse teachers, that ‘by engaging in the process of writing themselves, these teachers begin to regard themselves as active knowledge generators, learning how to create a more culturally relevant curriculum in their own classrooms’ (p. 194). ITAP can be seen as a valuable resource for supporting Fijian teachers to provide contextualised instruction towards ensuring, as stated in the Fijian curriculum framework, proficiency in the vernacular and English, and preservation of the country’s ‘rich cultural diversity’ (p. 30).
In both approaches, we also investigated whether children ’s language background (L1 vs. L2) adds to the prediction of reading comprehension over and above the key predictors. Although language background was related to reading comprehension across the ability range (as shown by the individual quantile regression), in both the classical and quantile multiple regression analyses, language background did not explain additional variance over and above the variance accounted for by the key predictors. This was even the case at the lower ability level, where the performance gap between L1 and L2 readers was largest. Hence, the current study demonstrated that the prediction of reading comprehension is similar for beginning L1 and L2 readers because the key predictors (i.e., decoding skills, vocabulary, and morphosyntactic knowledge) were equally important for L1 and L2 readers, and individual differences in these skills were sufficient to explain the L1 –L2 performance gap in early reading comprehension across the distribution. This contrasts with Lesaux et al. ( 2006 ), who found that after controlling for several linguistic and cognitive predictors, children ’s language status (ESL vs. EL1) still explained unique variance in fourth-grade reading comprehension perfor- mance. However, Lesaux et al. ( 2006 ) did not control for decoding skills and vocabulary knowledge, which are two central components of reading comprehension. Not including vocabulary knowledge, which is one of the most prominent differences between monolingual and bilingual children (Bialystok, Luk, Peets, & Yang, 2010 ), is likely to account for the additional variance explained by language background in Lesaux et al. ( 2006 ). In line with our findings, Babayi ğit ( 2014 ) also found that individual differences in oral language skills (i.e., vocabulary and morphosyntactic skills) explained the differences in fifth-grade reading comprehension between L1 and L2 readers of English.
All this means, in other words, that the case law of the ECJ somehow regarding language issues will always constitute an obstacle for national rules aiming to improve multiculturalism (e.g. minority protection) as long as EC- law does not expressly allow the Court to also apply the principle of substantive equality and thus establish a balance between principles that are equally protected by the treaties. As already stated above, if member states want to effectively protect their special legislation on linguistic/cultural diversity, and therefore to affirm their internal pluralism, they must provide the EU with at least some competence in this regard. By doing so, they will enable the ECJ to take into consideration and to balance not only economic freedoms, but also the protection of diversity as an European value.
Signs of declining diversity are detected in a range of features, for example soft mutations; that is, the replacement of voiceless with voiced consonants in certain environments, as in [k], [p] and [t] becoming [g], [b] and [d]. “[W]hile still used in a historically appropriate way by two-thirds or more of the adult informants”, it “was far more unstable amongst the younger generation who, in most cases, omitted it altogether” (Jones 1998: 59). Similarly: “Adjective lenition after a feminine noun was not well preserved”, and “the ‘tip’ had obviously occurred with the younger generation” (Jones 1998: 66). Of education, Jones (1998: 71) notes: “The high instance of soft mutation made in feminine nouns after the numeral un (‘one’) and the relatively high maintenance of gender-marked numerals also suggests that these are grammar points which may have been emphasized in the classroom”.
Through highlighting the practices that exemplary Head Start teachers use to promote and affirm cultural and linguisticdiversity among preschool children, this research will contribute to the field by providing insight into how teachers can continue serving diverse learners in early childhood settings. As teachers continue to learn and apply these practices, it is my hope that children in their classrooms will become confident in their own identities and see others as individuals who are equally important and indispensable. The fabric of the United States has always, and still does, consist of numerous cultures and nationalities woven together to form a land that is abundant in opportunity and liberty. Instead of belittling certain pieces of this quilt or marginalizing certain populations based on their differences, children should learn that unity is possible even with diversity; schools and early childhood education classrooms are uniquely positioned to convey this message to young students.
Creating an enabling environment for literacy acquisition also means raising staff awareness of the difficulties that English second-language learners (ESL) face when attempting to write an academic essay or read an academic text. In addition, academic staff need guidance to facilitate literacy acquisition in the content areas. Just such an intervention is described below. Another implication of the above theoretical approach is that we embrace and acknowledge diversity and the social capital (Bourdieu and Passeron 1990, 115)) that our students bring to the learning situation. It is also the responsibility of the institution to understand and recognise the ways in which our students’ prior learning experiences have influenced their literacy practices. For example, if students have been socialised to rote memorise and learn answers dictated by the educators, then that student will have great difficulty finding answers to problems and formulating a written response to a prompt that requires much reading, selection and synthesis. Students’ prior learning is influenced by micro- and macro level social contexts such as the legacy of Apartheid education, which still lingers. Many schools still do not have libraries and many teachers still lack the content knowledge and the English language proficiency required to produce successful readers and writers (Hugo and Nieman 2010; Nel and Muller 2010). Reading and writing are not systematically taught as discipline-based content areas in schools with teachers opting for what Rubagumya (2003,162) calls ‘safe talk’, which means copying from the blackboard and chorus answers from pupils and repeating what the teacher has said. These types of prior learning experiences do not encourage the development of cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP), which is needed for success at tertiary level (Cummins 1984; 2009).
The combination of relief and insular and mountainous topography, as in most islands of the southwest Indian Ocean, is at the origin of the diversity of these habitats. Natural habitats that have been colonized in geological times by migrating plant and animal species from the nearest continental areas . It is more particularly Africa and Madagascar. It is during the process of adaptation and evolution of the various taxa, in this "closed vessel", that the great biodiversity, nowadays recognized, of these islands has been shaped , . The work of , based on inventories and herbarium specimens established the diversity of Mayotte, the island of the oldest archipelago and the closest to Madagascar, and highlighted the predominance of species of Malagasy origin in the vegetation of the island.