Oroxylum indicum (L) Vent antimicrobial activity

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Comparative studies on the antimicrobial activity of watery leafy extracts from lawsonia inermis l (henna), oroxylum indium (l )Vent (midnight horror) and melastoma melabathricum l  (malabar )

Comparative studies on the antimicrobial activity of watery leafy extracts from lawsonia inermis l (henna), oroxylum indium (l )Vent (midnight horror) and melastoma melabathricum l (malabar )

Oroxylum indicum. (L.) (midnight horror) decoction is given in treating rheumatic pain, enlarged spleen (Khare, 2004), ulcer, cough, and bronchitis. Mature Fruits are acrid, sweet, anthelmintic, and stomachic. They are useful in pharyngodynia, cardiac disorders, gastropathy, bronchitis, haemarrhoids, cough, piles, jaundice, dyspepsia, smallpox, leucoderma and cholera (Kala, 2011). Seeds are used as purgative. Dried seed powder is used by women to induce conception. Seeds yield non-drying oil used in perfume industry. The seeds are ground with fire soot and the paste is applied to the neck for quick relief of tonsil pain. The seeds are used in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine, included in famous tonic formulations such as Chyawanprash (Olaleye, 2007). Bark decoction is taken for curing gastric ulcer and a paste made of the bark powder is applied for mouth cancer, scabies and other skin diseases. The medicated oil of O. indicum in sesame oil base instilled into ears mitigates the pain in otitis (Warrier, 1995) and fiber. Roots are sweet, astringent, bitter, acrid, refrigerant (Yoganarasimhan, 1996) antiinflammatory, anodyne, aphrodisiac, expectorant, appetizer, carminative, digestive, anthelmintic, constipating, diaphoretic, diuretic, antiarthritic, antidiabetic and febrifuges. Tonic is useful in dropsy, cough, sprains neuralgia, hiccough, asthma, bronchitis, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, diarrhea, dysentery, strangury, gout, vomiting, leucoderma, wounds, rheumatoid arthritis and fever. Root bark is used in stomatitis, nasopharyngeal cancer and tuberculosis (Bhattacharje, 2005). Leaves are used as stomachic, carminative and flatulent. Several workers have reported different biochemical activities of O. indicum in various in vivo and in vitro test models. Different part of this plant have been found to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-mutagenic, photocytotoxic, anti- arthritic, immunostimulant, hepatoprotective, anti-proliferative and hepatoprotective activities.
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EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS AND DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF STEM BARK AND FRUITS OF OROXYLUM INDICUM

EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS AND DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF STEM BARK AND FRUITS OF OROXYLUM INDICUM

Helminths are most common infectious agents of humans in developing countries, but current medications to control the worm infections are limited due to lack of lucrative market place and little knowledge about the unique biochemical metabolism of parasitic worms. [1,2] In recent times, medicinal plants occupy a considerable position for being the paramount sources of drug discovery irrespective of its categorized groups- herb, shrub or tree. [3] Oroxylum indicum (Linn.) Vent is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. [4] The crude methanolic extract of Oroxylum indicum bark and fruits with different soluble partitionates were subjected to investigate for the evaluation of analgesic, hypoglycemic, CNS depressant and antidiarrheal activity on mice and thrombolytic, antihelmentic, antimicrobial, antioxidant along with cytotoxicity different in vivo experiment. The anthelmintic activity of methanolic bark and fruits extract of Oroxylum indicum caused paralysis at 8.8 min and 9 min respectively and time of death were 13.4 min and 14 min respectively with 100 mg/ml against the earthworm Pheretima posthuma. The standard drug Albendazole at 10 mg/ml conc. showed the same at 4.1 and 6.8 min. respectively. This reveals that methanol extracts of bark and fruits of Oroxylum indicum showed significant anthelmintic activity.
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In Vitro Antioxidant and Preliminary Hepatoprotective Activity of Oroxylum Indicum Vent Leaf Extracts

In Vitro Antioxidant and Preliminary Hepatoprotective Activity of Oroxylum Indicum Vent Leaf Extracts

Oroxylum indicum Vent. Family Bignoniaceae, commonly known as Indian caper, is a climbing shrub found through out India and has been used as a ‘Rasayana’ drug in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine. The plants are used for curing stomach disorders, diarrhea, dysentery and rheumatic swelling (1). The root bark is used in fever, bronchitis, intestinal worms, asthma, inflammation, anal troubles etc. The fruit and seeds are used as expectorant, purgative and bitter tonic (2). In Hindu the root, bark, stem and leaf are prescribed for snake bite(3). The leaves of the plant are also reported for its analgesic (4) and antimicrobial (5) activity. The plant contain flavonoids such as chrysin (5, 7- dihydroxyflavone), oroxylin A (5, 7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone), baicalein (5, 6, 7- trihydroxyflavone) and baicalein glycoside, benzoic acid and fatty acids. Ethanol –CH 2 Cl 2 -
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EVALUATION OF ANTI DIARRHEAL PROPERTY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS AND DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF STEM BARK AND FRUITS OF OROXYLUM INDICUM

EVALUATION OF ANTI DIARRHEAL PROPERTY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS AND DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF STEM BARK AND FRUITS OF OROXYLUM INDICUM

Globally one in nine children deaths occur due to diarrheal diseases, making diarrhea the second leading cause of death among children under the age of five. [1] Specially, for Third World countries, millions of people are dying of it every year. [2] From the ancient time plants have been using as source of new drugs. [3] In this experiment, crude Methanolic extract of Oroxylum indicum bark and fruits with different soluble parts were subjected to investigate for the evaluation of antidiarrheal activity on mice in vivo experiment. Twenty eight adult Swiss albino mice (mus domesticus) were divided into seven groups for the experiment. Each group received a particular treatment i.e. control, standard, single dose of Methanolic crude extract and its different fractions of bark and fruits of Oroxylum indicum. Castor oil was used for the induction of diarrhea in mice. The methanolic crude extract and its different fractions (Ethyl acetate fraction, Dichloromethane fraction, Hexane fraction, Carbon tetrachloride fraction) (400mg/kg) cause reduction of diarrheal feces by 50%, 31.4%, 52.3%, 34.9%, 53.551.2%. The methanolic crude extract of fruit and its different fractions (Ethyl acetate fraction, Dichloromethane fraction,
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“Phytochemical and
Pharmacological Profile of Abutilon indicum L. Sweet : A Review” by Archna Sharma, R.A.
Sharma, Hemlata Singh, India.

“Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Abutilon indicum L. Sweet : A Review” by Archna Sharma, R.A. Sharma, Hemlata Singh, India.

Eudesmic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid have been isolated and identified first time from the methanol extract of leaves of Abutilon indicum. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against medicinally important bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and for antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The antimicrobial activity was performed by agar diffusion assay (Disc diffusion method). The compound Eudesmic acid showed maximum inhibition zone for E. coli whereas the compound ferulic acid showed maximum inhibition zone for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. None of the three compounds of methanol extracts could inhibit Bacillus subtilis. But Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most susceptible bacteria, while Bacillus subtilis was the most resistant bacteria which was comparable to that of standard Chloramphenicol. Compound ferulic acid and caffeic acid showed good antifungal activity against Asperigillus niger and Candida albicans which was comparable to that of standard Amphotericin -B. 21 The methanolic leaf extracts were subjected to antimicrobial analysis against pathogenic microbes. The overall antibacterial analysis revealed maximum against Bacillus substilis and minimum against Salmonella typhi and anti fungal activity was maximum against Aspergillus niger and minimum against Aspergillus fumigatus. 33
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EVALUATION OF CARDIOTONIC EFFECT OF HYDROALCOHOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF NERIUM INDICUM: AN ANIMAL STUDY

EVALUATION OF CARDIOTONIC EFFECT OF HYDROALCOHOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF NERIUM INDICUM: AN ANIMAL STUDY

and is rightly called the Botanical garden of the world (1).Some 130 drugs are currently used which are chemical entities either as direct extract from plant or modifying through further synthesis (2).According to WHO over 80% of the world people rely on traditional herbs based system of medicine to provide them with primary healthcare (3). CCF is a progressive complex clinical syndrome characterised by dyspnoea, fatigue, fluid retention and hypertension. The main cause of C.C.F. is coronary artery disease. Current pharmacological therapy for CCF is Digitalis, ACE Inhibitors, ACE antagonist, Diuretics. Digoxin is the main drug to treat the CCF. Having low margin of safty and may produce toxicity. So to discover the potential drug with less toxicity & wide margin of safty Narium indicum belongs to family Apocynaceae. It is cultivated throught india. It contains sterol glycoside like digitalis and claimed for its cardiotonic activity. Neriun indicum has also claimed to have medicinal properties like Diuretic, anthelmintics (4) Neriun indicum has been investigated for cardiotonic activity(5,6), antifungal, Antispasmotic & anticancer(7 8 ) keeping in view the limitation of available cardiotonic claim on the plant, the present study has been undertaken to evaluate the cardiotonic activity of Nerium Indicum.
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IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SELECTED INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SELECTED INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

so toxic that lethal effects were well known. Antimicrobial properties of medicinal plants are being increasingly reported from different parts of the world. 4,5,6 Numerous studies have been carried out on various natural products screening their antimicrobial activity. 7,8, 9, 10 Besides small molecules from medicinal chemistry, natural products are still major sources. In India plant Abultilon indicum (Malvaceae) used for Diabetes, thirst, Painful menses, Hemorrhoids, Infusion, poultice or paste for Boils, and ulcers. Adenocalymma alliaceum (Bignoniaceae) garlic creeper leaves are used as astringent. Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) latex from the leaves has been used as antihelmints and for the treatment of infections of bacterial origin. 11 Crotolaria laburnifilia (Fabaceae) infusion used as gargle. Derris scandens (Fabaceae) tender stems and twigs crushed,
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ANTIDIARRHEAL, ANTIDIABETIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM (VENT.)

ANTIDIARRHEAL, ANTIDIABETIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM (VENT.)

moderate diabetes that exhibited glycosuria and hyperglycemia (i.e., blood glucose concentration >200 mg/dL) were taken for the experiment. Experimental Design for Antidiabetic Activity Study: Fifteen mice were divided in to five groups as Group I: normal rats received only distilled water during the experimental period, Group II: diabetic control rats received only distilled water during the experimental period, Group III: diabetic mice administered 500 mg/kg sample, Group IV: diabetic mice administered 250 mg/kg sample, Group V: diabetic mice administered 0.25 mg/kg glibenclamide.
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Efficient use of acetone extractive of Oroxylum indicum for the improvement of quality of silk in silkworm Bombyx mori (L.) (Race: PM x CSR2)

Efficient use of acetone extractive of Oroxylum indicum for the improvement of quality of silk in silkworm Bombyx mori (L.) (Race: PM x CSR2)

The serial two fold dilution of the samples followed by the visibility of the zone in electrophoresis was used to score activity intensity of the zone. Relative mobility indicates (Table-1) that the Rm value is 57.142 in the middle region. 1- naphthyl acetate was used as a substrate to score the activity of esterases on gels. The esterase patterns obtained indicate that the silk gland in control and in the treated (5 ppm, 10 ppm and 20 ppm) group of larvae showed a single hyper active band in 5 ppm and 10 ppm concentrations of bark extract which leave heavy deposition of 1-naphthol on the cathodal side of the bands after staining and that the relative mobility (Rm value) is 57.142 (Table-1) in the middle region.
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Evaluation of effect of Oroxylum indicum leaves on Central Nervous System with special emphasis on epilepsy

Evaluation of effect of Oroxylum indicum leaves on Central Nervous System with special emphasis on epilepsy

The plant of Oroxylum indicum is reported to possess anti-epileptic activity in ethnomedicine books. So, looking for dire need of a new, safe and economical anti-epileptic agent we focused to investigate anti-epileptic potential of Oroxylum indicum. Methanolic extract of Oroxylum indicum leaves was prepared & subjected for various animal models to evaluate anti-epileptic activity. Anti-epileptic activity was evaluated by PTZ and MES induced seizure model followed by CNS-depressants action by Actophotometer apparatus. Methanolic extract of Oroxylum indicum shown significant decrease in time of Myoclonic jerk and tonic flexation in PTZ model & decrease in time of tonic convulsion and clonic expansion in MES model. This study also shown that number of cut-off is also decrease in actophotometer. (Significance level P < 0.005 ≈ highly significant). Animal model show remarkable beneficial effect in PTZ induced seizure as well as MES induced seizure. Along with that study on Actophotometer revealed that MEOI can act as CNS-depressants. Considering all these findings, we can conclude that Methanolic extract of Oroxylum indicum leaves possess CNS-depressant activity which can be therapeutically useful in management of Epilepsy.
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GC MS ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SEED OIL OF BROUSSONETIA PAPYRIFERA (L ) VENT

GC MS ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SEED OIL OF BROUSSONETIA PAPYRIFERA (L ) VENT

ABSTRACT: The current study focuses on evaluating chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of seed oil of Broussonetia papyrifera; a widely used Chinese medicinal plant. The chemical constituents of the oil were evaluated by GC-MS analysis. Antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. The seed oil contains 46 different phytoconstituents where major compounds were hexadecanoic acid (43.6%), heptadecene-8-carbonic acid (17.5%) and caryophyllene (8.4%). Seed oil exhibited inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, and Enterobacter aerogenes, while it showed no such inhibitory effect on fungal strains. The studies revealed that majority of the compounds in oil were saturated fatty acids and their derivatives. The oil possessed significant antibacterial activity against selected bacterial strains while tested fungal strains were completely resistant to B. papyrifera seed oil.
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Hypoglycemic Activity of Extracts of Oroxylum Indicum (L.) Vent Roots In Animal Models

Hypoglycemic Activity of Extracts of Oroxylum Indicum (L.) Vent Roots In Animal Models

India leads the world with largest number of diabetic subjects earning the dubious distinction of being termed as “diabetes capital of the world” unless urgent preventive steps are taken. The so called “Asian Indian Phenotype” refers to certain unique clinical and biochemical abnormalities in Indians which include increased insulin resistance, greater abdominal adiposity i.e., higher waist circumference despite lower body mass index, lower adiponectin and high sensitive C- reactive protein levels. In present study, the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Oroxylum indicum roots were examined in alloxan and dexamethasone induced diabetic rats. The extracts at 500 and 300 mg/kg produced a significant decrease in plasma glucose levels when compared with diabetic control group in alloxan induced diabetes and dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in rats. Phytochemical investigations were also accomplished and presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and glycosides were recognized in extracts.
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FORMULATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ABUTILON INDICUM LOADED SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES AGAINST MICROORGANISMS CAUSING DIABETIC FOOT AND URINARY TRACT INFECTION

FORMULATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ABUTILON INDICUM LOADED SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES AGAINST MICROORGANISMS CAUSING DIABETIC FOOT AND URINARY TRACT INFECTION

Herbal remedies are more acceptable and preferable ones in the treatment of different types of diseases, bacterial and fungal infections. There are many medicinal plant extracts have been known to possess the antimicrobial activity and are used for the treatment of microbial infections due to the presence of certain active chemical constituents like tannins etc which are effectively fight against wide range of both Gram- positive and Gram-negative microbes.

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 CLERODENDRON INDICUM: A REPERTOIRE OF PHYTOCHEMICALS AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

 CLERODENDRON INDICUM: A REPERTOIRE OF PHYTOCHEMICALS AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

in our body. Moreover, a positive co-relation between total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity has been reported (Oki et al., 2002). The crude ethanolic extract of leaves of C. indicum attributed with antinociceptive activity due to presence of p olyphenols, tannin and saponin (Raihan et al., 2012). Ethanol extract of C. vicosum (Prasanth et al., 2012) root and methanol extract of C. infortunatam (Das et al., 2010) have been reported to have anti-inflammatory activities due to presence of polyphenols and flavonoids. In this context, it can be said that, the polyphenols and flavonoids present in the EE and HE extracts of the C. indicum play crucial role not only as antioxidants but also diverse pharmacological properties as mentioned earlier. Our studies on such activities clearly showed positive results in this direction.
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ANTI ULCER ACTIVITY OF HELIOTRPIUM INDICUM LEAVES EXTRACT

ANTI ULCER ACTIVITY OF HELIOTRPIUM INDICUM LEAVES EXTRACT

The objective of present study is to evaluate the anti ulcer activity of ethanol extract of leaves of Heliotropium indicum. The ethanol extract of H. indicum was investigated for its anti ulcer activity against Aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats, HCl- Ethanol induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress induced ulcer in rats. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer inhibition in aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer model. The number of lesions in HCI-Ethanol induced peptic ulcer model and mean score value of ulcer inhibition in water immersion stress induced ulcer model. A significant antiulcer activity of plant extract was observed in all the models. Pylorus ligation model showed significant reduction in gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. Also extract showed significant ulcer inhibition in HCl- Ethanol induced ulcer and ulcer protection index in stress induced ulcer. This present study indicates that Heliotropium indicum leaves extract have potential anti ulcer activity in the three models tested.
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Pharmacologicals and Phytochemicals Potential of Abutilon indicum: A Comprehensive Review

Pharmacologicals and Phytochemicals Potential of Abutilon indicum: A Comprehensive Review

Abstract: Abutilon indicum (Bengali name: Jhampi, Petari, Indian name: Atibala, family: Malvaceae) is extensively grown in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan. The pharmacologicals and biologicals properties and chemicals constituents from the plant A. indicum (L.) which is widely used in folk medicine. A. indicum (Malvaceae) is a hairy under-shrub with golden yellow flowers, found in hotter parts of India.This plant is often used as a medicinal plant and is considered invasive on certain tropical islands. In traditional medicine, A. indicum is used as a aphrodisiac, demulcent, diuretic, laxative, pulmonary and sedative (leaves). The bark is astringent and diuretic; laxative, expectorant and demulcent (seeds); laxative and tonic, anti-inflammatory and anthelmintic (plant); analgesic (fixed oil); diuretic and for leprosy (roots). The plant is very much used in Siddha medicines. In fact, the bark, root, leaves, flowers and seeds are all used for medicinal purposes by Tamils. The leaves are also used to treat for pile complaints. The flowers are traditionally used to increase semen in men. The phytochemical analysis showed the Presence of Alkaloid, Saponins, Amino acid, Flavonoids, Glycosides and steroids. This plant exhibits several potential pharmacological activities.
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 EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF HELIOTROPIUM INDICUM LEAVES

 EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF HELIOTROPIUM INDICUM LEAVES

Aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts induced significant wound-healing activity against all the wound models studied. High rate of wound contraction, decrease in the period for epithelialisation, high skin breaking strength and granulation strength, increase in dry granulation tissue weight were observed in treated animals when compared to the control group of animals. There was significant increase in hydroxyproline, protein, collagen contents and decrease in lipid peroxide level in treated animals. Results of the study confirmed the prominent wound healing activity of the test extracts. Ethanol extract of H.indicum possesses better wound healing property compared to the aqueous extract.
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Evaluation of the biological activity of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptiaca essential oils and fatty constituents as Anticipated Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents

Evaluation of the biological activity of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptiaca essential oils and fatty constituents as Anticipated Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents

The popularity of essential oils and extracts from plants is of importance for the characterization of bioactive components that could be used in food processing and several pharmaceutical applications [1, 2]. Formerly, in folk medicine, the essential oils were used for the treatment of many infectious illnesses [2]. The development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has necessitated the search of novel antimicrobial drugs from the natural origin such as plants [3, 4]. Consequently, diverse applications of essentials oils or plants against pathogenic microbial strains in a large scale including antibiotic-resistant bacterial, fungal and yeast species have been developed [5-8]. Capparis spinosa var. aegyptiaca (Lam.) Boiss (Capparaceae) comprises about 250 different species. It is characterized by its economic importance [9, 10]. There are six species of genus Capparis in Egypt [11]. It is called the caper and grows in the deserts as a perennial winter-deciduous plant that have leaves in a round shape, fleshy, and alternate and the completed flowers are thick, shiny, large white to pinkish- white. It is an edible plant. It is globally founded in dry rocky and desert regions of the Mediterranean, Iran, India, Armenia, and Pakistan [9, 12]. Capparis species are well known for their nutritional value and active chemical constitutes present like phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, phytosterols, vitamins, and organic acids. It possesses wide antimicrobial spectrum including antibacterial and antifungal activity in addition to their antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anticancer, antiallergic, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antihyperlipidemic along with their uses in the traditional medicine for controlling of many diseases. The leaves, roots and buds are used for treating gastric, earache, dermatological, liver and kidney disorders, while the fruits used for treating fever, diabetes, rheumatism and headache. [9, 12-16].
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Alleviation of 4 nitroquinoline 1 oxide induced oxidative stress by Oroxylum indicum (L ) leaf extract in albino Wistar rats

Alleviation of 4 nitroquinoline 1 oxide induced oxidative stress by Oroxylum indicum (L ) leaf extract in albino Wistar rats

Biochemical changes in the blood are important indi- cators of the toxicity profile of important compounds [37]. The presence of transaminases (AST, ALT and ALP) in the cytosol or mitochondria indicates serious hepatocellular damage or changes in the membrane permeability [38]. The hazardous effects of 4-NQO on liver are well known and seem to be directly related to increase the concentration of hepatic enzymes that in turn, lead to hepatic necrosis. Earlier studies have also shown that 4-NQO induced rats significantly increase the level of hepatic markers (ALP, AST and ALT) in serum because it causes damage to hepatocytes leading to the outflow of enzymes [39]. The present study shows a similar effect of 4-NQO on rats i.e., the level of hepatic markers was found to be increased in group 2 and the levels were decreased after the administration of O. indi- cum (L.) leaf extract in groups 3–5. It can be seen that O. indicum (L.) leaf extract causes reduction in the activ- ity of enzymes induced by 4-NQO thus appearing as an effective anti-hepatotoxic agent and protecting liver from further damage. Similar results of O. indicum (L.) leaf extract was reported by Harminder et al., [40] who studied that root bark of the plant has hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced lipid deg- radation in mice and rats. Also, Deka et al., [34] had stated in his paper that ethanolic extract of leaves and fruits of O. indicum (L.) exhibited anti-hepatotoxic prop- erty. The serum bilirubin level was found to be increased in group 2 when compared to the normal control, but it was still within the normal range (0.2-0.55 mg/dL). The bilirubin level was found to be low in constant propor- tions with increasing O. indicum (L.) leaf extract con- centrations [41]. As seen in Fig. 5, significant difference was observed in the concentration of creatinine in the 4- NQO induced groups as compared to the group 1 con- trol, thereby proving that 4-NQO induces oxidative stress leading to kidney impairment.
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