Results: A total of 165 subjects completed the first set of questions. There was a significant rela- tionship between level of education and prior knowledge about orthodonticminiscrews (P = 0.029). Even though only 12.7% had heard about miniscrews, 82.4% agreed to have miniscrews placed to facilitate orthodontic tooth movement. Eighty-three subjects who needed miniscrews as part of their orthodontic treatment completed two more sets of questions after 6 and 24 hours of miniscrew insertion. After 6 hours of miniscrew insertion, there was a significant difference in pain perception between men (mean =2.6±2.2) and women (mean =2.1±1.5; P=0.03). After 24 hours, there was no difference between men (0.2 ± 0.4) and women (0.2 ± 0.5; P0.05). Postplacement, 32.5% did not require any pain medication, while 59.1% required a single dose and only 8.4% required two doses. A total of 76 patients (91.6%) said that they would recommend this procedure.
On the basis of these results self-drilling screws look as preferable since they can be placed with higher insertion torque and therefore have greater primary stability. How- ever, while this is true for this in vitro experimental set, in a clinical situation more variables have to be taken into ac- count when pursuing an optimal primary stability and clinical success. The quality of the cortical bone is critical for miniscrew success [24, 25], but when inserting a screw in a thick or dense cortical layer micro-cracks or heat- damage can occur and cause bone resorption, which leads to a failure of the screw [26–29]: in these cases, for ex- ample, pre-drilling of the insertion site may be useful. In two clinical studies comparing self-drilling and self- tapping orthodonticminiscrews [10, 30], no statistically significant difference was found between them in terms of success/failure rate.
Mario Veltri et al(2009) 31 evaluated the soft bone primary stability of 3 different orthodontic screws by using the resonance frequency analysi s which included Aarhus mini-implant , Mini Spider Screws, and Micerium Anchorage System. Four screws per system were tested and each screw was placed in 5 excised rabbit femoral condyles, providing experimental models of soft bone. Placement was drill-free for the A screw, whereas the MAS and S screws required a pilot hole through the cortical layer. After each placement procedure, resonance frequency was assessed as a parameter of primary stability. Differences among the groups were not statistically si gnificant and concluded that the resonance frequency analysis is applicable to comparatively assess the primary stability of orthodonticminiscrews and the 3 systems had similar outcomes in an experimental model of soft bone.
5 The experimental method applied in this study used a bovine bone because it is difficult to test the torque in vivo, and it was problematic when it came to extracting the sample from human cadavers. 6 In addition, this challenge occurs because of the variations in thickness and density of the cortical bone from the site of extraction. Hence, the amount of torque cannot be compared. 7 The cortical bone thickness used in this study has covered all mini screws length as one of standardization procedures and to prevent this factor to affect the torque insertion and removal for all types of mini screws used. Torque is closely related to the factors that determine the stability of miniscrews, such as bone density 8-9 and cortical bone thickness. 10 In addition, the torque value is frequently used as an indirect method to assess the stability of an implant or miniscrew. 11-12 In this research, non drilling groups showed significant increase of torque insertion in 3M mini screws in comparison with Dentos type. This result is due to the geometric shape of 3M type (cylindrical shape) which require a longer period of time to penetrate the bone than the tapered type screw (Dentos). This result disagrees with Jung-Y. Ch et al 2008, 13 who found that the tapered type gave a high torque insertion than cylindrical. This is particularly true when penetrating the cortical bone. For this reason, selecting a bone contained cortical bone was enough for all length of mini screws, in addition, the length of screws
“Orthodontic anchorage refers to the nature and degree of resistance to displacement offered by an anatomic unit when used for the purpose of moving teeth. Teeth serving as anchor units invariably undergo unwanted tooth movement. Therefore, auxiliary sources of conventional anchorage system, such as headgears, palatal buttons, and transpalatal and lingual arches are typically employed. Although these devices improve the level of anchorage control, they do not allow for complete control over dental movements. 1,2
patients. Thus, chairside IOS is promising for this pur- pose. DeLong et al.  found that a smooth textured surface (such as the titanium miniscrews used in our study) could worsen the digitizing performance due to spectral reflection. However, our study confirmed the clinical reliability and validity of IOS for linear and angular measurements of miniscrews, which were consistent with other studies. However, these mea- surements were different with respect to systematic errors and their tendencies [22–27]. Our results sup- ported that the evaluation of tooth movement on serial digital dental models from IOSs during growth or after orthodontic intervention is operable. In addition, we also found it quite interesting that the mean bias on the homo- lateral side was significantly larger than that on the oppos- ite, implying unequal magnification in sagittal and transverse directions. Anh et al.  claimed that regions imaged later would generate more errors during configur- ation than regions imaged earlier. Thus, the scanning se- quence could be one of the reasons for the unequal amplification effect observed in our study, and a modifica- tion is required when miniscrews are involved.
Many complications witnessed with the use of miniscrews over the years have lead the researchers towards the use of skeletal anchorage systems. Some of them include screw fractures due to the effect of insertion torque and bone quality at the site of the insertion and undesired effects like screw loosening and fracture. [12,13] Irreversible damage to the adjacent teeth and the periodontium have also been reported. Further, screw–root proximity is considered a major risk factor for screw failure as it has the potential to induce pain, infection and root resorption. However, damage to the adjacent soft tissues is often reported to be transient.  Rare complications such a nerve injury, air subcutaneous emphysema and maxillary sinus perforation have also been observed. 
As shown in the epidemiological and clinic-based studies on orthodontic patients, the present study repre- sented a significant relationship between orthodontic treatment need and complexity so that, with increased grade of complexity, the need for orthodontic treatment was increased as well [22, 26]. The importance of this issue lies in the fact that complexity of the orthodontic cases in a certain region implies the level of specialism required for the appropriate treatment for the patients. Cassinelli et al.  expressed that the increased severity of the primary malocclusion resulted in the increased complexity or difficulty of achieving the ideal occlu- sion. The studies conducted by Richmond et al.,  and Onyeaso, and BeGole  showed that the pretreatment ICON score can serve as a good indicator of the treat- ment difficulty level.
institution (UPTH/ADM/90/S.11/VOL.X/798). Permission was sought and obtained from the administrators of the schools that were involved in the study. Informed consent was obtained from the parents of the participants while assent was obtained from the participants. Consent was also sought from the administrators of the nine schools that were involved in the study before any contact with the students. The classes that had 12- 16 years students were confirmed from the records from the school. In each of the classes, the register was used and using table of random numbers, the participants for the study were chosen and those that both parents were not from same tribe, were excluded and the next suitable name used. On obtaining duly filled consent forms by the parents of the participants, assent from the students, the examination of eligible participants was carried out. This was done under natural light. The objective orthodontic treatment need was assessed by the lead researcher who was duly calibrated on the
In this study, we assessed the effect of e-learning resources on the outcome quality of orthodontic appliances manufac- tured by dental students in their first orthodontic course. Development of e-learning content is a time- and resource- consuming process aimed to improve students’ theoretical and manual skills in various fields of education. It is therefore mandatory to evaluate the benefit of new teaching methods. Particularly in disciplines where manual dexterity is required, we think that additional resources like e-learning content can improve students’ ability to convert what they learn during lectures into practical knowledge. Compared with theoretical knowledge, manual outcome quality in medical education is difficult to measure and there is a lack of data in the literature.
As stated by previous studies, 75 - 95% of patients label orthodontic therapy as painful whereas 30% might discontinue treatment due to pain [19, 22]. This seems to have immense clinical importance as treatment outcomes and patient cooperation has shown to improve drastically with increase in patient awareness and education imparted by their providers. However, orthodontists seem unequipped with appropriate knowledge to foresee when their patients would require pain management . Hence, our study aimed to assess how well the
Learning styles among students of orthodontics has received very little importance as seen in the limited studies found in the literature. The learning styles of students form an essential part of knowledge acceptance and delivery. The present study, therefore, has identified and reviewed the learning styles used in orthodontic education to understand the methods followed by orthodontic training programmes and their implications on learning. The objective of this study is to summarise the different types of learning styles currently utilised by the faculty of orthodontics. A systematic electronic search was conducted revealing eight studies used in orthodontic training. The searches conforming to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines used Problem/Patient/Population, Intervention/Indicator, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) strategy for selecting the included studies. The number of studies included in this study was eight. The study analysed the different learning styles and their effects on knowledge and students’ attitude. The availability of a small number of studies underscores the need to review the limited resource available to gain a better understanding of how orthodontic residents learn. This study on learning styles among orthodontic students provides a platform for building more knowledge on the learning pathways currently employed. The learning styles have an enormous influence on knowledge acquisition and retention. The study highlights the need for further exploration of the learning needs of orthodontic residents in an attempt to reveal potential benefits both for the student and the teaching faculty.
A cross sectional descriptive, analytical clinical based study was performed on patients starting fixed orthodon- tic treatment at the three orthodontic clinics of teaching institutes at Khartoum State. Inclusion criteria: Patients with fixed orthodontic appliances on labial tooth surfaces and patients who are on treatment for at least 1 month. Exclusion criteria: Patients with fixed orthodontic appli- ance on lingual surfaces, patients with fixed orthodontic appliances for less than 1 month, and patients with ram- pant caries. The study was approved by the University of Khartoum, Faculty of Dentistry Research Ethics Commit- tee (Meeting No. 3; Date 16/9/2014).
Although their inception was originally inspired through conventional bone screws, OMSIs differ from conventional bone screws because of a dual head i.e. the head has an additional feature designed for orthodontic treatment. The most frequent is the button like design with a sphere or a double sphere-like shape or a hexagonal shape. This design commonly has a hole through the head or the neck of the screw, usually 0.8 mm in diameter, and is commonly used for direct anchorage. A bracket-like design is also available, which can be used for either direct or indirect anchorage. Another permutation of the head design comes from the TOMAS mini-screw implant which offers a hook design.
A similar report was made by Hässler  in 1999, comparing canine retraction right after extraction of the premolar with retraction on healed side. He found a significant increase when canines were retracted on recent extraction alveolus. This could also be caused by the fibres of recently created bone, and the undesired inclination suffered by the canines could be a combination between the low calcification of the new bone and the orthodontic technique used. (Gjessing canine retraction spring activated to create 100 g force). No histological records were shown. According to Liou , a latency period of seven days is needed, and after that, it can be activated 1 mm a day. In the studies consulted [10, 14, 45] activation was done on patients immediately, 2 and 3 days after device placement respectively, with 0.5 and 0.8 mm/day.
Patients were examined for orthodontic treatment needs using the DHC of the IOTN. Two examiners were calibrated to use it (kappa = 0.85). They were orthodontists and were trained and underwent a calibration exercise. The calibra- tion exercise took place at the Department of Orthodontics at King Abdulaziz University by an expert in using the IOTN. Treatment needs of the patients were categorized as 1) little or no treatment need, 2) borderline need, and 3) treatment required. The DHC uses a simple ruler and an acronym – MOCDO (missing teeth, overjet, crossbite, displacements of contact points, overbite) to identify the most severe occlusal trait of each patient. The final overall
expect more improvement in their self image than the younger patients. Bernabe´ et al.  reported that it is widely known that orthodontic treatment occasionally causes pain, discomfort and functional limitations. The patients’ self confidence during treatment might be affected by speech impairment and the visibility of the appliance.  Also, the discomfort caused by orthodontic treatment may affect the patients’ compliance and satisfaction with treatment and it might lead to stress between the patient and the practitioner. ,
Methods: Sixteen adult patients (6 males and 10 females, mean age 28 years 7 months) were selected, and a total of 345 teeth were analysed. Pre-treatment, ideal post-treatment — as planned on digital setup — and real post- treatment models were analysed using VAM software (Vectra, Canfield Scientific, Fairfield, NJ, USA). Prescribed and real rotation, mesiodistal tip and vestibulolingual tip were calculated for each tooth and, subsequently, analysed by tooth type (right and left upper and lower incisors, canines, premolars and molars) to identify the mean error and accuracy of each type of movement achieved with the aligner with respect to those planned using the setup. Results: The mean predictability of movements achieved using F22 aligners was 73.6%. Mesiodistal tipping showed the most predictability, at 82.5% with respect to the ideal; this was followed by vestibulolingual tipping (72.9%) and finally rotation (66.8%). In particular, mesiodistal tip on the upper molars and lower premolars were achieved with the most predictability (93.4 and 96.7%, respectively), while rotation on the lower canines was the least efficaciously achieved (54.2%). Conclusions: Without the use of auxiliaries, orthodontic aligners are unable to achieve programmed movement with 100% predictability. In particular, although tipping movements were efficaciously achieved, especially at the molars and