Our evidence suggests that crowdfunding may

Top PDF Our evidence suggests that crowdfunding may:

Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D may have an

Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D may have an

In the longitudinal observational studies reviewed here, lower 25(OH)D concentration or vitamin D intake was associated with increased risk for incident hypertension and possibly cardiovascular disease, but the strengths of these associations were attenuated compared with those from cross-sectional studies. The evidence from longitudi- nal studies of type 2 diabetes was sparse. In trials, vitamin D supplementation had no statistically significant effect on diastolic or systolic blood pressure or on glycemic or car- diovascular outcomes. However, evidence suggested that vitamin D supplementation reduced systolic blood pressure by a statistically nonsignificant 2 mm Hg. Further data are needed to adjudicate this observation.
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Federal research suggests our country is

Federal research suggests our country is

Wyoming’s border states also paid higher wages in 1999 than Wyoming, which ranked 49th of the 50 states in average hourly wage. Given this, it may be difficult to attract and retain RNs in the State. Part two of this series will demonstrate that while health care services, and in particular the RNs in this industry, have relatively low turnover rates compared to other industries in Wyoming, the turnover rates are increasing. Based on the occupational projections and wages in Table 1, turnover is likely to continue to increase.

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Increasing evidence suggests that the association between

Increasing evidence suggests that the association between

for associations with sex differences separate models for men and women were calculated. Second, in spite of the 21-year follow-up period, the study population was below 40 when the risk factors were assessed and some participants were still in the process of entering the labor market, a potential reason for more robust associations of CRP with adult educational level than with occupational status. It is possible that the relationships between lifecourse SEP, adiposity, CRP, and IMT may differ from those observed in this study at later life stages when clinical conditions become more common. Third, corresponding to the majority of Finnish population in 1980, the time of study entry, our sample was racially homogenous. Thus, the present results cannot be generalized to other ethnic groups. Fourth, an impor- tant intermediate component in the relationships of adiposity with both CRP and IMT may be the adipocytokine adiponectin.
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Substantial epidemiological evidence suggests that alcohol

Substantial epidemiological evidence suggests that alcohol

CLINICAL PERSPECTIVE Alcohol intake in moderation is associated with a lower risk of myocardial infarction. It has been suggested that this cardioprotective effect of alcohol depends on alcohol’s effect on other cardiovascular risk factors and possibly on the individual’s genetic capacity for degrading alcohol. In this large population-based study, we found that alcohol intake was associated with levels of the cardiovascular risk factors low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fibrinogen, blood pressure, and nonfasting triglycerides. However, the associations between alcohol intake and risk of myocardial infarction and between alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk factors were not modified by genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenases. Our results suggest that the protective effect of alcohol on the development of myocardial infarction does not depend on genetic variations affecting enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism.
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Evidence Suggests There Was Not a “Resurgence” of Kernicterus in the 1990s

Evidence Suggests There Was Not a “Resurgence” of Kernicterus in the 1990s

Kernicterus, a rare but potentially pre- ventable cause of neurologic damage, is the driving concern behind treating neo- natal hyperbilirubinemia. 1,2 Some au- thors have suggested that in the United States, kernicterus “had been virtually eradicated by the 1970s and early 1980s” 3 and that there was “a dramatic rise in cases” in the 1990s. 4 This conclu- sion seems to be based on personal or anecdotal experience and an increase in case reports in the 1990s. 2,5–16 Although certainly deserving consideration, these reports do not allow conclusions about time trends or incidence be- cause they lack denominators and be- cause interest in and reporting of ker- nicterus cases may vary over time. 17 One study has specifically examined ker- nicterus time trends in the United States, using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Kids’ Inpatient databases. 18 These authors reported a 70% decline in neonatal hospitalizations with a diagno- sis of kernicterus from 1988 to 2005, most of which occurred before 1997. Use of neonatal discharge diagnoses to esti- mate kernicterus incidence is problem- atic, however, because of coding errors, possible false-positive “rule out” diagno- ses, and possible missed cases if the di- agnosis of kernicterus was not made in the neonatal period. 19 However, there is no reason to believe that these problems changed over time.
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Increasing evidence suggests that diabetic retinal neurodegeneration

Increasing evidence suggests that diabetic retinal neurodegeneration

Barring potential adverse effects from steroid-responsive ocular hypertension, FAc offers significant benefits to patients because of its depot design. If, in fact, prospective studies confirm that FAc slows inner retinal thinning, studies for a neuroprotective indication may be warranted. These investi- gations would need to assess whether the maintenance of structural neural thickness correlates with maintenance of visual function. Contraindications to the FAc implant include active or suspected ocular/periocular infections, glaucoma with a cup-to-disc ratio of >0.8, and/or known hypersensitivity to any of the implant’s components. Additionally, to mitigate the risk of IOP spikes, the FAc implant is contraindicated in patients who have had a clinically significant IOP elevation with exposure to prior ocular steroid. Serious adverse events include endophthalmitis, retinal detachment, and migration of the implant into the anterior chamber. In the USER study, 4 of the 21 phakic subjects required cataract extraction within 1 year of receiving the FAc implant due to steroid-associated cataract progression. 15
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Emerging evidence suggests that vitamin D [25-

Emerging evidence suggests that vitamin D [25-

cumference was measured at the natural waist, de fined as the narrowest part of the torso, as viewed from behind, or the minimal circumference between the umbilicus and xiphoid process, as viewed from the front. Blood pressure was measured twice in the right arm with the subject seated after a 5-min rest using an automated sphygmomanometer. Each measure was determined twice using standardized procedures, with the average used in the analysis. Physical activity level was determined using a version of the Modi fiable Activity Ques- tionnaire (MAQ) (26), which collects information on both leisure and occu- pational activity over the past year (including measures of frequency and duration). The MAQ has been shown to have good reliability and validity (26). Each reported activity from the MAQ is weighted by its relative intensity, re- ferred to as a metabolic equivalent (MET) of the task, thereby deriving MET hours per week (MET h/week) as the final unit of expression. Season was de fined using the date participants completed their baseline assessment and was categorized as follows: May through October (summer/early fall); November through April (winter/early spring). Supplement use, speci fically any vitamin or multivitamin containing vitamin D, was obtained through an open-ended question on current medication use. Ethnicity, smoking, and the participant ’s family history of diabetes were assessed using structured ques- tionnaires.
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Increasing experimental evidence suggests that cell transplantation

Increasing experimental evidence suggests that cell transplantation

have already been recommended by the FDA to determine the safety of endovascular delivery of stem cells in cardiac patients. 7 We, therefore, performed ex vivo experiments to simulate a planned study involving an intracarotid infusion of MNCs in patients with ischemic stroke. We found that catheterization rates of 10 million cells/mL up to 2 mL/min did not affect viability. However, we did observe an increase in cell death ( ⱕ19%) when cells were injected at 5 mL/min. We also per- formed functional assays of the MNCs by quantifying secreted cytokines before and after catheterization. IGF-1, IL-10, and VEGF are 3 of the many cytokines that may underlie, in part, the benefits of MNCs observed to improve recovery after myo- cardial infarction. 16 We found that catheterization did not af-
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Anecdotal evidence suggests that candidates in graduate TESOL programs

Anecdotal evidence suggests that candidates in graduate TESOL programs

In terms of future research, this study raises several follow-up questions to explore. Why do experience abroad and holding a teaching certification cor- relate so highly with success in graduate TESOL programs? What kinds of ex- perience abroad correlate with program success? Is it necessary, for example, to have worked or even lived abroad to be successful at TESOL, or is it just as good to have simply traveled outside the US? While the present study looked at experience abroad, it may be that any cross-cultural and/or -linguistic ex- perience, whether in the US or abroad, might enhance a candidate’s TESOL knowledge, skills, and/or personal dispositions. Examples of this experience include working as an ESL tutor, volunteering at international fairs, and hosting international families. Why does teaching certification also correlate with pro- gram success? Furthermore, why does TESOL experience correlate with suc- cess in graduate TESOL programs, but not to the extent of experience abroad or holding a teaching certification? Further research should also set the param- eters for what constitutes success in graduate TESOL programs. More accurate definitions of success could include GPA at graduation, graduating from the program, and/or success in the field. It is widely recognized that candidates with extensive backgrounds in teaching enhance the experience of their TESOL classmates and faculty: This might be another measure of success. More than 30 years ago, Hartnett and Willingham (1980) raised the question of how to define success in graduate studies. The present study echoes that question.
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The Determinants of Crowdfunding Success: Evidence from Technology Projects

The Determinants of Crowdfunding Success: Evidence from Technology Projects

3.2. Sample and Data Collection This research uses a dataset containing 1127 cases of technology start-ups seeking funds in the solar year 2012, and throughout the first 7 months of 2013. The decision to limit the sample to technology cases depends on our focus on initiatives that aim at becoming long-lasting enterprises. As mentioned earlier, in these cases crowdfunding can in fact develop as an important source of capital investments in new innovative SMEs, in a similar way as angel and venture capital investments. Data is extracted from four different crowdfunding platforms: Kickstarter, Ulule, Eppela, Indiegogo. More specifically, we have been able to extract: 97 successful Ulule projects; 9 Eppela projects; 597 successful Kickstarter projects; and 424 Indiegogo projects.
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Equity Crowdfunding in the UK: Evidence from the Equity Tracker

Equity Crowdfunding in the UK: Evidence from the Equity Tracker

‘crowd’ model businesses (such as Crowd Property, a property crowdfunding platform). The disruptive impact of equity crowdfunding is being felt across the UK, as we have discovered. Its steep growth trajectory since 2011 would suggest that it will continue to transform the UK investment landscape in future years. We are certain that as the industry finds its feet and trends are consolidated, there will be plenty more questions raised about equity crowdfunding – company bankruptcy rates and the risks faced by retail investors, for example, plus the issue of returns on crowdfunded investments will become more prominent as more exits are made. A recent paper by Wilson and Testoni 11 suggests equity crowdfunding may be significantly riskier than business angel or venture capital finance, due to a “lack of adequate pre-investment screening and due diligence, weaker investment contracts and poorer post-investment support and monitoring”, arising from relatively inexperienced investors lacking the required investment know-how. The scale of these potential risks will become better known over time as we observe the performance of a range of crowdfunded investments.
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ERP evidence suggests executive dysfunction in ecstasy polydrug users

ERP evidence suggests executive dysfunction in ecstasy polydrug users

The N2 component has been reported as having a source in the anterior cingulate cortex (Bekker et al. 2005; Nieuwenhuis et al. 2003; Van Veen and Carter 2002) and to reflect neural processes engaged during conflict monitoring, thus being increased in high conflict trials (Yeung and Cohne 2006), for example, when incongruence between targets and cues/distracters elicits a conflict of response in a Stroop task (Kopp et al. 1996). Firstly, considering why the N2 was more pronounced in ecstasy users compared to drug-naïve controls in those trials where there was a lower semantic association between target and cue words, it is possible that at this level of processing, the ecstasy users required the recruitment of additional resources in order to access the semantic network of long-term memory com- pared to drug-naïve controls. Previous research has provided evidence that ecstasy users’ performance can be more greatly impaired under higher task difficulty. For exam- ple, Montgomery et al. (2005a, b) observed a decline in performance in a word fluency task when more rules were imposed, suggesting that deficits are more promi- nent in tasks that place more demand on the central executive. Moreover, given that participants reported no perceived differences in cognitive effort on the NASA- TLX, it is possible that compensatory cognitive process- ing at neurological sites is correcting for deficits in executive function to eradicate behavioural differences and other research reporting null results, with respect to performance, may reflect similar reallocation of cognitive resources. This aspect of the results was in line with our predictions.
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In vitro evidence of root colonization suggests ecological versatility in the genus Mycena

In vitro evidence of root colonization suggests ecological versatility in the genus Mycena

Although we found indications of growth benefits to the seedlings from associating with M. pura and M. galopus, the pre- cise mechanism remains unknown and required further attention. Interestingly, M. galopus has been shown to enhance growth in Vaccinium corymbosum seedlings, while forming peg-like struc- tures intracellularly (Grelet et al., 2017). Growth benefits to Pinus contorta grown in association with M. galopus have also been shown, although in this case the authors argue that this was a result of increased recycling of nutrients in microcosms contain- ing a saprotrophic fungus compared with EcM and negative con- trols (Dighton et al., 1987). Interestingly, only one of the two M. galopus strains included in our study seemed to benefit the plant. Thus, there may be variation in interactions among differ- ent genotypes within species.
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Crowdfunding in digital humanities: some evidence from Indonesian social enterprises

Crowdfunding in digital humanities: some evidence from Indonesian social enterprises

Crowdfunding does allow not only the organisation to be dependent on the community but also the community to become more mature by promoting emerging regulation frameworks (Ziegler et al., 2018). The communication technology may offer efficient interaction between investors and those who need it, which allows small businesses to raise funds from various investors. In this case, control rights and voting power become additional benefits for the participating crowd (Belleflamme et al., 2014). There are many open aspects at the end of the model, especially regarding the legal issues and reinvestment as well as other gaps that can be filled in (Tomczak and Brem, 2013). They face the challenge of signalling the quality of their project, among a plethora of investment options (Vismara, 2016). Much potential funding may not contribute to a crowdfunding project because they assume that other donors have offered the necessary financing (Kuppuswamy and Bayus, 2018).
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Gender Dynamics in Crowdfunding: Evidence on Entrepreneurs, Investors, and Deals from Kickstarter

Gender Dynamics in Crowdfunding: Evidence on Entrepreneurs, Investors, and Deals from Kickstarter

These initial patterns of gender differences in crowdfunding, in terms of both participation by entrepreneurs and investors, as well as the amounts of financial capital sought, appear to be similar to the findings of previous research on gender differences in financing. With the richness of these data, we can delve more deeply into how female entrepreneurs differ from men in terms of how they raise funds on crowdfunding platforms, as well as how female investors differ from men how they invest in projects that are crowdfunded on online platforms. Our research should shed light on how to maximize the potential of equity crowdfunding by female entrepreneurs and female investors, so that we see fuller participation of women in this space. While crowdfunding has the potential to “democratize” the private equity market by serving as a means for both women entrepreneurs and women investors to participate more fully, our initial analysis of Kickstarter data suggest that this currently is not the case. We hope to have a more complete analysis by early September.
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Crowdfunding the revolution : towards the regulation of equity crowdfunding

Crowdfunding the revolution : towards the regulation of equity crowdfunding

The word "advertisement" has not been the subject of much judicial interpretation although the case law on this point suggests that an advert is made by a person who intends for the public to come to the knowledge of such information 91 and that merely making known the existence of an opportunity would not necessarily constitute an advertisement. 92 It may therefore be possible for potential issuers to approach platforms to assist them with their fundraising and, if the platforms have discretion on whether or not to list any particular issue, the approach to platforms by an issuer would not be an advert (and consequently not an offer to the public). This would also be so if the approach by an issuer to the platform is not an offer but rather a means by which the issuer invites potential investors to consider subscribing for shares in the issuer. 93 Platforms would, in turn, make known to the public the availability of opportunities to invest in issuers on their portal (however without promoting or endorsing any particular offer by an issuer as this may be regarded the provision of "advice" in relation to the subscription - with potential consequences under FAIS and the FMA).
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Early Evidence Suggests Gigabit Broadband Drives GDP. David Sosa Principal

Early Evidence Suggests Gigabit Broadband Drives GDP. David Sosa Principal

BACKGROUND With the advent of broadband services in the second half of the 1990s, economists and policy analysts began a decade-long examination of the economic benefits of high-speed Internet connectivity. In one of the first comprehensive studies, Crandall & Jackson (2003) examined the economic benefits of broadband. They hypothesized that the deployment of first generation broadband Internet connections would facilitate continued improvements in information technology, with significant positive effects on the economy, including lower input costs, increased labor productivity, and new and more efficient production processes. Their study concludes that the long run benefits of first generation broadband services may be a one percent or higher increment to GDP. 1 Following Crandall & Jackson, other researchers have also investigated the economic benefits of first generation broadband. Lehr, Gillett, Sirbu & Osorio
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Evidence suggests that consumers often hesitate to transact with Web-based vendors because

Evidence suggests that consumers often hesitate to transact with Web-based vendors because

seals from agencies such as Trust-e that attest to the privacy policies adhered to by the Web vendor. Practitioners also need to recognize the relationship among dimensions of trust and their differential effect on consumer behavior. For example, in the data, the subjective probability of giving personal information and of making purchases were more strongly corre- lated with situational normality-benevolence than with competence or integrity. This suggests that per- haps vendors need to join forces, in trade associations or industry groups, to enhance consumer perceptions of the benevolence of Web-based vendors. Similarly, beliefs about vendor integrity correlate more with con- sumer intentions to purchase than beliefs about vendor competence. Thus, interventions that promote integ- rity beliefs may have the greatest promise in getting customers to the purchase stage. Finally, the high cor- relation between site quality and trusting beliefs un- derscores the importance of a high-quality Web site.
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Crowdfunding our health: economic risks and benefits

Crowdfunding our health: economic risks and benefits

· There has been a rapid uptake of crowdfunding in the global health sector · Crowdfunding finances health expenses, initiatives, research, and innovation. · There are several possible[r]

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CROWDFUNDING WHAT IS CROWDFUNDING?

CROWDFUNDING WHAT IS CROWDFUNDING?

ISSUER FINANCIAL INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS • If offering during preceding 12 months is more than $500,000, financial statements are to be audited by independent public accountant except, if the issuer has not previously relied on the Crowdfunding exemption, the issuer may use reviewed financial statements unless audited financial statements are available

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