P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-SiO/sub 2/:Nd/sup 3/

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In vitro and in vivo targeting imaging of pancreatic cancer using a&nbsp;Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>@SiO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;nanoprobe modified with anti-mesothelin antibody

In vitro and in vivo targeting imaging of pancreatic cancer using a&nbsp;Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>@SiO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;nanoprobe modified with anti-mesothelin antibody

The T2 signal values of experimental group xenograft were decreased by 342.533 ± 42.6 after injection of the target probe, and the control group was decreased by − 61.233 ± 33.9 after injection of saline solution, while the FS group decreased by − 58.7 ± 19.4 at 2.5 hours. The decrease of tumor signal by A-MFS was much more significant than that by saline and FS (P,0.05). Results could be seen in Figures S2 and S3. Similarly, the T2-weighted images showed that the tumor signal in the experimental group was decreased after injec- tion of the probe FS modified with anti-MSLN antibody, while the control and FS groups were barely altered. Due to its paramagnetic properties, Fe 3 O 4 acts as a negative contrast agent of MRI. It decreases the T2-weighted tissue signal to enhance the contrast by shortening the transverse relaxation time T2, suggesting that the nanoprobe selectively accumulated in the pancreatic cancer tissue, shortened the transverse relaxation time, and decreased signal of tissue. Therefore, FS modified with anti-MSLN antibody is a good T2 targeting agent in pancreatic cancer of nude mice. It may
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Polyetherimide-grafted Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>@SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles as theranostic agents for simultaneous VEGF siRNA delivery and magnetic resonance cell imaging

Polyetherimide-grafted Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>@SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles as theranostic agents for simultaneous VEGF siRNA delivery and magnetic resonance cell imaging

MCF-7 cells were seeded in 12-well plates until the density reached approximately 60%. Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 /PEI, Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 / PEI/Sc shRNA, or Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 /PEI/VEGF shRNA was incubated with the cells in serum-free medium for 6 hours, and then replaced with complete cell culture medium. For the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analy- sis, the total messenger (m)RNA from MCF-7 cells was obtained using Trizol (Thermo Fisher Scientific) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. One milligram of total mRNA was transcribed into complementary DNA using the PrimeScript™ RT Reagent Kit (Takara Biotechnology Co., Ltd. Dalian, People’s Republic of China.). All qPCR were performed using the Faststart Universal SYBR Green Master (ROX), and the amplification threshold (Ct) of each gene was normalized to that of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The comparative Ct method was used to calculate the fold changes. Efficiency for all primer pairs was 95%–100%. Primer pairs used were VEGF (forward, 5 ′ -TTCTCAAGGACCACCGCATC-3 ′ ; reverse, 5 ′ -AATGGGGTCGTCATCTGGT-3 ′ ), and GAPDH (for- ward, 5 ′ -GTCTCCTCTGACTTCAACAGCG-3 ′ ; reverse, 5 ′ -ACCACCCTGTTG CTGTAGCCAA-3 ′ ).
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Metathesis of Ethylene and Trans 2 Butene over MgO Admixed WO<sub>3</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> Catalysts

Metathesis of Ethylene and Trans 2 Butene over MgO Admixed WO<sub>3</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> Catalysts

atmospheric pressure. The conversions of 1-butene and 2-butene selectivity as a function of reaction time obtained on the various MgO catalysts are shown in Fig. 5. All the MgO catalysts exhibited relatively high isomerization activity (1-butene conversion 77-79%) with 2-butene selectivity > 99%. From the characterization results, the isomerization activity may be correlated to the reactivity of the catalysts for OH adsorption (the TGA results). Such findings follow the more recent trend showing the dependence of MgO reactivity on the presence of specific low coordinated sites such as step, edge, and corner sites rather than on the total number of basic sites [13]. A correlation between the catalytic activity of MgO and the amount of OH groups has been reported by Chizallet et al. [14]. The catalytically active sites were identified as O 1C H and O 2C H formed by hydroxylation of the steps, corners and O 2-3C -terminated kinks. A recent study
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Biosafety evaluation of Janus Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-TiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats after intravenous injection

Biosafety evaluation of Janus Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>-TiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats after intravenous injection

molecular weights. Immunoblots for expression of p38, p-p38, JNK, p-JNK, HO-1, ERK, c-Jun, cleaved caspase 3, Bcl2, Bax, P50, p53, Nrf2, Akt, and GAPDH were detected. All antibodies for Western blot in this study were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology. Tris-buffered saline Tween 20 with 5% skim milk was used to block the membranes for 3.5 hours before incubation overnight with primary antibod- ies (1:1,000 dilution). After three washes with Tris-buffered saline Tween 20, membranes were incubated with the cor- responding secondary antibodies (1:4,000 dilution) for 1.5 hours. A 4200SF imaging processing system (Tanon, Shang- hai, China) was used for Western blot analysis.
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<p>Oxygen-Ozone (O<sub>2</sub>-O<sub>3</sub>) Therapy in Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD): A Review Study</p>

<p>Oxygen-Ozone (O<sub>2</sub>-O<sub>3</sub>) Therapy in Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD): A Review Study</p>

The fi rst use of ozone was mainly with the purpose of treating infections and wounds. Ozone therapy has been shown to be very effective in bacterial infection of skin. 13 Ozonated oil eliminated almost 100% of Staphylococcus aureus in 5 minutes, as well as almost 100% of methicil- lin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after 15 minutes. Ozone causes oxidation of phospholipids and lipoproteins of bacterial cell walls. 12 Thus, ozone therapy disrupts the integrity of bacterial cell walls. Similarly, ozone damages the viral capsid causing inactivation of viruses. 14 Moreover, viral reproductive cycle is broken as peroxida- tion precludes the virus-to-cell contact. 12 Ozone has been also proven to cause irreversible damage to viral DNA. 3 Ozone therapy used for fungal infections is based on the mechanism of ozone inhibition of cell growth at certain stages. 12
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Biological responses to core&ndash;shell-structured Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>@SiO<sub>2</sub>-NH<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles in rats by a nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic strategy

Biological responses to core&ndash;shell-structured Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>@SiO<sub>2</sub>-NH<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles in rats by a nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic strategy

aa, acetoacetate; ab, anabasine; ace, acetate; ach, acetylcholine; aco, aconitate; act, acetone; aD, acetamide; ah, aminohippurate; ala, alanine; all, allantoin; arg, arginine; asn, asparagine; Ben, benzoate; Bet, betaine; Bu, butyrate; ch, choline; ci, citrate; cn, creatinine; cr, creatine; Dg, deoxyguanosine; DMa, dimethylamine; DMg, dimethylglycine; DU, deoxyuridine; ea, ethanolamine; eth, ethanol; For, formate; Fum, fumarate; g, glycerol; ga, guanidinoacetate; glc, glucose; gln, glutamine; glu, glutamate; gly, glycine; gPc, glycerolphosphocholine; hB, hydroxybutyrate; hg, homogentisate; hIB, hydroxyisobutyrate; hip, hippurate; hIV, hydroxyisovalerate; IB, isobutyrate; Ile, isoleucine; IP, isopropanol; IV, isovalerate; Kg, ketoglutarate; KIV, ketoisovalerate; l, lipid; lac, lactate; lDl, low-density lipoprotein; leu, leucine; lys, lysine; Ma, methylamine; Mal, malonate; Mg, methylguanidine; Mh, methylhistidine; m-hPa, meta-hydroxyphenylacetate; m-I, myo-inositol; Met, methionine; MM, methylmalonate; Mol, methanol; Na, nicotinamide; NaD, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; Nag, N-acetylglutamate; Nas, N-acetyl glycoprotein signal; N-Mh, N-methylnicotinamide; NP, neopterin; o-hPa, ortho-hydroxyphenylacetate; Pa, picolinate; Pag, phenylacetylglycine; Pan, pantothenate; PaP, adenosine 3′,5′-diphosphate; Pc, phosphocholine; Phe, phenylalanine; p-hPa, para-hydroxyphenylacetate; Prop, propionate; Py, pyruvate; ser, serine; suc, succinate; Tau, taurine; Tgl, trigonelline; Thr, threonine; TMaO, trimethylamine N-oxide; Trp, tryptophan; Tyr, tyrosine; Uc, urocanate; Val, valine; VlDl, very-low-density lipoprotein.
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<p>Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Protects H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-Induced Nucleus Pulposus Cell Apoptosis and Inflammation by Inhibiting cGAS/Sting/NLRP3 Activation</p>

<p>Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Protects H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-Induced Nucleus Pulposus Cell Apoptosis and Inflammation by Inhibiting cGAS/Sting/NLRP3 Activation</p>

The extracted RNA was treated with the DNA-free ™ kit (Ambion, TX, USA) to remove the genomic DNA. After RNA extraction, RNA concentration and quality were detected using the NanoDrop spectrophotometer (Thermo Scienti fi c, CA, USA). The relative abundance of mRNA expression of cGAS, Sting and NLRP3 in all the sample genes was deter- mined with quantitative PCR using Reverse transcription was performed with 1.25 μ g of total RNA in a fi nal reaction volume of 50 μ L. The quantitative real-time PCR was conducted with Novostart SYBR qPCR Super Mix Plus (Novoprotein, CA, USA) following the manufacturers ’ instructions. We used β - actin as the endogenous control gene in this study. The reaction program was set as 1 cycle at 95°C for 15 min, 40 cycles at 95° C for 15 s, and then 65°C for 1 min. The primer sequences used in this study were as the following: cGAS: forward: 5 ʹ -AAGGATAGCCGCCATGTTTCT-3 ʹ , reverse: 5 ʹ -TGG CTTTCAGCAAAAGTTAGG-3 ʹ ; Sting: forward: 5 ʹ -AGCA TTACAACAACCTGCTACG-3 ʹ , reverse: 5 ʹ -GTTGGGGT CAGCCATACTCAG-3 ʹ ; NLRP3: forward: 5 ʹ -GATCTTCGC TGCGATCAACA-3 ʹ , reverse: 5 ʹ -GGGATTCGAAACACGT GCATTA-3 ʹ ; β -actin: forward: 5 ʹ -TCCCTGGAGAAGAGC TACG-3 ʹ , reverse: 5 ʹ -GTAGTTTCGTGGATGCCACA-3 ʹ . The relative gene expression was calculated using the com- parative cycle threshold method (CT, 2 −ΔΔCt ).
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Immobilized transferrin Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>@SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticle with high doxorubicin loading for dual-targeted tumor drug delivery

Immobilized transferrin Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>@SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticle with high doxorubicin loading for dual-targeted tumor drug delivery

DMP was suspended in 10 mL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution, and incubated with 5 mg EDC and 5 mg NHS for 30 minutes at room temperature. Then, the products were separated using magnetic separation and centrifugation. After washing once in PBS, the residual solution was mixed with 5 mg PLGA, then intermittently sonicated for 30 minutes at room temperature. The products were then magnetically sepa- rated, and washed three times. The residual solution was mixed with 5 mg EDC, 5 mg NHS, and 500 µ L DOX (2 mg/mL). After intermittent sonication for 3 hours, the products were washed several times, until the supernatant solution became colorless. Then, 20 µ L of hydrazine hydrate solution was added, and the mixture was incubated under impulse sonication for 10 minutes at room temperature. After being washed with PBS, 200 µ L of transferrin solution (4 mg/mL), containing 5 mg EDC and 5 mg NHS, was added, and reacted under impulse sonication for 2 hours. The products were magnetically collected, then washed several times. TfDMP products were finally obtained by freeze- drying. Evaluation of DOX content proceeded by measuring the visual ultraviolet light absorbance of TfDMP at 479 nm, in a 1:2 mixture of hydrochloric acid and ethanol solution, as has been described in the literature previously. 27 The drug loading
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<p>La<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> Nanoparticles Induce Reproductive Toxicity Mediated by the Nrf-2/ARE Signaling Pathway in Kunming Mice</p>

<p>La<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> Nanoparticles Induce Reproductive Toxicity Mediated by the Nrf-2/ARE Signaling Pathway in Kunming Mice</p>

used to determine the total protein concentrations (Sangon Biotech, Shanghai, China). A 40 μ g total protein was loaded onto 8% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel, separated, and transferred to a 0.45 μ m PVDF membrane (Pall, Gelman Laboratory, USA); then, membranes were blocked with 5% BSA in buffer for 2 h at room temperature. Followed by incuba- tion with antibodies against speci fi c primary antibodies: anti-StAR (12225-1-AP, diluted at 1:1500, Proteintech, USA), anti-CYP11A1 (13363-1-AP, diluted at 1:2000, Proteintech, USA), anti-CYP17A1 (ab125022, diluted at 1:1000, Abcam, Cambridge, UK), anti-LHR (19968- 1-AP, diluted at 1:500, Proteintech, USA), anti-Keap-1 (60027-1-Ig, diluted at 1:500, Proteintech, USA), anti- Nrf-2 (16396-1-AP, diluted at 1:5000, Proteintech, USA), anti-NQO1 (ab80588, diluted at 1:1000, Abcam, Cambridge, UK), anti-HO-1 (27282-1-AP, diluted at 1:1500, Proteintech, USA), anti-GSH-Px (sc-166120, diluted at 1:500, Santa Crus, USA), anti-TNF- α (17,590-1-AP, diluted at 1:1000; Proteintech, USA), anti-IL-1 β (16806-1-AP, diluted at 1:300, Proteintech, USA), anti-i-NOS (18985-1-AP, diluted at 1:600, Proteintech, USA), anti-COX-2 (BA0738, diluted at 1:400, BOSTER, China), anti-BAX (diluted at 1:1000, Abcam, Cambridge, UK), anti-Bcl-2 (diluted at 1:1000, Abcam, Cambridge, UK), and rabbit diluted 1:10,000; anti- β -actin (ARH4149, Antibody Revolution, USA) overnight at 4°C, washed 3 times in TBST for 10 min, and incubated with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG or goat anti-mouse IgG antibody (1:1000; Abgent, San Diego, CA, USA) for 1 h. Densitometric analysis was normalised using β -actin as an internal control. Bands were visualised using an enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) kit (Sangon Biotech). Quantity One software was used to quantify each band area and density on the blots. Quanti fi ed band intensities are presented as the fold-change from the control. The experiments were repeated three times and were performed independently.
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<p>Green Synthesis of Zeolite/Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> Nanocomposites: Toxicity &amp; Cell Proliferation Assays and Application as a Smart Iron Nanofertilizer</p>

<p>Green Synthesis of Zeolite/Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> Nanocomposites: Toxicity &amp; Cell Proliferation Assays and Application as a Smart Iron Nanofertilizer</p>

In recent decades, nanocomposites have been attractive to numerous researchers due to their interesting tailorable properties (such as electrical, mechanical, chemical and biological properties) and wide applications across all of science and industry. Nanocomposites involve different aspects of science and technology and can play an important role in human life. They have been widely used as materials with photo- degradation properties; 1 gas sensors 2,3 and biosensors for the detection of antimalarial drugs, 4 glucose, 5 DNA, 6,7 anticancer agents 8,9 as well as antibacterial and antifungal
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<p>Eco-Friendly and Systematic Study for Synthesis of La<sup>3+</sup>/&alpha;-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> Nanoparticles: Antibacterial Activity Against Pathogenic Microbial Strains</p>

<p>Eco-Friendly and Systematic Study for Synthesis of La<sup>3+</sup>/&alpha;-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> Nanoparticles: Antibacterial Activity Against Pathogenic Microbial Strains</p>

Nowadays, antibacterial and antioxidant activity are among the effective researches in nanotechnology. 1 Honey consists of 80 – 85% carbohydrate (mainly glucose and fructose), 15 – 17% water, 0.1 – 0.4% protein, 0.2% ash, and minor quantities of amino acids, enzymes, and vitamins as well as other substances like phenolic antioxidants. The fructose percentage is approximately 32.56 – 38.2% and the glucose percentage approximately 28.54 – 31.3% and, as the major carbohydrates present in honey, act as natural stabilizers and a capping agent in the wet synthesis of nanoparticles. 2 In today ’ s modern life human beings have been exposed to the in fl uence of different bacteria, tissue respiration, chemical reaction, magnetic waves and other factors
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Magnetic and fluorescent Gd<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>:Yb<sup>3+</sup>/Ln<sup>3+</sup> nanoparticles for simultaneous upconversion luminescence/MR dual modal imaging and NIR-induced photodynamic therapy

Magnetic and fluorescent Gd<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>:Yb<sup>3+</sup>/Ln<sup>3+</sup> nanoparticles for simultaneous upconversion luminescence/MR dual modal imaging and NIR-induced photodynamic therapy

The human NPC cell lines (CNE2 cells, purchased from the Cell bank of Laboratory Animal Center, the Sun Yat-sen Uni- versity Hospital, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China, with the permit number SCYK [粤] 2016-0029) were incubated with UCNs concentrations of 20, 30, 40, and 50 μ g/mL in 96-well plates for 4, 6, and 8 h and compared to culture media (DMEM) as the negative control and lipopolysaccharides as the positive control. After co-incubation, 20 μ L of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was added for another 4 h of incubation. The culture medium was removed and 100 μ L dimethyl sulfoxide added to dissolve the formazan crystals for 10 min. The absorbance at 490 nm was measured by a microplate reader (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA).
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<p>Distribution of SiO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;nanoparticles&nbsp;in 3D liver microtissues</p>

<p>Distribution of SiO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;nanoparticles&nbsp;in 3D liver microtissues</p>

light scattering (DLS, Nanotrac NPA 250; Microtrac GmbH, Krefeld, Germany) was used to determine the average hydrodynamic of NPs dispersed in water. The hydrodynamic diameter was also analyzed in culture medium (RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) FBS). After incuba- tion of NP dispersion for 60 minutes in culture medium, SiO 2 NPs were pelleted by centrifugation and resuspended in water. Measurements were performed at room temperature. Each sample was measured in triplicate (3 × 60 seconds per measurement). The diameter was determined by calculating the volume distribution. This was converted from the inten- sity size distribution using Mie theory. The zeta potential of the NPs in water was measured with a Zetasizer NanoZSP (Malvern Panalytical, Worcestershire, UK) at 150 V, using 0.01 M KCl as background electrolyte. In culture medium, the zeta potential was measured at 20 V. The SiO 2 concentration of the SiO 2 NP stock dispersion was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ULTIMA 2; Horiba Jobin Yvon GmbH, Unterhaching, Germany). Dye labeling of particles was confirmed by fluorescence spec- troscopy (Spex FluoroMax-3; Horiba Scientific GmbH, Oberursel, Germany) and UV-vis spectroscopy (Cary 5,000 spectrophotometer; Varian Inc., Darmstadt, Germany).
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<em>N</em>-n-butyl haloperidol iodide inhibits H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>- induced Na<sup>+</sup>/Ca<sup>2+</sup>-exchanger activation via the Na<sup>+</sup>/H<sup>+</sup> exchanger in rat ventricular myocytes

<em>N</em>-n-butyl haloperidol iodide inhibits H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>- induced Na<sup>+</sup>/Ca<sup>2+</sup>-exchanger activation via the Na<sup>+</sup>/H<sup>+</sup> exchanger in rat ventricular myocytes

nism by which F 2 antagonizes myocardial I/R injury. Acute exposure of rat cardiac myocytes to 100 µM H 2 O 2 increased both NHE and NCX activities, as well as levels of phosphorylated MEK and ERK. The H 2 O 2 -induced increase in NCX current (I NCX ) was nearly completely inhib- ited by the MEK inhibitor U0126 (1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[o-aminophenylmercapto] butadiene), but only partly by the NHE inhibitor 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride (DMA), indicat- ing the I NCX increase was primarily mediated by the MEK/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and partially through activation of NHE. F 2 attenuated the H 2 O 2 -induced I NCX increase in a concentration-dependent manner. To determine whether pathway inhibition was H 2 O 2 -specific, we examined the ability of F 2 to inhibit MEK/ERK activation by epidermal growth factor (EGF), and NHE activation by angiotensin II. F 2 not only inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced and EGF-induced MEK/ERK activation, but also completely blocked both H 2 O 2 -induced and angiotensin II-induced increases in NHE activity, suggesting that F 2 directly inhibits MEK/ ERK and NHE activation. These results show that F 2 exerts multiple inhibitions on the signal- transduction pathway involved in H 2 O 2 -induced I NCX increase, providing an additional mechanism for F 2 alleviating intracellular Ca 2+ overload to protect against myocardial I/R injury.
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<p>Nd<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> Nanoparticles Induce Toxicity and Cardiac/Cerebrovascular Abnormality in Zebrafish Embryos via the Apoptosis Pathway</p>

<p>Nd<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> Nanoparticles Induce Toxicity and Cardiac/Cerebrovascular Abnormality in Zebrafish Embryos via the Apoptosis Pathway</p>

The 120 hpf embryos were stained using an in situ cell death detection kit (Roche, 12156792910). The zebra fi sh embryos were fi xed overnight at 4°C in freshly prepared 4% paraformaldehyde (Fix). The next day, they were washed in phosphate-buffered saline plus Tween (PBST), and increasing concentrations of methanol were used to measure the gradient of dehydration until 100% methanol overnight at − 20°C. On the third day of rehydration, the embryos were treated with Proteinase K (Sigma, P8044) for 30 mins and re fi xed for 1 hr. Subsequently, a TUNEL staining kit was used to stain the embryos in the dark for 3 hrs. When the staining was almost over, the staining con- ditions were observed with a stereo microscope to assess whether to stop reaction. After termination reaction, the embryos were observed under a confocal microscope.
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<p>GPX2 suppression of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> stress regulates cervical cancer metastasis and apoptosis via activation of the &beta;-catenin-WNT pathway</p>

<p>GPX2 suppression of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> stress regulates cervical cancer metastasis and apoptosis via activation of the &beta;-catenin-WNT pathway</p>

Total RNA was extracted from cervical cancer cell lines with RNAiso Plus (TaKaRa Biotechnology, Dalian, China). RNA reverse transcription was performed using a PrimeScript ™ RT reagent kit with gDNA Eraser (TaKaRa Biotechnology, Dalian, China). qRT-PCR analyses of GPX2, TCF-1 and cyclin D1 were performed using a SYBR Green qRT-PCR kit (TaKaRa Biotechnology, Dalian, China) according to the manufacturer ’ s protocol. Speci fi city was determined by melting curve analysis, and β -actin was used as an internal control for the normal- ization of mRNA levels. The primers used for GPX2 were 5-GACACGAGGAAACCGAAGCA-3 and 5-GGCCCT TCACAACGTCT-3; those used for TCF-1 were 5-GGT CCTACGTTCACCAACACA-3 and 5-CTCTGGGTCAC ATGGCTCT; and those used for cyclin D1 were 5-TGG AGCCCGTGAAAAAGAGC-3 and 5-TCTCCTTCATCT TAGAGGCCAC-3. The primers used for β -actin were 5- CATGTACGTTGCTATCCAGGC-3 and 5-CTCCTTAAT GTCACGGACGAT-3 (GenePharma, Suzhou, China). All experiments were performed three times. Data analysis was performed using the 2 −ΔΔCt method.
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In vitro toxicity of Fe<sub>m</sub>O<sub>n</sub>, Fe<sub>m</sub>O<sub>n</sub>-SiO<sub>2</sub> composite, and SiO<sub>2</sub>-Fe<sub>m</sub>O<sub>n</sub> core-shell magnetic nanoparticles

In vitro toxicity of Fe<sub>m</sub>O<sub>n</sub>, Fe<sub>m</sub>O<sub>n</sub>-SiO<sub>2</sub> composite, and SiO<sub>2</sub>-Fe<sub>m</sub>O<sub>n</sub> core-shell magnetic nanoparticles

Three different methods of IONP synthesis are shown in schematic form in Figure 1. According to TEM imaging, bare IONPs were rod-shaped with mean sizes of 10.5 ± 2.57 nm in diameter and 42.7 ± 6.82 nm in length (Figure 2A), suggesting that the nucleation process was initiated by γ -Fe 2 O 3 . Using TEM characterization, Fe m O n -SiO 2 composite flake-like and SiO 2 -Fe m O n core-shell IONPs demonstrated spherical shape with mean diameter of 98 ± 22 and 101 ± 19 nm, respectively (Figure 2B–E). Fe m O n -SiO 2 composite IONPs consisted of irregularly ordered nanoflakes of iron oxide and silica (Figure 2B, inset). In TEM images of SiO 2 -Fe m O n core-shell IONPs, silica core was not visible probably because of the interference of electron-dense iron oxide shell (Figure 2C, inset). Atomic force microscopy images show no visible aggregates of Fe m O n -SiO 2 composite IONPs (Figure 2D) and aggregation of SiO 2 -Fe m O n core-shell IONPs (Figure 2E) on a glass substrate. The aggregates of SiO 2 -Fe m O n core-shell IONPs are presumably forming during their drying because of an increase of concentration. Hydrodynamic diameters did not differ between Fe m O n -SiO 2 composite flake-like and SiO 2 - Fe m O n core-shell IONPs and were close to their original size, whereas bare IONPs demonstrated significant aggregation that does not allow estimation of their size using DLS because this method is only applicable for particles ,10 µ m (Figure 2F). Mass magnetization curves of IONPs are shown in Figure 2G. The saturation mass magnetization (M) of Fe m O n -SiO 2 com- posite and SiO 2 -Fe m O n core-shell IONPs was estimated to be 11.0 emu/g, whereas uncoated IONPs were characterized by M = 37.2 emu/g. The lower saturation mass magnetization of SiO 2 -containing IONPs is most likely explained by the pres- ence of nonmagnetic silica inclusions. The lack of hysteresis loop on magnetization curves for all three types of IONPs indicates a superparamagnetic behavior of the nanoparticles.
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Vancomycin-modified Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>@SiO<sub>2</sub>@Ag microflowers as effective antimicrobial agents

Vancomycin-modified Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>@SiO<sub>2</sub>@Ag microflowers as effective antimicrobial agents

A newly developed Van/Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @Ag microflower with enhanced antibacterial activity is experimentally and theoretically presented in this study. The obtained microcomposite comprised three parts: a submicron-scale magnetic core to provide sufficient magnetic response property, a flower-like Ag shell to build highly active areas for Ag ion release and bacterial contact, and an ultrathin vancomycin layer to bind to the bacterial cell wall and increase the cell membrane permeability. The detailed nanostructures of the products were characterized by HRTEM, SEM, EDX, XRD, and elemental mapping analyses. The Van/Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @Ag microflowers can rapidly and effectively kill both E. coli and MRSA at low concentrations. The killing efficiency can be increased to a high level. The MIC of the enhanced effect of the Van/ Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @Ag microflowers decreased by ∼ 60% for E. coli and 63.5% for MRSA compared with that using only Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @Ag microflowers. Thus, we think the effectiveness of vancomycin-modified Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @Ag microflowers against resistant strains such as MRSA pro- vides a very simple but highly efficient strategy to combat drug-resistant bacterial infections. Moreover, the magnetic property renders the Van/Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @Ag microflowers to be facilely controlled by an orientation magnetic field after antibacterial behavior. The recovered products can then be reused many times. We further demonstrated that the antimicrobial effect of the fabricated Van/Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @Ag microflower was maintained at no less than 90% after cycling for five times, indicating the high stability of the product. Hence, the Van/Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @Ag microflowers are potential effective and recyclable antibacterial agent for medical and environmental applications.
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Mass Spectrometry Study of Reactive Species in a Microhollow Cathode Discharge in He<sup>+</sup>H<sub>2</sub>O Mixtures

Mass Spectrometry Study of Reactive Species in a Microhollow Cathode Discharge in He<sup>+</sup>H<sub>2</sub>O Mixtures

For a wide variety of applications of the MHCD plasmas, a large amount of reactive species should be generated at high efficiency. For this purpose, nonequilibrium high-density plasmas with a long-reaction cavity that ensures a long residence time of the working gas flow are required. Recently, we have found that the use of a microhollow cathode with a long cavity satisfying 2L/D6 (L: length, D: diameter) enables us to generate stable negative glow plasmas over a wide range of working gas pressures up to atmospheric pressure, even under high-current-discharge conditions [7]. Moreover, the optical emission spectroscopy revealed that the plasma had high electron density of (2-5) × 10 14 cm  3 and low gas temperature of 400-800
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Toxicity evaluation of Gd<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>@SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in liquid as MRI contrast agents in vivo

Toxicity evaluation of Gd<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>@SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in liquid as MRI contrast agents in vivo

growth period were incubated with different concentrations of Gd-NPs (2 × phosphate buffered saline [PBS], 10 µ M, 1 µ M, and 100 nM) in DMEM (Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium) at 37 ° C, 5% CO 2 . The L-929 cells treated only with culture media served as negative controls, lipopolysaccharide (500 ng/mL) was used as the positive control. All groups were cultured for 24 and 48 hours post-treatment. We then added 20 µ L of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) to each well for another 4 hours of incubation, then removed the culture medium and replaced with 100 µ L DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide), followed by 10 minutes of incubation. The absorbance at 490 nm was measured by a microplate reader (Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc., Hercules, CA, USA).
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