PA, palmitic acid

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Berberine Protects Glomerular Podocytes via Inhibiting Drp1-Mediated Mitochondrial Fission and Dysfunction

Berberine Protects Glomerular Podocytes via Inhibiting Drp1-Mediated Mitochondrial Fission and Dysfunction

FFA: free fatty acid; DKD: diabetic kidney disease; BBR: berberine; PA: palmitic acid; ROS: reactive oxygen species; Drp1: dynamin-related protein 1; mtDNA: mitochondrial DNA; ATP: adeno- sine triphosphate; MMP: mitochondrial membrane potential; MOM: mitochondrial outer membrane; GFB: glomerular filtration barrie; mtROS: mitochon- drial ROS; DM: diabetes mellitus; SDs: slit diaphragm proteins; MMP-9: matrix metalloproteinase-9; TEM: transmission electron microscope; mtBax: mitochon- dria Bax; DCFH-DA: 2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescein diacet- ate; NAC: antioxidant N-acetylcysteine; NDGA: nordihydroguaiaretic acid; MDA: malondialdehyde; MID51 and MID49: mitochondrial dynamics proteins of 51 and 49 kDa; FIS1: mitochondrial fission protein 1; MFF: mitochondrial fission protein; PGC1α: per- oxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator 1α; TFAM: mitochondrial transcription factor A; NRF1 and NRF2: nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2; ND1: NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1; GBM: glom- erular basement membrane; DHE: dihydroethidium; HE: hematoxylin-eosin; PAS: periodic acid–schiff; FBG: fasting blood glucose; TG: triglyceride; ACR: microalbumin-to-creatinine ratios; NF-κB: nuclear factor-κB; TLR4: toll-like receptor 4; PI3K: phosphati- dylinositol 3 kinase; AKT: protein kinase B; TGFβ: transforming growth factor-β; AGEs: advanced glyca- tion end products; RAGE: receptor of advanced glycation end products.
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Cryptococcal Lipid Metabolism: Phospholipase B1 Is Implicated in Transcellular Metabolism of Macrophage-Derived Lipids

Cryptococcal Lipid Metabolism: Phospholipase B1 Is Implicated in Transcellular Metabolism of Macrophage-Derived Lipids

Effect of PLB1 on cryptococcal uptake and metabolism of exogenous lipids. (i) Fatty acid uptake. The uptake and incor- poration of exogenous radiolabeled AA, PA, and OA into cryptococcal lipids from packed cell suspensions (stationary phase) were compared in three different media (see Materials and Methods). These were (i) imidazole buffer (pH 5.5) con- taining 1% glucose, close to the optimal pH for PLB1 activity and also close to pH values found in cryptococcomas and inside macrophages (21, 29); (ii) YNB containing 0.5% glucose at pH 7.3, close to the physiological pH; and (iii) 10 ⫻ YNB at pH 7.3, providing an osmotic stress analogous to that provided by cryptococcal polyols at sites of infection (16, 17), predom- inantly by the addition of 5% glucose. Previously, we showed that this medium markedly increased the secretion of active PLB from cryptococci (H99) and their adhesion to lung epi- thelial cells (14). Radiolabeled AA, PA, and OA were each taken up into lipids extracted from packed cell suspensions of the H99 and ⌬ plb1 strains to the same extent in the three different media after a 24-h incubation period. Oleic acid was taken up most avidly, followed by palmitic acid and arachi- donic acid (shown for incubation in buffer-glucose at pH 5.5 in Fig. 1A).
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Protection of palmitic acid-mediated lipotoxicity by arachidonic acid via channeling of palmitic acid into triglycerides in C2C12

Protection of palmitic acid-mediated lipotoxicity by arachidonic acid via channeling of palmitic acid into triglycerides in C2C12

indicative of apoptotic cell death, was checked after cells were loaded with PA or with PA and unsaturated fatty acids (Figure 2A). Treatment of C2C12 with PA induced obviously DNA cleavage, and AA but not ETYA pre- vented more effectively PA-caused DNA laddering than did POA or OA. Apoptosis is associated with a wide set of biochemical and physical changes in cytoplasm, nu- cleus and plasma membrane. However, the alteration in the mitochondrial permeability transition precedes cellu- lar apoptosis, that is, mitochondrial opening induces depolarization of the transmembrane potential with con- comitant release of apoptogenic factors and loss of oxi- dative phosphorylation. In this presentation, changes in mitochondrial potential of C2C12 cells exposed to PA were measured by using JC-1 (Figure 2B). As apoptotic progression undergoes, the electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial membrane collapses and is aptly monitored by JC-1 dye. PA caused a decrease in mito- chondrial membrane potential, which was indicated by the increased ratio of fluorescence (485 nm/530 nm). Fur- thermore, PA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction was re- versed to the control level by AA. In contrast, ETYA did
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Oleic Acid Attenuates Palmitic Acid-Induced Impairments in Mouse Blastocyst Development

Oleic Acid Attenuates Palmitic Acid-Induced Impairments in Mouse Blastocyst Development

When developmental stage of the embryos after culture was visually assessed through phase contrast microscopy, the percentage of embryos that had reached the blastocyst stage with OA at all concentrations tested was no different than controls. This novel and intriguing finding contrasted greatly to the discovery I made during my undergraduate thesis (Appendix A), where concentrations of PA as low as 50 M decreased the proportion of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage. These PA levels, which were ten-fold lower than the 500 M OA treatment, were capable of interfering with preimplantation mouse development to impair an embryo’s capacity to develop to the blastocyst stage in culture. The PA and OA were included in culture conjugated to BSA such that increasing PA or OA content the medium would increase the BSA content to which embryos were exposed. Controls accounting for the highest and lowest BSA content were included and confirmed that the high BSA content did not alter blastocyst development. This showed that with higher OA concentration, BSA content was not a confounding factor in and of itself and was not harmful or beneficial to embryo culture. When investigating the role of PA and OA in placental trophoblasts, Colvin et al. exposed trophoblast cells to normal or obese levels of PA and OA 63 . In lean individuals, PA and OA are each found at roughly 100 M concentrations in human serum, however concentrations are higher in obese individuals at 200-400 M each 58,63,64 . The concentrations of PA and OA in this and my study were very
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Effect of culture conditions on growth, lipid content, and fatty acid composition of Aurantiochytrium mangrovei strain BL10

Effect of culture conditions on growth, lipid content, and fatty acid composition of Aurantiochytrium mangrovei strain BL10

This study explored the influence of various culture conditions on the biomass, lipid content, production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fatty acid composition of Aurantiochytrium mangrovei strain BL10. The variables examined in this study include the species and concentration of salt, the concentrations of the two substrates glucose and yeast extract, the level of dissolved oxygen, the cerulenin treatment, and the stages of BL10 growth. Our results demonstrate that BL10 culture produces maximum biomass when salinity levels are between 0.2 and 3.0%. Decreasing salinity to 0.1% resulted in a considerable decrease in the biomass, lipid content, DHA production, and DHA to palmitic acid (PA) (DHA/PA) ratio, signifying deterioration in the quality of the oil produced. The addition of 0.9% sodium sulfate to replenish salinity from 0.1% to 1.0% successfully recovered biomass, lipid content and DHA production levels; however, this also led to a decrease in DHA/PA ratio. An increase in oxygen and cerulenin levels resulted in a concomitant decrease in the DHA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (DHA/DPA) ratio in BL10 oil. Furthermore, the DHA/DPA and DHA/PA ratios varied considerably before and after the termination of cell division, which occurred around the 24 hour mark. These results could serve as a foundation for elucidating the biochemistry underlying the accumulation of lipids, and a definition of the extrinsic (environmental or nutritional) and intrinsic (cell growth stage) factors that influence lipid quality and the production of DHA by BL10.
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Original Article Polyenylphosphatidylcholine alleviates palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress

Original Article Polyenylphosphatidylcholine alleviates palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress

Abstract: Polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) can reduce hyperlipidemia, relieve arteriosclerosis and decrease tri- glyceride. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) could alleviate apoptosis induced by palmitic acid (PA), and explore the possible molecular mechanisms in HepG2 cells. In this study, MTT assay was performed to identify the cell viability after PA (50, 100, 150 and 200 μmol/L) treatment for 24 h in HepG2 cells. The cell viability was significantly decreased by PA treatment in a dose dependent manner. Flow cytometry confirmed that co-incubation of PPC reduced PA-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the secretion level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was conspicuously reduced after PPC treatment using enzyme-linked immunosor- bent assay (ELISA). We observed that treatment of the cells with PA resulted in activation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress (ERS) associated proteins including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed that the expression levels of Bcl- 2 associated X protein (Bax) and B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) were significantly regulated and the expression levels of GRP78 and CHOP were dramatically decreased by co-incubation of PPC. These results suggested that PPC could alleviate cell apoptosis and reduce the ERS-related proteins expressions after cells pre-treatment with PA, which showed that ERS might play an important role in cell apoptosis caused by PA.
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Investigation on Fatty Acid Composition of Oil Extracted from Carica papayaL. Seed

Investigation on Fatty Acid Composition of Oil Extracted from Carica papayaL. Seed

A mixture of methyl esters of twelve fatty acids (Capric acid, Caprilic acid, Lauric acid, Myristic acid, Palmotelic acid, Palmitic acid, Linolic acid, Oleic acid, Stearic acid, Arachidic acid, Behenic acid and Lignoceric acid) standard was used as the reference. The identification of fatty acids were done by comparing retention times of the samples with that of the corresponding fatty acid standards in the chromatograms. Quantification was carried out by the accounting the areas of individual fatty acids and the results were expressed in terms of the relative percentages. The amount of individual fatty acids present in the seed oil was calculated by using the following equation and the retention time, name of fatty acid and area under the peak were taken from sample chromatogram.
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ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND GCMS ANALYSIS OF THE EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF RHIZOPHORA APICULATA (A MANGROVE PLANT)

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND GCMS ANALYSIS OF THE EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF RHIZOPHORA APICULATA (A MANGROVE PLANT)

The widespread reports in recent years on useful biological activities of tritepenes, indicate their potential. Triterpenes are found to show antitumor, anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory activity (Mahato et al., 1997). In the present investigation hexane and chloroform extracts of Rhizophora apiculata were found to contain triterpene hydrocarbon, urs-12 ene (>30 and 10%, respectively). Ursolic acid was reported to be cytotoxic against A- 549, L-1210 and KB tumour cells (Yamagishi et al., 1988). 23-Hydroxy-3-oxo-urs-l 2-en- 28- oic acid was found to exhibit anti-ulcer properties (Fourie et al., 1989). So, the antimicrobial activity of present study may be due to terpenes and sesquiterpenes (Bryon and Eric, 2003). The fatty acids composition of the leaf is also studied by FAME analysis. It mainly contains palmitic acid as major constituent (54.65%). Two important poly unsaturated fatty acids i.e., Linoleic acid (w-6, 1.54%) and 9, 11-0ctadecadienoic acid (3.25%) are also present along with arachidic acid (2.56%).
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A study of the fatty acid profile in the muscle of Monopterus chuchia

A study of the fatty acid profile in the muscle of Monopterus chuchia

esters (FAME) mixture obtained was analyzed using a Shimadzu Gas Chromatograph (Model: GC-2010, Shimadzu, Japan) with a Flame ionization detector (FID) on a split injector. A SP-2560 capillary column (100 m long x 0.25 mm i.d) was used for FAME analysis. Oxygen free nitrogen was used as a carrier gas at a flow rate of 33.9 ml/minute. The initial oven temperature was 140 °C for 5 minutes which was slowly raised to 240 °C at a rate of 4 °C / min. and finally held at 240 °C for 20 minutes. The injector and detector temperature were finally set at 260 °C. Volume injected 1 µl; split ratio, 1:30. Peaks obtained were identified by comparison of their retention times with that of standard fatty acid methyl esters. The percentage compositions of the samples under investigation were computed from the G.C peak areas. The results obtained were placed in Table 1.
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Beta-palmitate – a natural component of human milk in supplemental milk formulas

Beta-palmitate – a natural component of human milk in supplemental milk formulas

The composition and function of human milk is unique and gives a basis for the development of modern artificial milk formulas that can provide an appropriate substitute for non-breastfed infants. Although human milk is not fully substitutable, modern milk formulas are attempting to mimic human milk and partially substitute its complex biological positive effects on infants. Besides the immunomodulatory factors from human milk, research has been focused on the composition and structure of human milk fat with a high content of β -palmitic acid ( sn-2 palmitic acid, β -palmitate). According to the available studies, increasing the content of β -palmitate added to milk formulas promotes several beneficial physiological functions. β -palmitate positively influences fatty acid metabolism, increases calcium absorption, improves bone matrix quality and the stool consistency, and has a positive effect on the development of the intestinal microbiome.
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A REVIEW ON LEPIDIUM SATIVUMAsra Jabeen*, Dr. S. Rani,  Dr. Mohammed Ibrahim, Abdul Saleem MohammadDOWNLOAD/VIEW

A REVIEW ON LEPIDIUM SATIVUMAsra Jabeen*, Dr. S. Rani, Dr. Mohammed Ibrahim, Abdul Saleem MohammadDOWNLOAD/VIEW

alpha linoleic acid which could give it nutritional advantages (Diwakara et al., 2008). The primary fatty acids in Lepidium sativum oil were oleic and linolenic acids and was found to contain high concentrations of tocopherols. It contains good amount of lignans and antioxidants, which can stabilize the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in its seed oil. The primary phytosterols in Lepidium sativum were sitosterol and campesterol, with avenasterol. The plant is known to contain imidazole, lepidine, semilepidinoside A and B, β-carotenes, ascorbic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, sinapic acid and sinapin. Benefits of Garden Cress [16-21]
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Oil of Mesua ferrea L. Seed as a Promising Pharmaceutical Excipient in Lipid Based Nanoformulation

Oil of Mesua ferrea L. Seed as a Promising Pharmaceutical Excipient in Lipid Based Nanoformulation

The separation and identification of the components of the M. ferrea L. Oil was performed by analytical TLC method using some probable standard components along with the test sample (Asha 2015). TLC plates were prepared by pouring thick slurry of silica gel G on a glass plate (15cm×20 cm) followed by activation of the plate by heating at 120˚C for 30 minutes. Standard components (oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, myristic acid, cholesterol, vitamin E) and the sample were dissolved in petroleum ether and the spot was applied on the TLC plate with capillary tubes (Sasidharan et al., 2011). The spots were air dried and TLC was run with ternary mixture of n-Hexane, diethyl ether, acetic acid (70:30:1) as the mobile phase. The diluted sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 :H 2 O = 1:9) was
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Method of Making Fatty Acid N Acylalkanolamines

Method of Making Fatty Acid N Acylalkanolamines

radecenoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmi toleic acid, cis-9-hexadecenoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, heptadecenoic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic[r]

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Phycochemical Property of Pithophora Oedogonia (Mont). Wittrock With Special Reference to its Neutraceutical Significance

Phycochemical Property of Pithophora Oedogonia (Mont). Wittrock With Special Reference to its Neutraceutical Significance

The fatty acid composition of the alga was estimated per unit lipid vide Materials and Methods. Thirteen fatty acids, namely undecanoic acid, lauric acid, tridecanoic acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, heptadecanoic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, cis-linoleic acid and arachidonic acid were detected in GC in the lipid sample of the alga (Table 2). Palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, cis-linoleic acid and arachidonic acid are the unsaturated fatty acids present in the sample and they constituted nearly 64% of the total fatty acid fraction. cis-linoleic acid and the saturated arachidic acid formed the bulk of total fatty acids. Cis-linoleic acid alone constituted 50% of the total content while arachidic acid took a share of 26%. The rest of the fatty acids were present in quantities less than 6.0 mg/g.
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Genetic analysis of oleic acid and linoleic acid content in relation to oil quality in groundnut

Genetic analysis of oleic acid and linoleic acid content in relation to oil quality in groundnut

Backcross and introgression of novel traits are useful for genetic improvement in breeding programmes. Genetic variability is a prerequisite for genetic improvement but earlier reports indicated very limited genetic variability for O/L ratio in germplasm collection and advanced breeding lines (Hammond et al., 1997; Asibuo et al., 2008). Genetic variability for economic traits is the pre-requisite for any successful breeding programme as the degree of response to selection depends on the quantum of variability. Breeding programmes depend on the genetic systems controlling their inheritance and influence of genetic as well as environmental factors on their expression. The study of variation for the traits under selection and their heritability along with genetic advancement potentials are necessary to predict the response to selection. The study of components of genetic variance helps in further partitioning of genetic variance into additive and non-additive components for measuring the type of gene action involved in the expression of traits under consideration. Hence, an understanding of heritability and relationship between of oleic and linoleic acid with oil quality parameters are useful for planning effective selection procedure in evolving high O/L groundnut genotypes.
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The Effects of 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid
Identified from Bamboo (Dendrocalamus
asper) Shoots on Kv1.4 Channel

The Effects of 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid Identified from Bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) Shoots on Kv1.4 Channel

4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-hba) is a non- flavonoid phenolic compound from benzoic acid derivatives (BADs) along with other biocompounds such as salicylic acid, gallic acid and vanilic acid (18). It constitutes of aromatic benzene ring, hydroxyl substituent and functional derivative that influences the mechanisms, biological activities and properties (19). It is able to pass through blood vessels, blood brain barriers (BBB) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to its low molecular weight (138.12074 Da) (20). As to date, there are not many toxicity studies of this compound on human however, it has been recorded to be slightly irritating to skin and eyes and the maximum bodily intake is estimated to be 0.067 mg/kg/day (for body weight; 70 kg) (21). Other than being used in pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products, 4-hba has been reported to have antifungal, antialgal, antimutagenic, antisickling properties, extrogenic activity and used as trapping agent on hydroxyl radical generation using cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (22).
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In silico adme and biological activity assessment of natural phytoconstituents for anti alzheimer potential

In silico adme and biological activity assessment of natural phytoconstituents for anti alzheimer potential

From the data (Table 1), it was observed that among the 22 phytoconstituents were selected, Oleic acid, has high milog P value (7.15) followed by linoleic acid (6.73), palmitic acid and gallic acid(6.65) , Glycyrrhizic acid (6.63) etc. as per the Table 1 and least was for Asiaticoside (-.66). An orally active anti-Alzheimer’s phytoconstituents needs not only sufficient metabolic stability to maintain integrity in the intestine and liver but also should across the Blood-Brain

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Characterization and Fatty Acid Composition of Amoora rohituka Seed and Leaf Oils

Characterization and Fatty Acid Composition of Amoora rohituka Seed and Leaf Oils

under vacuum, leaf oil was obtained. The total oil was weighed and stored under nitrogen at 4°C for further analysis. The visible color of the leaf oil was dark green. The weight of oil extracted from per kg of seeds and leaves (powder form) were determined to calculate the oil content. Both seed and leaf oils were liquid in state at room temperature. The chemical analyses of the seed and leaf oils (including acid values, iodine values and saponification values) were performed according to the methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists 24 and the results have been placed in
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Feasibility of Using NIR Spectroscopy with SVM to Identify Kinds of Oil in Character Components

Feasibility of Using NIR Spectroscopy with SVM to Identify Kinds of Oil in Character Components

The collected near-infrared spectral data was used as the input value of the SVR model to establish a quantitative prediction model for the iodine value, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid content, set the correlation coefficient R and the root mean square error RMSE as evaluation standard to obtain the quantitative detection model parameter table shown in Table 2 and Table 3.

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PRODUCTION OF DESIGNER FOOD: EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF OMEGA -3 – FATTY ACIDS ENRICHED SOURCES ON FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF CHICKEN EGG AND MEAT

PRODUCTION OF DESIGNER FOOD: EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF OMEGA -3 – FATTY ACIDS ENRICHED SOURCES ON FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF CHICKEN EGG AND MEAT

From the table, it was observed that there was significant decrease in values of palmitic and stearic acids in all treated groups. However in control group, the breast meat showed the higher values of the above acids when compared to thigh meat. Oleic, linoleic, linolenic acids, EPA, DHA and total n- 3 fatty acids in breast and thigh meat of broilers fed n-3 lipid sources were highly significant (P<0.01).

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