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Jostling for Position: The Future of Regional Power-Sharing and the Role of the Pacific Islands Forum

Jostling for Position: The Future of Regional Power-Sharing and the Role of the Pacific Islands Forum

omon Islander staff. The methodology utilised by RAMSI in this strengthening mission was heavily criticised by Solomon Islands government during the Prime Ministership of Manasseh Sogavare (Dobell 2007a; Unknown 2007). High amongst Sogavare’s con- cerns was the fact that Australians were undertaking the roles of Solomon Islanders, and consequently RAMSI was seen to be act- ing as a parallel government in Solomon Islands (Nanau 2008: 151-53). The Australian Federal government did not react well to criticism from the Sogavare government with the Australian gov- ernment expressing sentiments that Solomon Islands was being somewhat ungrateful for the expensive assistance being provided by Australia (McDougall 2006). The diplomatic rows that had de- veloped during the 2006-7 period brought about a shift in the type of international relations practiced between Australia and Solomon Islands. Until this point the Pacific Islands Forum had kept a relatively low profile in the activities of RAMSI, so despite the PIF being the official patron of RAMSI it was largely an Aus- tralian-led and financed intervention (See Hayward-Jones 2014). Channels of communication between Australia and SIG were frayed and this was exacerbated by international altercations be- tween high-ranking Australian and Solomon Islands representa- tives, such as Patterson Oti representing RAMSI as a neo-colonist mission in the United Nations General Assembly (STO 2007), and the open letter from Foreign Minister Alexander Downer to the Solomon Islands people criticising the actions of the Sogavare government (Dobell 2007b). The heavy influence of Australia in RAMSI did not stop following the diplomatic stoushes of this pe- riod, rather the lines of strategic communication between Austral- ia and RAMSI, and separately, the Pacific Islands Forum, RAMSI and SIG came to be seen as requiring alteration. The methods that would eventually be utilised by RAMSI, Australia and Solo- mon Islands to regulate and control this international diplomatic dispute would require active assistance from an intermediary, the Pacific Islands Forum.
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Implementation and Enforcement of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora in the South Pacific Region: Management and Scientific Authorities

Implementation and Enforcement of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora in the South Pacific Region: Management and Scientific Authorities

The politics that have existed throughout the South Pacific have often acted against the development of cooperative environmental frameworks. Many newly independent States throughout the Pacific have, in the past, been primarily concerned with their internal security following independence. With an increase in regional and subregional cooperation beginning in the 1970s, this has changed. Initially many of the cooperative initiatives took place at the subregional level with the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) being the most substantive example. Other institutions, such as the Secretariat of the Pacific Community and later, the Pacific Islands Forum, also played a role and there has been a gradual development of subregional and regional environmental cooperation. 115 There are currently four major international organisations
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Subregionalism and transgovernmentalism in the emerging regional architecture for Asian human rights governance

Subregionalism and transgovernmentalism in the emerging regional architecture for Asian human rights governance

Finally, it seems likely that the new subregional organizations will have a beneficial effect on the effectiveness of transgovernmental networks. This is a thesis that was most prominently proposed by Kal Raustiala. For one thing, the subregional organizations will be a source of norms and policies that can potentially assist the transgovernmental networks by regionalizing human rights norms that might otherwise seem like they are being imposed by the west (or simply acting as a regional conduit for universal norms). 129 Subregional organizations can also be a source of funding. For example, the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat recently provided funding for a meeting of the Members of Parliament on the Pacific Plan (a subregional
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Pacific Islands Families Study: Risk and Protective Factors Associated with  Delinquent Behaviour in Pacific  11 Year Olds

Pacific Islands Families Study: Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Delinquent Behaviour in Pacific 11 Year Olds

Regression analyses revealed that boys exhibited greater delinquency than girls (AOR = 1.33, p < 0.05). Some ethnic variation was evident, with the “Other” group having close to half the odds of delinquency compared to Samoans (AOR = 0.56, p < 0.01), although neither Tongans nor Cook Islands Māori were different from Samo- ans. Among children who identified with multiple ethnic groups, those who reported that it led to difficulties had higher odds of delinquency than those who didn’t (AOR = 1.68, p < 0.05), whereas those with a single ethnic identification showed no difference. In addition, some variation with maternal acculturation revealed that com- pared to the assimilator group (low Pacific, high NZ), the odds of delinquency in the integrator group (high Pa- cific, high NZ) was significantly lower (AOR = 0.56, p < 0.05).
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Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)

Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)

Based on the results of this study compared to historical analyses, the overall incidence of ciguatera per 100,000 people appears to have increased significantly in the Pacific comparing 1973–1983 (mean104 cases/100,000 [14]) with 1998–2008 (mean194/100,000). There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods (Figure 1). Two nations which exemplify the potential degree of change in incidence of ciguatera are the Cook Islands, where the incidence rose from 2/100,000 to 1,554/100,000 between the two time periods; and Tuvalu, where the incidence decreased from 462/ Figure 1. Annual incidence of ciguatera in the Pacific. Mean annual incidence (per 100,000 people) of ciguatera across Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICT) from 1973–2008 are reported. Hawaii, North Marianas, Marshall Islands and Palau were omitted because comparable data was not available for both time periods.
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Seattle and Beyond: The WTO Millennium Round

Seattle and Beyond: The WTO Millennium Round

Tax breaks can also constitute export subsidies under the SCM. Agreement. This was underlined by a WTO panel decision released in July 1999 on an EU challenge of the US Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC) program. Under this program, US corporations, including such giants as Microsoft and Boeing, get a 64-per-cent corporate tax reduction on profits earned by offshore subsidiaries on exports of goods that have a high level of US content. These subsidiaries are located mainly in the Virgin Islands, but also in Barbados and Guam. The Foreign Sales Corporation is a major incentive estimated by the EU to cost the US Treasury US$2 billion per year. The EU charged that this tax reduction constituted a prohibited export subsidy and gave US goods an unfair price advantage in foreign markets. The panel agreed and ordered that the program be abolished before October 1, 2000. This was the same fate as a predecessor program called the Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC), suffered at the hands of a GATT panel in 1976. Apparently, the changes to the program were not sufficient to make it WTO- consistent.
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The impact of the Galapagos Islands on the dynamics of the equatorial East Pacific

The impact of the Galapagos Islands on the dynamics of the equatorial East Pacific

driven by westerly wind bursts (WWBs), episodes of anomalously westerly (eastward) wind in the central and western equatorial Pacific. The specific connection between WWBs and the downwelling events identified at 110W has been examined using the WWB classification of Hartten (1996), which covers the period from 1st January 1980 until 31st December 1989. Hartten examined the ECMWF wind archive for the 1980s and produced a list of the start and end dates of all the WWBs that occurred during

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The ASEAN Regional Forum and Security Governance in Asia-Pacific

The ASEAN Regional Forum and Security Governance in Asia-Pacific

When it comes to assurance, both ASEAN and the ARF seek to disseminate the norms associated with the ASEAN way, but there is no evidence of post-conflict reconstruction or peace-building found in the European theater. As can be seen in the Co-Chair’s Report of the Meeting of the ASEAN Regional Forum Inter-Sessional Support Group on Confidence Building Measures and Preventive Diplomacy in Ottawa, Canada, 3-4 April 2008, a number of participants expressed their deep concern about the situation in Myanmar and called for the release of all political prisoners. 22 They also urged Myanmar to make “meaningful and expeditious progress towards democratic reform and national reconciliation.” 23 But the ARF goes no further than that and stays
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Design of an Energy Storage System for Pacific Islands

Design of an Energy Storage System for Pacific Islands

When a non-electrified village starts to use electricity the inhabitants do not have many electric products. The only need they have is for a few light sources. When people get used to the usage of energy and trust it, their energy usage will develop. In documents of the United Nations is described that Pacific rural households have an entry energy use level rate of 0.2 kWh/day and an end level rate of 2 kWh/day [7]. In this document is estimated that these households exist out of 5 persons. A level rate of 0.2 kWh/day means a household at the entry level can have 2 saving energy lamps for 8 hours per day, while a household at end level is equivalent to 1 fridge, 1 mobile charger, 1 radio, 1 glow lamp, 2 saving energy lamps and 1 ventilator on average use. The specifications of both villages can be seen in table 2.1. From data of several rural area projects [3], [8] can be concluded that the capacity of the small village is around 10 kW and the big village is 200 kW.
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Effects of climate change on mangroves relevant to the Pacific Islands

Effects of climate change on mangroves relevant to the Pacific Islands

Mangroves grow between mean sea-level and mean high water (Figure 2), and zonation across this profile of mangrove species is controlled by inundation frequency of tidal waters. With RSLR, these tidal conditions under which mangroves grow are altered, so the growth and survival of existing trees is affected. Increased sea level rates of rise have great potential impact on mangroves, however, where mangroves can continue to accumulate sediments at appropriate rates, the effects will be less severe. Mangrove inundation related mortality may be mitigated if mangrove substrates can “keep up” with rising sea level by accretion, which can be promoted by mangrove biogeomorphic processes of autogenic accumulation and mineral sediment trapping (Ellison, in press). However, mangroves with low tidal range and low sediment supply could be submerged as early as 2070, including northern Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands (Lovelock et al., 2015). The Pacific islands region is micro-tidal with tidal ranges mostly around 1 m, which will cause their mangroves to have greater vulnerability relative to macro-tidal mangroves (Ellison, 2012b; 2015).
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Rapid mortality transition of Pacific Islands in the 19th century

Rapid mortality transition of Pacific Islands in the 19th century

Pacific islands were the last places on earth that humans reached as Melanesians expanded from New Guinea, and Polynesians voyaged in ocean-going canoes to more distant and isolated islands.(1) Over millennia this resulted in great genetic diversity between islands but a large degree of genetic homogeneity on any particular island due to founder effects.(2) The Pacific islands were also the last area contacted by Western explorers on missions of discovery and colonization. Soon after first contact of island societies with distant populations was established, lethal infectious disease epidemics began.(3) Despite the outsiders often having no obvious illness, epidemics of poorly characterized respiratory and gastrointestinal infections devastated isolated Pacific island populations, severely dislocating and at times destroying their social systems.(4) These events pre-dated the understanding of microbes as the cause of infectious diseases such that the collapse of indigenous island populations was often interpreted in racial terms. Yet even after the development of germ theory, notions of white superiority persisted into the 20 th century: “Only a race which has undergone evolution against the
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The New Regionalism: Comparing the Development of the EC Single Integrated Market, NAFTA and APEC

The New Regionalism: Comparing the Development of the EC Single Integrated Market, NAFTA and APEC

The study of regions in international relations has been a sometime thing, gaining scholarly attention in the 1950s and 1960s, dropping largely from view in the 1970s, and returning to focus quite dramatically in the late 1980s and early 1990s. It is clear that the contemporary manifestations of regionalism (the completion of the internal market of the European Communities in 1992, Asia Pacific developments, and US-centred Western hemisphere moves) constitute a new and qualitatively different factor in both interstate relations and the international political economy. The growth in the development of regions in the 1980s also represents a new level of interstate collaboration in the international system. The question arises as to the causes of this 'new regionalism' of the 1980s, and the implications of these developments for international relations practice and theory. Investigating these issues is the main task of this thesis.
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Shocks and Prospects for a Pacific Islands Currency Union

Shocks and Prospects for a Pacific Islands Currency Union

This analysis will focus on six PICs namely, Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu because, firstly, they are fully independent sov- ereign states. These countries represent about 86% of the combined total population of all 22 combined PICs and Territories (PICTs), and about 36% of the total combined gross domestic product (GDP), including 95% of the total land area of all PICTs. These six PICs have their own currencies, exchange rate regimes and central banks. Hence, they determine their own domestic monetary (and fiscal) policies. Moreover, the six PICs share many common eco- nomic and physical characteristics, such as their depend- ence on imports and development aid, geographic isola- tion, vulnerability to terms of trade shocks and frequent natural disasters that Economists (see, e.g., [6]) argue are important considerations for a possible currency union.
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The Role of Europe in Enhancing Cooperative Security in Asia and the Pacific: A View from Japan  Egmont Security Policy Brief No  50, October 2013

The Role of Europe in Enhancing Cooperative Security in Asia and the Pacific: A View from Japan. Egmont Security Policy Brief No. 50, October 2013

European countries and NATO have started to invite PLA to their defense colleges and NATO Defence College. It will help PLA understand international manner and rules. It should be beneficial to China in reducing incidents and frictions. In the process of the transformation of the role of NATO, cooperative security has become one of the core tasks. Developing military exchanges and contact with China would be an important future agenda for NATO. NATO may organize a meeting with non-member countries with specific issues. In this forum, if Japan, China and other countries in Asia and the Pacific are invited, it will pave the way to their cooperation together. This may depend on the future evolution of NATO-China relations. The channel is not only through NATO, but also its member countries. As for the OSCE, China is not among its Asian Partners for Co- operation (Japan, ROK, Thailand, Afghanistan and Australia). Among the OSCE participating countries, Germany should have a role to play since traditionally, Germany has attached importance to this organization.
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War graves, munition dumps and pleasure grounds: a postcolonial perspective of Chuuk Lagoon’s submerged World War II sites

War graves, munition dumps and pleasure grounds: a postcolonial perspective of Chuuk Lagoon’s submerged World War II sites

Although historians initially used the term post-colonial as having chronological meanings related to the post World War period and the post-independence movement, it became a term that was used by literary critics to discuss the various impacts of colonization (Ashcroft et al. 1998: 186). French theorists Derrida and Focault in their analysis of discourse, power and knowledge, ‘have been used by people such as Edward Said, Gayatri Spivak and Homi Bhabha to uncover the Eurocentric biases of much First World discussion on colonialism, the nature of global culture and marginality within that culture in the present’ (Gosden 1999: 197). In Orientalism, Said (1978) maintained a basic premise that ‘the west has created and maintained a simplified, clichéd and essentialised view of the east through much of its history’ which concluded that the east was inferior and backward as compared to the west’s view of itself as democratic and progressive (Gosden 1999: 198). Much of the study into post-colonialism has been in investigating colonial texts but it can be seen in other areas such as in educational studies (Philips 1992), tourism (Biddlecomb 1981; Rajotte 1980; Tanirono 1980), material culture (Thomas 1991, 1994) and archaeology (Gosden 1999, 2004). Thomas (1994: 1) has considered, ‘to what extent did disciplines such as anthropology and development economics inform and legitimize the colonial projects of Western governments?’ to which Hanlon (1999: 69) noted in regard to Chuuk, and Micronesia in general, ‘the CIMA [Coordinated Investigation of Micronesian Anthropology in 1947] project, like the USCC [United States Commercial Company] survey, was commissioned to support military rule in the islands’. Goodenough (1951: 12) is of a similar view. Hanlon (1999: 70-71) is also of the view that many of the histories compiled through the CIMA program were histories of colonialism, which excluded islanders, and where local people were not seen as actors in making their own history.
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The Role of Europe in Enhancing Cooperative Security in Asia and the Pacific: A View from Japan  Egmont Security Policy Brief No  50, October 2013

The Role of Europe in Enhancing Cooperative Security in Asia and the Pacific: A View from Japan Egmont Security Policy Brief No 50, October 2013

If the territory under Japanese administration is attacked, the US has a legal obligation to defend Japan under article five of the Japan-US Security Treaty and the Obama government has made it clear to China many times. On the South China Sea, at the Ministerial Meeting of the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in July 2012, Secretary of State, Mrs. Clinton, explained the basic US position: “the United States has a national interest in the freedom of navigation, the maintenance of peace and stability, respect for international law, and unimpeded lawful commerce in the South China Sea…Each of us has followed closely the troubling recent developments in the South China Sea. None of us can fail to be concerned by the increase in tensions, the uptick in confrontational rhetoric, and disagreements over resource exploitation. We have seen worrisome instances of economic coercion and the problematic use of military and government vessels in connection with disputes among fishermen.” In the view of the US, not only the South China Sea, but also the East China Sea is important. The National
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How Did Zika Virus Emerge in the Pacific Islands and Latin America?

How Did Zika Virus Emerge in the Pacific Islands and Latin America?

Results. Two dated phylogenetic trees were constructed, and they pro- duced identical topologies for the named key nodes. The first tree (Fig. 1) displays the African viruses in a collapsed format and also includes Asian, Pacific, and Latin American ZIKV isolates (Fig. 1). For the second tree (not shown), the African viruses were excluded. The boxes in Fig. 1 con- nected by dashed lines to the tree identify all amino acid substitutions that occurred beyond each branch (identified as nodes A to G). The 9 high- lighted amino acids identified in boxes 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 identify substitu- tions that will be discussed in the context of epidemic emergence of ZIKV and GBS/microcephaly. The conclusions drawn from the tree suggest that the African and Asian strains diverged from their ancestor around 1834 (95% highest posterior density interval [HPD], November 1814 to August 1852 [formatted throughout by year-month as “1814-11 to 1852-08”]) (node 1). The most recent common ancestor of the sylvatic African ZIKV emerged around 1889 (95% HPD, 1879-03 to 1898-01) (node 2). Further- more, our analyses and supporting data extend the accumulating evidence (13, 14) that the Asian ZIKV emerged around 1946 (95% HPD, 1942-04 to 1953-10) based on the analysis, including African and Asian viruses, or around 1966 (95% HPD, 1964-02 to 1966-07), based on analysis includ- ing only Asian viruses. Importantly, none of the identified substitutions
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Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE)   part I  Scientific background

Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) part I Scientific background

dynamics induce the meanders. The quasi-permanent character of the baro- clinic eddies would be associated with a “topographic coupling” between the upper and abyssal ocean. However, in the Tilburg et al. model, the EAC variabil- ity and the southward outflows were far from realistic. The EAC demonstrates a strong seasonal cycle with maximum alongshore flow in the summer (Ridgway and Godfrey, 1997), and the origin of this seasonality is not well understood. The variability is indeed as large as the mean flow, with a 30 Sv-rms variability for a 22 Sv mean transport at 30 ◦ S (Mata et al., 2000). The region of highest sur- face variability lies above an abyssal cul-de-sac basin adjacent to the western boundary. Much of this variability arises from the production and propagation of mesoscale eddies whose trajectories follow complex patterns that resonate within the deep basin at periods of 100 and 150 days. The origins of the eddies is not clearly understood, those being either generated by strong local insta- bility or controlled by remotely forced Rossby waves from the eastern Pacific (Bowen et al., 2005; Ridgway, 2006).
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