of literature revealed a wide range of works on the biology of murrels. Reddy (1981) studied the length–weight relationship, condition factor and biometric indices of Channa species. The morphology of Channa species in the context of species confirmation is well reviewed in most of the taxonomic literature (Rao and Reddy, 1984 and Sarkar, 1996; Samad and Jafari, 1996; Vishwanath and Geetakumari, 2009). Different aspect of reproductive biology of Channa species was studied by Bhuiyan and Rahman (1984); Garg and Jain (1985); Chatterjee et al. (1991); Mishra (1991). Food and feeding behaviour of Channa were investigated by several authors (Reddy and Rao, 1993; Dutta, 1994; Bais et al., 1994; Ebanasar and Jayaprakas, 1995; Dasgupta, 2000; Prasad, 2002). Choudhury (2004) studied the reproductive biology and ecology of C. barca from Brahmaputra River. More recently, Saikia (2012) studied on the morphological differences in Channa punctatus from paddyfield of Sivsagar and again, Saikia et al. (2012) investigated on the food and feeding habit of C. punctatus from paddyfield of Sivasagar, Assam.
Rice paddy-field microbial fuel cells (RPF-MFCs) are devices that exploit rhizosphere bacteria to generate electricity from soil organic matter, including those excreted from roots. Previous stu- dies have examined factors affecting electric outputs from RPF-MFCs and demonstrated that RPF- MFC was able to generate electricity up to 80 mW∙m −2 (based on the projected area of anode). The
two bionic structure ship boards are getting closer and closer. The experimental results are consistent with the drag reduction mechanism proposed in section 3.1. The thickness of water film is the key to reduce drag of ship-type paddyfield machinery, if the macroscopic structure can increase the thickness of water film, a certain drag reduction effect can be achieved. The experiment shows that the rectangle structure similar to the crocodile's abdominal armor could maintain the thickness of the water film, achieving a better drag reduction effect in lower velocity. Further observe of other amphibious reptiles, such as turtles. From the shape of the armor on the turtle's abdomen and back, it can be seen that the armor on the turtle's abdomen also evolved into a rectangle shape of structure, which is consistent with the experimental results. The rectangle structure has a better drag reduction effect in lower velocity, and when the velocity increase, the hexagon structure has better and better drag reduction effect. Therefore, the size parameters of the gully structure optimization for better effect of drag reduction will be study subsequently, so does the ship board materials.
The two types of basic data that important for design the nar- row lug wheels were the data regarding the paddy plant char- acteristic in the paddy plots and the data regarding the hand tractor is dimensions. The problem faced by the conventional wheel is that the size of the wheel is not suitable with the di- mensions of the paddyfieldpaddy plants. Due to this issue, the field analysis was conducted to obtain preliminary data as the dimension range to design a good narrow lug wheel. Pad- dy field plots are the size of the land used for wetland paddy cultivation. The plots used in this study were plots in Cikara- wang Village, Bogor Regency. The measurements were con- ducted on paddy plants aged 14 and 28 days post-planting. Paddy cultivation in this village uses the surface irrigation sys- tem which did not submerge the field, instead the water condi- tion is that the soil is left to dry until cracks appear as applied in the SRI method (System of Paddy Intensification), with a planting space of 25 x 25 cm and 3-5 seedlings per paddy cluster.
in association with plant roots, especially with Maize, Rice and other plants.The aim of the study was to isolate Azospirillum sp. from Rice plant root (Oryza sativa var IR 20) collected from paddyfield of KANKOL. The phenotypic characterization of the isolates based on the Bergey’s manual of Determinative Bacteriology, carrying out microscopy (morphology) Gram’s staining. The isolates were cultured on N-Free malate medium developed by Dobereiner. The growth and metabolisms of bacteria were indicated by the color change in the medium from green to blue due to the production of metabolic end products. In this study the isolates were assessed for their Plant Growth Promoting Activity (PGPR) activity by demonstration of IAA
Soil samples. The horizon was determined based on the Soil Survey Staff (2014). The soil was taken from the horizon in the soil profile of organic (P1), semi-organic (P2), conventional (P3) paddyfield, and the teak forest land-use (P4) as a control. Soil samples were air-dried and sieved for diameter 0.5 mm and 2 mm. All soil samples were collected from soil profiles of organic paddy fields in Sukorejo, Sambi- rejo District, Sragen Regency, in Central Java. The sample organic rice fields have been certified organic by INOFICE (2008) as a producer of organic food (organic rice). The criterion for organic rice field selection is the use of organic fertilizers, for semi- organic the use of chemical and organic fertilizers, for conventional the use of most types of fertilizers (including both chemical and only occasionally or- ganic fertilizers), and for the teak forest as a control it is the land-use type of teak forest.
The experiment was conducted in a paddyfield located at the Ehime University Senior High School, Matsuyama, Japan (33°50′N, 132°47′E) in 2009 and 2010. Oryza sativa L. cv. Akita-Komachi, which is one of the main cultivars of rice in Japan, was used for the experiment. The rice plants were transplanted into the field on May 30 with 25 cm spacing between the rows, and 20 cm spacing within a row (a planting density of 20 hills per square meter), and harvested on September 3, 2009. In 2010, the rice plants were transplanted into the field on May 28 and harvested on August 27 with the same planting density. The elements of radiation balance, i.e. (1–alb)SR and Ld–Lu, were measured with a CNR-2 (Kipp & Zonen, the Netherlands) at 2.5 m and thus the net radiation (Rn) was calculated. Here, SR is the global solar radiation, alb is the albedo of the paddyfield, Ld is the downward long wave radiation from the atmosphere and Lu is the upward long wave radiation from the paddyfield. In addition, the global solar radiation was measured at 2 m height with a second sensor (Decagon, USA, model LI-200SL). Ld was also measured with a PRI-01 (Prede, Japan) at 2 m height and Lu was estimated using these measurements. Soil heat flux was measured at 2 cm depth with a soil heat plate HFT3 (Campbell, USA), and water surface temperature (T g ) was measured with a thermocouple sensor. Vertical
This work is helpful in paddyfield to monitor real time information about soil moisture, humidity, temperature, ph value of water, detect gases. In existing system we have various types of sensor networks for monitoring environmental parameters, by using various types of wireless technologies like zigbee, GSM etc… These technologies suitable only for some meters only. It is not suitable for long distance monitoring. Zigbee communicates only up to 100 meters and GSM for only for sending SMS to particular number or user when user in network area. So they are not suitable to monitor from long distance wirelessly, it is limited to up to some meters only.To overcome this problem we move to IOT.In IOT we can directly connected to cloud server by using GPRS technology we can monitor the several nodes information at a time, and it is also possible to see every one or individual. By using Arduino micro controller and DHT11 sensor we can detect real time temperature,humidity of environment.By using MQ2 we can detect fertilizer and by using soil moisture sensor we can detect moisture substance in the soil and by using ph sensor measure how much acidic/bases present in the water.These five parameters were uploaded to cloud server by suing GPRS technology.When moisture content is low and ph value of water is normal turn on the AC motor to pump the water.When moisture content is high and ph value of water is acid /base turn off the AC motor.
At recent flood has become a hydro meteorology disaster that increasingly escalates in frequency, intensity and distribution. The flood frequency and intensity is affected by global climate change (precipitation), land utilization and coverage change, riverbank utilization change (as habitation and industrial area), river damage, etc. (Mirza, 2002; Jiang et al., 2005; Nugroho, 2008; Zhang et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2016; Zope, et al., 2016). Land-use change (land conversion) has altered the characteristic of land surface to be open and solid that cause rainwater to directly hit the soil particles. The strength of precipitation that hits uncovered land-surface will destroy soil’s aggregate, increase runoff, as well as transports soil particle and soil organic material (land erosion) (Widianto et al., 2004; Cebecauer and Hofierka, 2008; Chen, et al., 2016). In general, land conversion has an impact to hydrology cycle, both underground water and surface water, including the change in water quality and water flow (Meyer dan Turner II, 1992; Saghafian et al., 2008; Fox et al., 2012; Kulkarni et al., 2014). Eventhough paddyfield offers multi-benefits to environmental preservation, but its existence at sloping areas are unfortunately prone to landslide.
We have studied the arthropods biodiversity in two paddyfield ecosystems, namely, paddyfield ecosystem using Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system and non-IPM paddyfield ecosystem. This study was conducted from April 2011 – November 2011 in three locations, that is, Pasar Kamis village and Sungai Rangas village in Banjar regency, and Guntung Payung village in Banjarbaru city, South Borneo Province. In this study, we used insect nets, yellow sticky traps, light trap and pitfall trap to get the sample or catch the arthropods in one period of planting season. The arthropods caught were then classified into some classes: pest (herbivore), natural enemy (parasitoid and predator), and other arthropods. After that, the Species Diversity Index was determined using its Shannon-Wiener Index (H’), Evenness (e), Species Richness (R), and Species Similarity Index (IS). The sum of arthropods which have the characteristic of pest and parasitoid were higher in the IPM paddy fields than in the non-IPM paddy fields, and the sum of other arthropods were the same. The highest H’ and e values were in the IPM paddyfield in Pasar Kamis village. The IS value for each three locations were 77.5% in Pasar Kamis village, 93.42% in Guntung Payung village, and 78.76% in Sungai Rangas village.
Paddyfield is a fundamental land use because it produces rice yield for almost Indonesia community. Approximately 90% of national rice production is produced in paddyfield farming (Irawan et al., 2003). Rice becomes Indonesia community main food, thus production policy becomes the main concern for agricultural development (Ashari, 2003). Hence paddyfield sustainability becomes the main priority for Indonesian agriculture policy.
In present scenario, there is no mechanism to find where and when irrigation is needed, to find amount of fertilizers are needed for the crop as well as to find crop’s choice. In this Project, a wireless sensor network is built by deploying various sensors as network nodes to monitor various factors such as temperature, humidity, pH levels and water levels. Temperature and humidity factors help to know the weather condition, if there is chance of rainfall. The water level sensor is deployed to know the water levels continuously such that water logging in field can be avoided. The pH sensors are deployed to calculate soil pH level this factor indicates the relative acidity or alkalinity of soil, because the crop choice dependent upon many factors of which suitability of soil is but one. The PIR sensor is deployed to find suspected persons or animals when they enter into the paddyfield. All the data from various sensors will be sent wirelessly to the central sever using Zigbee technology such that the sensor network is monitored by a person in front of server computer by analysing the data also the personal computer will send GSM short message to absent manager’s mobile phone by using GSM technology and AT commands. This mechanism minimizes water loggings in the field and this mechanism conserves water and minimise the power consumptions in the paddyfield because when ever water level falls below set point automatically the motor in field will be ON here the motor is controlled automatically with the help of ARM7 microcontroller and Zigbee technology and this mechanism avoids using of over fertilizers.
Literature review gives an overview of the PaddyField Irrigation Control System by using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) of inquiry. These have two types for resource, which are primary sources and secondary sources. The primary sources are thesis and journal that relevant with this project system. In these primary sources was consist a schedule, existing project control system for irrigation system for paddyfield and water control concept and secondary sources is interview an agriculture officer and farmer.
Abstract: Research on the populations of rice grain bug Paraeuscosmetus pallicomis Dallas (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in paddyfield ecosystems was performed with the aim to determine the populations of rice grain bug in weed-free paddyfield, weedy paddyfield, and paddy dykes. Experiment was carried out in the village of Paccellekang in the district of Patallasang of Gowa Regency in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Observations were performed during the milky grain stage (85 days after planting), the mature grain stage (105 days after planting), and one day after harvest (115 days after transplanting). Results showed that 85 days after the transplanting, the populations of rice grain bug was significantly higher in the weedy paddyfield compared to weed-free field and paddy dykes with total numbers of 1.75, 3.53, and 0.31 insects per 2 hills, respectively. Similarly, 105 days after the transplanting, 2.53, 5.53, and 0.11 insects per hill, respectively. However, one day after the harvest (115 days after transplanting) the number of insects in weed-free field decreased, while in the dykes increased, and the weedy plot still had the highest number of insects per 2 hills. Our results suggested that weeds played an important role in regulating the bug population by providing alternative shelter and foods for the insect.
The present study was carried out in the paddyfield ecosystem at Uthamapalayam in Theni District for a period of four months from October 2014 to January 2015. The active searching, pitfall and net sweeping collection recorded five families name Tetragnathidae, Amaurobiidae, Salticidae, Oxyopidae, Araneidae. The families Salticidae were proximate family with 5 species. The family Amaurobiidae, Oxyopidae was the least recorded family with only one species. The family Salticidae was most abundant with maximum number of individuals (315) and Amaurobiidae, was the least abundant with less number of individuals (26).
There are many studies on the performance and effectiveness of herbaceous plants both wild plant and crop species such as Bidens pilosa, Capsicum frutesens, Commelina difussa, Ageratum conyzoides, Brachiaria mutica, Mimosa pudica, Vernonia cinera, Marsilea crenata, Pistia startiotes, Panicum repens, Vigna unguiculata and Zea mays to attract natural enemies (Maisyaroh et al., 2010, Purwantiningsih et al. 2011, Leksono et al., 2011). However, in most studies the natural enemy is observed in both planted and naturally grown wild species, while this study looks at the impact of the planting on Arthropod composition on the rice plots. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of refugia area on the Arthropod abundance, diversity and composition has been done in a semi-organic paddyfield in Malang.
SRI is a paddy cultivation system using intermittent water management while a conventional system using flood water management continuously (Syam, 2006). That condition can affect growth and activities of soil biota. Intermittent water management creates aerobic environment condition in a paddyfield so that organic matter decomposition and mineralization run smoothly. Continuously flood condition creates anaerobic or facultative aerobic environment condition so it will retard any soil biological activities (Paul and Clark, 1982). Paddy cultivation based on SRI more empower of soil biota services in paddyfield and its also efficient in water and seed using (Mutakin, 2009).
Abstract—In order to quantify the methane emission from paddy fields with different irrigation methods and to study the potential of using the alternate flooding strategy in suppressing the methane emission, field experiments were conducted in Nestlé Rice Experimental Station located in Sik area, Kedah, Malaysia. Closed-chamber method was used in this research study. By employing transparent chambers, methane gas was sampled from two paddyfield plots with different irrigation methods. The methane gas was collected at the paddy plots and analyzed for its concentration. It was done continuously for 84 days after seeding stage and stopped before the ripening stage of paddy. The similar increasing trend of methane emission was observed from each paddyfield plot from the tillering stage till flowering stage of paddy. However, the methane emission rate from non-flooded plot with the water saving irrigation method was found relatively low compared to the flooded plot.
I declare that this report entitle “Solving Knight’s Tour Problem Using PaddyField Algorithm” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. The report has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.
The presences of beneficial insects in the paddyfield are very important for the ecological systems of paddyfield as those insects could help managing the population of the pests. Following, less usage of chemicals that can harm the physical and chemical properties of the soil, water and paddy plants. Moreover, in the paddyfield with minimize pesticides application, crop production commonly depends on the natural control by biological agents (Ueno, 2012). Therefore, the present of beneficial insects is one of the key resources to improve both productivity and sustainability in the paddyfield. Study on ecological interaction between environmental factors such as insect pests, plant height, rainfall, temperature and humidity with abundance of beneficial insects in paddy fields are important. Those environmental factors have significance influences on the abundance of beneficial insects in the paddy fields. Once the survival factors of beneficial insects in the paddy