Pain in animals

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The Antinociceptive Effects of Rosuvastatin in Chronic Constriction Injury Model of Male Rats

The Antinociceptive Effects of Rosuvastatin in Chronic Constriction Injury Model of Male Rats

We used chronic constriction injury model to induce neuropathic pain in animals. The operation was per- formed under pentobarbital sodium (60 mg/kg) anesthe- sia. After anesthesia, skin and muscle were separated and left sciatic nerve was exposed. Next, we carefully tied 4 chromic gut ligatures loosely around sciatic nerves. The space between two adjacent ligatures was 1 mm. The wound was irrigated with sterile normal saline (0.9%) and sutured in two layers with non-absorbable sutures (fascial plane), and finally surgical skin staples. In the sham-operated group, the same surgical procedure (ex- cept the ligation) was performed (Bennett & Xie, 1988). 2.5. Thermal stimulation tests
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Pain in aquatic animals

Pain in aquatic animals

Recent developments in the study of pain in animals have demonstrated the potential for pain perception in a variety of wholly aquatic species such as molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This allows us to gain insight into how the ecological pressures and differential life history of living in a watery medium can yield novel data that inform the comparative physiology and evolution of pain. Nociception is the simple detection of potentially painful stimuli usually accompanied by a reflex withdrawal response, and nociceptors have been found in aquatic invertebrates such as the sea slug Aplysia. It would seem adaptive to have a warning system that allows animals to avoid life- threatening injury, yet debate does still continue over the capacity for non-mammalian species to experience the discomfort or suffering that is a key component of pain rather than a nociceptive reflex. Contemporary studies over the last 10 years have demonstrated that bony fish possess nociceptors that are similar to those in mammals; that they demonstrate pain-related changes in physiology and behaviour that are reduced by painkillers; that they exhibit higher brain activity when painfully stimulated; and that pain is more important than showing fear or anti-predator behaviour in bony fish. The neurophysiological basis of nociception or pain in fish is demonstrably similar to that in mammals. Pain perception in invertebrates is more controversial as they lack the vertebrate brain, yet recent research evidence confirms that there are behavioural changes in response to potentially painful events. This review will assess the field of pain perception in aquatic species, focusing on fish and selected invertebrate groups to interpret how research findings can inform our understanding of the physiology and evolution of pain. Further, if we accept these animals may be capable of experiencing the negative experience of pain, then the wider implications of human use of these animals should be considered.
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 Pain in domestic animals and how to assess it: a review

 Pain in domestic animals and how to assess it: a review

ABSTRACT: In recent years more attention has been paid to the issue of pain in animals, particularly in associa- tion with increasing awareness of animal welfare. It is therefore necessary for veterinarians to be able recognise unambiguously whether an animal suffers from pain. Adult humans suffering from pain can more or less characterise their painful experiences, including the site and intensity of the pain. However, pain in animals is in some aspects more complex and it can be rather difficult to evaluate the seriousness and impact of painful events. Therefore, in animals we have to recognise the signs of pain according to indirect markers which involve behavioural, physi- ological and finally clinical responses. Moreover, in particular the behavioural changes associated with pain can be along with the general signs also species-specific, and hardly recognisable (and for an inexperienced observer seemingly unimportant) which makes pain assessment even more complicated. Therefore, the current review formulates definitions of pain, its classification and is focused on methods that may facilitate pain recognition in animals, which is crucial for an effective pain assessment and consequent effective pain management. The review combines recent knowledge with well proven facts concerning pain and furthermore also highlights the author’s own research on pain assessment.
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Consequences of Anthropocentric Exploitative Activities on Nonhuman Animals

Consequences of Anthropocentric Exploitative Activities on Nonhuman Animals

The study has endeavoured to show how animals are exploited by various humans’-oriented practices. Animals most of the times are used as ‘means’ of obtaining some human ends. Our anthropocentric attitude has much effect in not only animals but in the wider biosphere. Though there are various achievements that we attain out of the use of animals, like in medical research, many of the research involve causing much pain in animals. Animals as sentient beings try to avoid suffering hence such practices are done against them, since nonhuman animals deserve comfort. Animals’ rights are therefore violated every day in our use of animals in transport activities, as a companion like pets, a source of power and in agricultural activities. Through our buying and selling activities, we have been condemned to perpetuate our abusive practices against animals; in many ways we take part in supporting industries that exploit animals.
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The history of animals

The history of animals

In this assertion of the meaningful role of animals in making cultural meaning Rothfels’ work is moving away from an earlier form of history which focussed on human ideas about and attitudes towards animals in which animals were mere blank pages onto which humans wrote meaning: in which they were passive, unthinking presences in the active and thoughtful lives of humans (see Harwood, 1928; Turner, 1964; Thomas, 1983). Instead Rothfels’ work emerges from a tradition which traces the many ways in which humans construct and are constructed by animals in the past. Key texts here are Harriet Ritvo’s The Animal Estate (1987) and Kathleen Kete’s The Beast in the Boudoir (1994).
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The Master of Animals

The Master of Animals

him as a fertility and phallic god in origin.2 Yet most of the evidence for it is late. Homer, Hesiod, and the late seventh-century writer of the Homeric Hymn to Hermes know[r]

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Living With Animals

Living With Animals

How might we envisage some of these new ways? The usefulness of sheep as lawn-mowers has been appreciated by a church in my own local neighborhood, and there is no reason why other urban land-holders, including local councils, should not follow suit. Sheep have also been used for traffic calming in the Netherlands, and strategic use of horse- drawn vehicles - for tourist rides or milk deliveries, for instance - could serve a similar purpose. City farms afford educational opportunities for urban schoolchildren increasingly distanced from the realities of food production. The possibilities for reintegrating animals productively into urban life are as limitless as our imaginations. However, the principal way in which animals can 'earn their living' in the city is still, I think, via their companionate role. The exclusive reign of the dog and the cat in this connection needs to be challenged, and the adaptability of other species to the human hearth and home investigated. There is immense scope for the conservation particularly of - sometimes endangered - native species in such a program of domestication. Species such as the quoll, or native cat, and the fruit bat, are reputed to make affectionate and contented hearth companions, and the domestic potentialities of many smaller, endangered wallabies, such as quokkas and bettongs, are, so far as I am aware, relatively unexplored. (The quokkas on Rottnest Island, offshore from Perth, Western Australia, have already adapted to the kind of semi-tame, dump-side existence which is, according to certain evolutionary theorists 12 , the first step in a species' self-surrender
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The Representation of Bias Perception in “Nocturnal Animals” Movie

The Representation of Bias Perception in “Nocturnal Animals” Movie

usually most closely resemble. A sign where the relation with its reference has similarity. For example, the drawing on the restroom doors that communicate to human on the gender allowed inside or a horse statue as an icon of horse animals.  Index –Instead of a direct resemblance to an object, indexical sign has logical and most common sense connection to the thing they represent. Humans learn indexical signs through experience in their daily life. For example, a smoke is an index of fire. Another example would be the shadow of the sun moving that implies the movement of time.
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Medication of Production Animals – Cure of Malfunctioning Animals or Production Systems?

Medication of Production Animals – Cure of Malfunctioning Animals or Production Systems?

al. 2001). Furthermore, substantial consump- tion of antimicrobials was correlated to poor feed quality from one feed producer in the weaning and growth period in 1999 (Chriél & Dietz 2000). But, in order to obtain the maxi- mal growth rate in the weaning and growth pe- riod mink kits are fed ad libitum. Furthermore, the composition of the feed is based on test re- sults in order to achieve the maximum growth and not taking the health of the animals suffi- ciently into account. Hence, the capacity of growth impairs the health of the animals. One might argue that because mink is not part of the stable-to-table chain no concerns regarding use of antimicrobials have to be taken. This ap- proach is, however, not in accordance with the public opinion and is to be regarded as an irre- sponsible attitude to good farm practice. Dan- ish recommendations are more and more fo- cused on reducing the consumption of antimicrobials, not as a goal in itself, but rather as a tool for optimisation of production facili- ties and management practices.
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ANIMALS FOR FOOD

ANIMALS FOR FOOD

As the animal trips the trip wire, the catch stick pulls the slip ring off the smooth sticks, releasing the spear shaft that springs across the trail and impales the prey against the tre[r]

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The use of transgenic animals in biotechnology

The use of transgenic animals in biotechnology

circulating rat somatotropin resulted in elevated levels of porcine insulin-like growth factor (Ebert et al., 1990). Distinct from the earlier mouse model that expressed high levels of rat or human growth hormone (Palmiter et al., 1982; Hammer et al., 1985a), we failed to see an increase in the rate of growth of the transgenic animals. However, several phenotypic changes were evident. Fat deposition was markedly reduced as well as skeletal growth, and blood glucose levels were elevated with no signs of ketosis. The MLV promoter was shown to be effective in expression in the spleen, lung, intestine, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. These experiments showed that the MLV promoter was an effective promoter useful in high level expression of a fusion gene in swine. Although the transgenic swine had significant carcass fat reduc- tion, unfortunately pathological studies showed several undesir- able new traits associated with long bone growth and osteochon- dritis dissecans, a condition which is similar to acromegaly in humans. Therefore, the pathological disadvantages far outweighed the advantages of decreased carcass fat.
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Role of C-fibers in pain and morphine induced analgesia/hyperalgesia in rats.

Role of C-fibers in pain and morphine induced analgesia/hyperalgesia in rats.

In conclusion, these assumptions could arise from the present study, C-fibers are very important to transmit thermal and chemical pain as their elimination can alleviate the thermal, chemical and inflammatory nociception. Morphine analgesia might happen both via C and Aδ fibers neuron. The elimination of C-fibers removes a potential source of nociceptive signals. Therefore, the morphine analgesic effect in C-lesion animals may be exerted both presynaptically through Aδ fibers and postsynaptically on spinal cord projection neurons. Ultra low dose of morphine may exert its excitatory effect just via C-fibers neuron as their elimination lead to revealing even an analgesia for morphine-ultra low dose, making it possible to suppose only pre synaptic excitatory mechanisms (as mentioned before) for hyperalgesic action of morphine-ultra low dose and no role for Aδ fibers neuron in this state. Further research to elucidate these pathways is required.
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EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF NAAGA SANGU PARPAM IN SWISS ALBINO MICE BY EDDY’S HOT PLATE METHOD

EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF NAAGA SANGU PARPAM IN SWISS ALBINO MICE BY EDDY’S HOT PLATE METHOD

The hot plate test was a test of the pain response in animals. It was used in basic pain research and in testing the effectiveness of analgesics by observing the reaction to pain caused by heat. They used a behavioral model of nociception where behaviors such as jumping and hind paw- licking are elicited following a noxious thermal stimulus. Licking was a rapid response to painful thermal stimuli that was a direct indicator of nociceptive threshold. Jumping represents a more elaborated response, with a latency and encompasses an emotional component of escaping.
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Interleukin-1 receptor type 1 is overexpressed in neurons but not in glial cells within the rat superficial spinal dorsal horn in complete Freund adjuvant-induced inflammatory pain

Interleukin-1 receptor type 1 is overexpressed in neurons but not in glial cells within the rat superficial spinal dorsal horn in complete Freund adjuvant-induced inflammatory pain

Single 1-μm-thick optical sections were scanned with an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Scanning was carried out with a ×40 oil-immersion lens (NA 1.3). The confocal settings (laser power, confocal aperture and gain) were identical for all means, and care was taken to ensure that no pixels corresponding to puncta immuno- stained for IL-1R1 and the other markers were saturated. The scanned images were processed by Adobe Photoshop CS3 software. By filtering the background staining out with a high-pass intensity filter, threshold values were set for both IL-1R1 and the other markers. The co- localization of IL-1R1 with neuronal and glial markers was quantitatively analyzed in the double-stained sections. A 10 × 10 standard square grid with an edge-length of 4 μm was put onto confocal images obtained from 1-μm-thick single optical sections. IL-1R1-immunostained spots over the edges of the standard grid were counted in laminae I and II. The selected IL-1R1-immunostained spots were then examined to determine whether they were located within the confines of areas immunoreactive for the axonal (CGRP, IB4-binding, VGLUT2, VGAT), glial (GFAP, CD11b), and postsynaptic membrane (PSD95, gephyrin) markers. In case of sections double-stained for IL-1R1 and KCC2, the selected IL-1R1-immunostained spots were checked to define whether they were aligned along KKC2- immunostained membranes (considered as somatodendri- tic membrane expression of IL-1R1) or located within areas surrounded by KCC2-immunostained membranes (considered as cytoplasmic expression of IL-1R1 at the somatodendritic compartment of neurons). Three ran- domly selected confocal sections were analyzed from each animal. Thus, the calculation of quantitative data, mean values, and SEM, was based on the investigation of nine sections. Data obtained from control and CFA-injected animals were compared. Statistical differences between the two experimental groups were computed using a Mann- Whitney test.
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Pain-related mood influences pain perception differently in fibromyalgia and multiple sclerosis

Pain-related mood influences pain perception differently in fibromyalgia and multiple sclerosis

The present study specifically addressed whether or not the presence of chronic pain has an effect on how people estimate painful experiences in themselves and in others. The study was initiated in patients with FM and was extended to a matched population of patients with MS and chronic pain. To discriminate the respective effects of chronic pain and the disease itself, two groups of MS patients were formed according to whether they suffered from pain (the MS-P group) or not (the MS-NP group). The FM group and both groups of MS patients were matched to a group of healthy volunteers. Since FM is often accompanied by behavioral and psychological symptoms, such as a propensity for catastrophizing, 17 as well as by levels of anxiety and depres-
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Phytotherapy in zoo animals

Phytotherapy in zoo animals

Zoological medicine is a veterinary discipline that deals with a very broad spectrum of taxa and diseases. Often, treatment protocols have to be extrapolated from farm and companion animals or humans. Clinical daily rou- tine is limited and treatment decisions are based on limited scientific findings and the practitioner’s experi- ence. Zoo animals are generally highly susceptible to capture stress and handling for medical treatment may be counterproductive. Hence, the prevention of disease has to be emphasised (Hosey et al., 2009). The aim of this study was to give a summary on the practical expe- rience with herbal remedies at Zoo Basel from 2010 to 2014 as a means to expand the disease prevention and therapy spectrum.
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EFFICACY OF PLANTAR IONTOPHORESIS WITH AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF GUGGULU RESIN IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PADAKANTAKA (PLANTAR FASCIITIS): A PILOT STUDY

EFFICACY OF PLANTAR IONTOPHORESIS WITH AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF GUGGULU RESIN IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PADAKANTAKA (PLANTAR FASCIITIS): A PILOT STUDY

Plantar fasciitis (PF), also known as Plantar fasciopathy or Jogger's heel, tennis heel, policeman heel is a common painful enthesopathy of the heel and plantar surface of the foot characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, or structural deterioration of the plantar fascia of the foot. This is commonly encountered condition in middle aged, overweight persons, whose work involves prolonged standing. As the pain in the heel is aggravated on weight bearing, it affects adversely daily activities and is often responsible for loss of many man hours of work. [1] The aetiology and treatment of the condition are poorly understood. Chronic cases of plantar fasciitis often demonstrate more degenerative changes than inflammatory changes and such cases are termed as plantar fasciosis. [2] Calcaneal spur is a common associated finding, but could not be related to the disease process. Though it is a self-limiting disease, due to it's sharpness of pain and long duration of course most of the patients bound to seek medical intervention.
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Fanciful Animals in Captivity

Fanciful Animals in Captivity

I wanted to make ‘good’ work that used history and told a narrative about me and my relationship with clay and ceramic history.. This pot opened the gates to make room for me to reflect [r]

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Review on leptospirosis in animals and human

Review on leptospirosis in animals and human

The disease was first described by Adolf Weil in 1886 when he reported an "acute infectious disease with enlargement of spleen, jaundice, and nephritis." Leptospira was first observed in 1907 from a post mortem renal tissue slice. In 1908, Inada and Ito first identified it as the causative organism and in 1916 noted its presence in rats. Leptospira bacteria have been found in all farm animals, rodents and wild animals. They colonize the kidneys of infected animals and, in females, they also colonise the reproductive tract. Infected animals can carry the bacteria for long periods, shedding them in urine and at birth or abortion, thus contaminating the animals’ environment. [3, 4, 5, 6]
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Are ticks venomous animals?

Are ticks venomous animals?

between human and tick salivary systems. Recent prote- omic studies have identified a total of 2698 proteins in human saliva (revised in [150]). The major protein com- ponents of human saliva are amylase, carbonic anhy- drase, mucins, cystatins, proline-rich proteins, histatins, statherins and antibodies (revised in [150]), but it also contains defensins, lactoperoxidases, lysozymes and lac- toferrins [151]. The complexity of the saliva from non- venomous animals (e.g., humans) is akin to that of ticks, but there are major differences in the molecular func- tions, the structure and the electrostatic potential of common salivary protein families. The two salivary sys- tems present similar components such as lysozymes, cystatins, lipocalins, defensins and PLA2s. There are also differences, for example, human saliva possesses histatins and statherins, but these proteins have not been found in tick saliva. Despite that human salivary glands and the Kunitz protein family have been scientif- ically investigated for some time, the authors are un- aware of any reports indicating the presence of Kunitz peptides (i.e., the archetypal 60 aa long peptide) in human saliva. The main reports for human Kunitz (also found in saliva) are of domains from larger proteins, e.g., immunoglobulins. Additionally, although the lectin intelectin-1 (UniProt: Q8WWA0) has been found in hu- man saliva, its specific tertiary structure may drastically differ from those currently reported since a PSI-BLAST against the PDB was unable to retrieve a homologous structure and thus we were unable to model this human salivary lectin. In addition, human saliva does not present any allergen-like molecules; as are found in tick saliva. These differences are not surprising if we consider the dif- ferent alimentary regimes these two species have and the molecular functions these two salivary systems need to perform. The phylogenetic distance between human and ticks maybe the most rational explanation for such differences. The salivary composition of the venomous mammal D. rotundus, however, is similar to ticks. D. rotundus salivary glands possess both Kunitz proteins and allergen-like molecules, while also possessing humans salivary components, like statherins and lyso- zymes [44]. As discussed above, this suggests that ven- omous animals recruit in their salivary glands a special set of proteins with specific venomous functions.
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