palm fatty acid distillate

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UV Curable Urethane Acrylate Resin from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate

UV Curable Urethane Acrylate Resin from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate

Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is a by-product from the refining of crude palm oil. It comprises mainly of free fatty acids, having around 45% of palmitic and 33% oleic acids as the major components. Ultra-violet (UV) curable urethane acrylate (UA) oligomers could be synthesized from PFAD by the following procedure. A hydroxyl terminated macromer was first prepared by reacting PFAD with a mixture of isophthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, neopentagylcol (NPG) and pentaerythritol. The macromer is then reacted with 2- hydroxylethylacrylate (2HEA) and toluene diisocynate (TDI) to generate a resin containing acrylate side chains for UV curable application. A series of UA resins were prepared by using 15, 25, 45, 55 and 70% of PFAD respectively. The UA resin has Mw in the range of 3200 to 27000. They could be cured by UV irradiation at intensity of 225mW/cm 2 . Glass transition
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Continuous Monoglyceride Production from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate and Glycerol Using Vacuum Reactive Distillation Column

Continuous Monoglyceride Production from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate and Glycerol Using Vacuum Reactive Distillation Column

Abstract— This paper focused on the simulation-based study using Aspen Plus Ver. 7.2 to evaluate possible flow diagram processes and process configurations related to the continuous production of monoglyceride from palm fatty acid distillate-glycerol esterification using strong acidic cation resin in a reactive distillation column. Basic operating conditions evaluated was the operating pressure. Evaluation between atmospheric and vacuum operating pressure showed that the latter could give better product quality by avoiding the product from cracking or destructed due to too high operating temperature when the operating pressure was atmospheric (1 bar). The preferred vacuum pressure was 0.05 bar which resulted in the maximum temperature at the bottom stream of distillation column was about 335 o C, lower than a maximum allowable temperature which was 350 o C. On the other hand, atmospheric condition resulted in maximum temperature at the stream was about 520 o C. Afterward, two scenarios were evaluated which were using one reactive distillation column with high reboiler duty combined with only one distillation column (Scenario-1) or using one reactive distillation column with moderate reboiler duty combined with two distillation columns (Scenario-2) to have high purity monoglycerides. Scenario-2 showed a little bit more sophisticated flowsheetings but yielded in less overall energy consumption for relatively the same monoglycerides purity at the bottom stream of the distillation column.
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Protective Effect of Food Products Enriched with Unsaponifiable Matter from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate on the Aorta of Hypercholesterolemic Rats

Protective Effect of Food Products Enriched with Unsaponifiable Matter from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate on the Aorta of Hypercholesterolemic Rats

Palm oil refining process produced palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) as a by-product in deodorization stage. Saponification of PFAD produced unsaponifiable matter (USM) which was rich in vitamin E mainly tocotrienols, phytosterols, and squalene. This study evaluated the therapeutic effect of food products (instant noodle, bread, and biscuit) enriched with bioactive compounds from USM on the aorta of hypercholesterolemic rats. Rats were fed with atherogenic diet for 14 days to have blood total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dl. Rats then were fed according to each treatment group for 8 weeks. Total cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, and LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol were analyzed at the end of experiment. Rats were then sacrificed and aorta abdominal was collected for histopathological study. The result showed total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol of rats fed by USM enriched food products were lower than that of corresponding products. Also, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL and LDL cholesterol to HDL were better. Rats fed with USM enriched food products had a better aortic histopathological image than rats fed with non- enriched food products. Rats fed with USM enriched foods had less severe morphological lesions of the aortic wall with less foam cells in tunica intimae, less fat deposits in tunica media, elongated nuclei and organized myofibrils. This study indicated bioactive compounds in food products enriched with USM of PFAD offered good therapeutic effect against atherosclerosis development of hypercholesterolemic rats. USM enriched biscuit revealed the best therapeutic effect.
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Friction and wear study of passenger 
					car piston top ring sliding on cast iron material lubricated 
					with palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD)

Friction and wear study of passenger car piston top ring sliding on cast iron material lubricated with palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD)

Piston top ring - cylinder liner situation was simulated using a passenger car engine top ring sliding on a cast iron disk. The simulation was done on a pin-on-disk tribo- tester. Friction and wear control performance of neat palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), its ZDDP and dithiocarbamates formulates were evaluated under a severe load (200N) serving condition possible with today/future cars’ internal combustion engines. 0.5%(wt) molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamates (MoDTC), doped PFAD produced lower friction and wear, while 0.1%(wt) ZDDP in the same PFAD offered lower coefficient of friction but slightly higher wear when compared to a commercial premium engine oil tested for benchmarking. PFAD can be a “cost-competitive green base oil” in Malaysia, and a contributor to the growing global bio- lubricants market.
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Kinetic Study of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Esterification with Glycerol over Strong Acidic Cation Exchanger Tulsion 42SM

Kinetic Study of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Esterification with Glycerol over Strong Acidic Cation Exchanger Tulsion 42SM

Abstract. Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) is a byproduct of CPO production. PFAD conversion into monoglyceride would give significant economic added value to it. With free fatty acid as the major component which composes the PFAD, then the esterification process was the right choice. Utilization of strong acidic cation resin as a catalyst is interesting. The catalyst could be easily separated physically. Natural esterification reaction would run reversibly so that the reflux system would be created to remove water. Reflux system used xylene as the solvent. To find the optimum condition for reaction parameters, reaction temperature, mole ratio of PFAD-glycerol, and catalyst loading were varied. Two heterogeneous reaction mechanisms, Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal model, were tried to fit with the experimental data which resulted in the first model fitted the experimental data better than the second model. The reaction mechanism would involve the side reaction of diglyceride and triglyceride formation.
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Optimization of methyl ester production from palm fatty acid distillate 
		using single step esterification: A response surface methodology 
		approach

Optimization of methyl ester production from palm fatty acid distillate using single step esterification: A response surface methodology approach

The palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) was commonly used in the animal feed industry, soap industry, and oleochemical industry (Tay et al., 2009), (Tapanwong and Punsuvon, 2011), (Gapor Md Top, 2010). The vitamin E in PFAD can be extracted to produce for cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries (Ahmadi et al., 2012). Thailand is the world’s third largest producer of crude palm oil (USDA, 2015). Moreover, the approximately 2 million tonnes of crude palm oil (CPO) production can be produced in 2014 (USDA, 2015). In addition there is no the official production data of PFAD, however, the estimated PFAD production is based on the approximately 4% of FFA in CPO (Gapor Md Top, 2010), as shown in Table I. The PFAD is the light yellow solid at 30 o C of
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The Influence of Molar Ratio of Methanol to PFAD and Esterification Reaction Time towards Biodiesel Characteristics Palm Fatty Acids Distillate Produced

The Influence of Molar Ratio of Methanol to PFAD and Esterification Reaction Time towards Biodiesel Characteristics Palm Fatty Acids Distillate Produced

Abstract— PFAD is potential enough to be developed as a biodiesel feedstock because it is cheap and always available. But the FFA in PFAD is so high, so esterification process is necessary to lower levels of the FFA. High levels of FFA PFAD and a solid form at room temperature need necessary studies to determine the needs of methanol as a reactant and reaction time esterification for high yield and characteristics of biodiesel. Esterification of PFAD were carried out to study the effect of : molar ratios of methanol to PFAD of 6 : 1 – 10 : 1 and reaction time of 60 – 120 min. The optimum condition for esterification process was molar ratio of methanol to PFAD at 10 : 1 with 2 wt% of H2SO4 at 60˚C and 60 min. The amount of FFA was reduced from 97,17 wt% to less then 10 wt %, at the end of esterification process. The characteristic of biodiesel produced were 9.36 mg KOH/gr acid value, 5.01% FFA, 244 mg KOH/g saponification, 47.94 mg I/gr iodine value, 890 kg/m3 density, and negative result for determination water and sediment content.
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Optimization of Palmitic Acid Composition in Crude Oleic Acid to Provide Specifications of Titer and Cloud Point of Distillate Oleic Acid using a Flash Distiller

Optimization of Palmitic Acid Composition in Crude Oleic Acid to Provide Specifications of Titer and Cloud Point of Distillate Oleic Acid using a Flash Distiller

In hydrolysis CPO triglyceride was converted into SCPOFA (Splitted Crude Palm Fatty Acid) which had slightly higher color from the color of crude palm oil, due to high heating (250-260 o C) during hydrolysis, so that the color of impurities will be darker, but the com- position is relatively similar to CPO (Table 2). This will greatly affect the quality of the COA for DOA distillation, manufacture and purification. To manufac- ture and purify DOA lauric, myristic, palmitic (as the biggest components) and stearic acid must be sepa- rated into lower initial concentration so that the oleic acid concentration of DOA will be higher. The pro- blem is how it can be separated and what process of technology will be applied on the present facilities.
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Fatty Acid Composition, Lipogenic Enzyme Activities and Mrna Expression of Genes Involved in the Lipid Metabolism of Nile Tilapia Fed with Palm Oil

Fatty Acid Composition, Lipogenic Enzyme Activities and Mrna Expression of Genes Involved in the Lipid Metabolism of Nile Tilapia Fed with Palm Oil

This study was aimed at elucidating the effects of replacing fish oil (FO) with palm oil (PO) on tissue fatty acid composition, lipogenic enzyme activities and mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (6.72± 0.14g). An eight week feeding trial was conducted using five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing 0% PO, 25% PO, 50% PO, 75% PO and 100% PO. PO supplementation led to a significant increase in total saturated fatty acid (SFA), total mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 18: 2n-6, whiles DHA, EPA, total n-3 as well as 20: 2n-6 were reduced significantly in the liver (P < 0.05). With the exception of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) enzyme activity, supplementing tilapia diet with PO significantly increased fatty acid synthesase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), steroyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), ATP citrate lyase (ACYL), carnitine palmitoyltransferase Ia (CPTIa) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase Ib (CPT Ib) (P < 0.05). In addition, significant/positive correlations were observed among dietary PO and/or liver tissue FA with FAS, ACC, SCD1 and ACYL mRNA expression while a negative correlation was recorded for CPTI mRNA expression. Generally, inclusion of PO in tilapia diets resulted in lipid accumulation in the liver and altered the key gene expression of lipid metabolism.
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The Effect of Temperature on Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Expression and Fatty Acid Composition in Developing Soybean Seeds.

The Effect of Temperature on Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Expression and Fatty Acid Composition in Developing Soybean Seeds.

fatty acid composition, particularly temperature. A general inverse relationship exists between polyunsaturation of fatty acids and growth temperature; polyunsaturated fatty acids increase with decreasing temperature in membranes as well as seed storage lipids (Neidleman 1987; Rennie and Tanner 1989; Thompson 1993). The mechanism of low-temperature adaptation in plants probably involves both transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of the desaturases involved in polyunsaturate formation. Changes in growth temperatures have been shown to affect linoleoyl desaturase enzyme activity in soybean seeds from pods cultured in vitro (Cheesbrough 1989). The study showed a 98% decrease in linoleoyl desaturase activity at 25 o C compared to 20 o C. In another temperature study involving soybean seed, linolenic acid levels declined with increasing temperature as did the transcript of a gene involved in normal seed development (Thomas et al., 2003). The expression of the soybean FAD3s was been found to be tissue specific based on an analysis of the steady state mRNA levels (Bilyeu et al., 2003). GmFAD3A had the highest relative expression in seeds.
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Control of polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation

Control of polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation

Product analogue enzyme inhibitors have been designed based on those products which are reported to inhibit the lipoxygenases. As discussed above, arachidonic acid 1 is oxidised by lipoxygenases to form hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HPETEs) in the first step. Lipoxygenases may also catalyse the further metabolism of HPETEs to hydroxy (HETEs) and epoxy (leukotriene A 4 , 33 ) acids. It has been reported! 110 ] that 15-HETE is an effective inhibitor of 5-LO in rabbit leukocytes and 12-LO in rabbit platelet, whereas similar inhibitory potencies were observed for 5-HETE and 12-HETE acting on the 15-LO in rabbit leukocytes. Leukotriene A 4 33 and 5-HPETE 24 are reported to be inhibitors of 5-LO. Kishimoto et al\ 961 found that 15-HPETE 29 leads to suicide inactivation of the leukocyte-type 12-LO because it is transformed to 14,15- leukotriene A4, which then becomes covalently bound to the enzyme. Analogues of 15- HETE, such as the corresponding acetate and ketone and methyl ester derivatives, have been prepared! 110 ] ancj show comparable activity to 15-HETE. Kerdesky et a /.!11 *1 also designed and synthesised a series of 5-substituted eicosanoid analogues and evaluated them in vitro for inhibitory activity against RBL-1 5-LO. The results showed that compounds containing the hydroxamic acid functionality exhibited potent inhibitory activity (IC 50 = 0.19-2.8 |iM). The most potent inhibitor was 5-[[(hydroxyamino)- carbonyl]methyl]-6,8,l 1,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, which was 10 times more active than the C-l hydroxamates of arachidonic acid 1 or 5-HETE. The plausible mechanism of inhibition involves chelation of functional groups to the iron moiety in the 5-LO active site.
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Fatty acid binding protein  Role in esterification of absorbed long chain fatty acid in rat intestine

Fatty acid binding protein Role in esterification of absorbed long chain fatty acid in rat intestine

concentrations of either of two compounds which inhibit oleate binding to FABP:flavaspidic acid-N-methyl-glucaminate and alpha-bromopalmitate. Oleate uptake, mucosal morphology, and oxidation of [14C]acetate remained unaffected by these agents, but oleate incorporation into triglyceride was inhibited by 62-64% after 4 min. The inhibition by flavaspidic acid was reversible with higher oleate concentrations. The effect of these compounds on enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis was examined in intestinal microsomes. Neither flavaspidic acid nor alpha-bromopalmitate inhibited acyl CoA:monoglyceride acyl-transferase. Fatty acid:coenzyme A ligase activity was significantly enhanced in the presence of partially purified FABP, probably reflecting a physical effect on the fatty acid substrate or on the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex. Activity of the enzyme in the presence of 0.1 mM oleate was only modestly inhibited by equimolar […]
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Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

To investigate the impact of AAS on production of free fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives, we constructed two plasmids pGQ11 (Figure 2B) and pGQ49 (Figure 2D) for over-expressing slr1609 gene, driven by a strong constitu- tive promoter Prbc or PpsbA2 and integrated into slr0168 [9] or psbA2 site, respectively. Two plasmids pGQ53 (Figure 2A) and pGQ17 (Figure 2C) were constructed for disruption of slr1609 gene with erythromycin or kanamy- cin resistance cassettes, respectively. The plasmid pGQ11 or pGQ53 was transformed into Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 generating GQ3 and GQ8 strains respectively for analysis of fatty acid and alkane production. The plas- mid pGQ49 or pGQ17 was transformed into fatty-alco- hol-producing strain Syn-XT14 generating GQ5 and GQ6 respectively for analysis of fatty alcohol production. Over- expressed AAS protein with C-terminal His-tag in GQ3 and GQ5 mutant were detected by western blotting as shown in Additional file 1: Figure 1.
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Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in females. These findings suggested that sex differences in lipoprotein could reflect a sex steroid influence on the availability of fatty acids for hepatocellular triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present studies, sex steroid effects on hepatocyte [ 14 C]oleate utilization and FABP concentration were investigated directly. Hepatocytes from immature (30-d-old) rats exhibited no sex differences in [ 14 C]oleate utilization. With maturation, total [ 14 C]oleate utilization and triglyceride biosynthesis increased moderately in female cells and decreased markedly in male cells; the profound sex differences in adults were maximal by age 60 d. Fatty acid oxidation was little affected. Rats were castrated at age 30 d, and received estradiol, testosterone, or no hormone until age 60 d, when hepatocyte [ 14 C]oleate utilization was studied. Castration virtually
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Fatty acid synthesis in Escherichia coli and its applications towards the production of fatty acid based biofuels

Fatty acid synthesis in Escherichia coli and its applications towards the production of fatty acid based biofuels

To prevent product degradation, many studies have been performed in a strain that was inhibited in fatty acid β-oxidation. The main target for deletion was fadD [26,106,143,190,194,201-203], whereas deletion of fadE was mainly done when the activation of the FFA to fatty acyl-CoA esters was necessary for further product processing [26,142,152]. Although most stud- ies found FFA levels enhanced upon (partial) deletion of the β-oxidation pathway or did not control the suc- cess of this deletion, Cho and Cronan [190], as well as Liu and coworkers [142] did not detect a positive effect when thioesterase overexpression was combined with the deletions of fadD, fadE or fadL (to impair re- uptake of FFA). In these studies it was suggested that the β-oxidation pathway has not the capacity to cope with the strong FFA production. An alterative explan- ation might be that the positive control of fadL, fadD and fadH by the cAMP receptor protein-cAMP com- plex [140] was limiting in some of the performed stud- ies, which might be caused by different cultivation conditions. In contrast, it seems unlikely that the nega- tive control via the FadR repressor (released upon acyl-CoA binding) differed in the studies where the fadD or fadL genes were not deleted.
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Expression of fatty acid synthesis genes and fatty acid accumulation in haematococcus pluvialis under different stressors

Expression of fatty acid synthesis genes and fatty acid accumulation in haematococcus pluvialis under different stressors

includes mainly palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and other long-chain fatty acids and esters formed by alcohols [2]. Therefore, raw materials con- taining higher content of fatty acid (FA) should be cho- sen for biofuel production. However, the traditional biofuel were mainly derived from soybeans, corn, rape- seed, castor oil and other crops, which inevitably induce more serious food crisis. Microalgae biofuel is believed to be a powerful potential solver to this issue [3-7] and biofuels from metabolic modified microalgae is regarded as the 4th generation of biofuels [8].
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High production of fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli with fatty acid starvation

High production of fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli with fatty acid starvation

The analysis of fatty acids and fatty alcohols was per- formed via HPLC with an Agilent 1200 (Agilent, Co. Ltd. USA) equipped with RID and a SilGreen ODS C18 column (4.6  mm  ×  250  mm, 5  μm) according to the reported research [34]. The mobile phase was methanol: water: acetic acid (90:9.9:0.1, v/v/v). The column tem- perature was 26 °C with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Five- milliliter samples of fermentation combined with 500 µL of 10 mol/L HCl were extracted with 2.5 mL of ethyl ace- tate at 10 °C and 260 rpm for 2 min. The mixtures were shaken vigorously for a few seconds before they were placed in a rotary shaker incubator. After extraction, the mixtures were left static for 10 min and the organic layer was then transferred to a new centrifuge tube. After cen- trifugation at 12,000 rpm for 5 min, the clear supernatant was collected and filtered through a 0.45-μm millipore filter and injected into the HPLC-RID system for analysis.
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Lead Salt-Ether Seperation of Fatty Acids from Palm Oil

Lead Salt-Ether Seperation of Fatty Acids from Palm Oil

Therefore, the search to expand the pro- duction of palm oil which have the highest yield of oil per unit area of all the known vegetable oil became imperative and the dual usage as drying and non drying oil. Despite the apparent popularity of petroleum products as raw materi- als in different areas of application, fats and oils are greatly favoured for use in surface coat- ings, soaps, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, lubricants and polymer processing (13-18).

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Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Profile in Mexican Adolescents: A Trans Fatty Acid Approach

Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Profile in Mexican Adolescents: A Trans Fatty Acid Approach

On the other hand, vaccenic and conjugated linolenic acids are TFAs from ruminants that are present in smaller amounts in dairy products and meat; current evidence suggests that TFAs from ruminants have limited implica- tions against health [20]. Our results are consistent with previously reported data; and we did found a negative association between vaccenic acid (C18:1n7t) and all of the components of MS. Interestingly, the sum of TFAs (C18:1n7t, C18:1n9t, C18:2n6t, and C18:2n7t) had an OR of 4.71 (CI 95%: 1.73 - 12.8) but no association was found with MS or its components; so it seems that ana- lyzing each TFA separately instead of considering the total sum is a better approach.
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Characterization of Fatty Acid EXporters involved in fatty acid transport for oil accumulation in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Characterization of Fatty Acid EXporters involved in fatty acid transport for oil accumulation in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

mydomonas reinhardtii and were named crfax1 and crfax2. Both CrFAXs were involved in fatty acid transport, and their substrates were mainly C16 and C18 fatty acids. Overexpression of both CrFAXs increased the accumulation of the total lipid content in algae cells, and the fatty acid compositions were changed under normal TAP or nitrogen dep- rivation conditions. Overexpression of both CrFAXs also increased the chlorophyll content. The MGDG content was decreased but the TAG, DAG, DGDG and other lipid contents were increased in CrFAXs overexpression strains. Conclusion: These results reveal that CrFAX1 and CrFAX2 were involved in mediating fatty acid export for lipids bio- synthesis in C. reinhardtii. In addition, overexpression of both CrFAXs obviously increased the intracellular lipid content, especially the triacylglycerol content in microalgae, which provides a potential technology for the production of more biofuels using microalgae.
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