Crude palm oil consists of about 94% triglycerides, 3-5% of free fatty acids and about 1% of other minor constituents. The palmfattyaciddistillate (PFAD) is the by-product from refining of crude palm oil. It comprises mainly of free fatty acids, having around 45% of palmitic and 33% oleic acid as the major components, and it has been using in the making of soap and animal feed, and certain oleo chemicals. Vitamine E could be extracted from PFAD . Gapor has developed a process for producing high purity ( >90%) Squalene. This valuable compound is useful in heath supplements, cosmetics, and in pharmaceutical industry. In recent study, PFAD has been explored as biodiesel feed stock . Many studies utilizes various types of catalysts, such as SO 4 2- /TiO 2 -SiO 2 , and modified Zirconia compounds
Piston top ring - cylinder liner situation was simulated using a passenger car engine top ring sliding on a cast iron disk. The simulation was done on a pin-on-disk tribo- tester. Friction and wear control performance of neat palmfattyaciddistillate (PFAD), its ZDDP and dithiocarbamates formulates were evaluated under a severe load (200N) serving condition possible with today/future cars’ internal combustion engines. 0.5%(wt) molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamates (MoDTC), doped PFAD produced lower friction and wear, while 0.1%(wt) ZDDP in the same PFAD offered lower coefficient of friction but slightly higher wear when compared to a commercial premium engine oil tested for benchmarking. PFAD can be a “cost-competitive green base oil” in Malaysia, and a contributor to the growing global bio- lubricants market.
Recently, monoglycerides presented as one of the most wanted products derived from free fatty acids , , . On the other hand, the current interesting fattyacid source was palmfattyaciddistillate (PFAD). The PFAD was the byproduct of crude palm oil (CPO) physical refining with the amount of 3.66 ton/100 ton CPO produced ,  composed of linoleic acid and oleic acid as the major components , .
The palmfattyaciddistillate (PFAD) was commonly used in the animal feed industry, soap industry, and oleochemical industry (Tay et al., 2009), (Tapanwong and Punsuvon, 2011), (Gapor Md Top, 2010). The vitamin E in PFAD can be extracted to produce for cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries (Ahmadi et al., 2012). Thailand is the world’s third largest producer of crude palm oil (USDA, 2015). Moreover, the approximately 2 million tonnes of crude palm oil (CPO) production can be produced in 2014 (USDA, 2015). In addition there is no the official production data of PFAD, however, the estimated PFAD production is based on the approximately 4% of FFA in CPO (Gapor Md Top, 2010), as shown in Table I. The PFAD is the light yellow solid at 30 o C of
Palm oil refining process produced palmfattyaciddistillate (PFAD) as a by-product in deodorization stage. Saponification of PFAD produced unsaponifiable matter (USM) which was rich in vitamin E mainly tocotrienols, phytosterols, and squalene. This study evaluated the therapeutic effect of food products (instant noodle, bread, and biscuit) enriched with bioactive compounds from USM on the aorta of hypercholesterolemic rats. Rats were fed with atherogenic diet for 14 days to have blood total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dl. Rats then were fed according to each treatment group for 8 weeks. Total cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, and LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol were analyzed at the end of experiment. Rats were then sacrificed and aorta abdominal was collected for histopathological study. The result showed total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol of rats fed by USM enriched food products were lower than that of corresponding products. Also, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL and LDL cholesterol to HDL were better. Rats fed with USM enriched food products had a better aortic histopathological image than rats fed with non- enriched food products. Rats fed with USM enriched foods had less severe morphological lesions of the aortic wall with less foam cells in tunica intimae, less fat deposits in tunica media, elongated nuclei and organized myofibrils. This study indicated bioactive compounds in food products enriched with USM of PFAD offered good therapeutic effect against atherosclerosis development of hypercholesterolemic rats. USM enriched biscuit revealed the best therapeutic effect.
Abstract. PalmFattyAcidDistillate (PFAD) is a byproduct of CPO production. PFAD conversion into monoglyceride would give significant economic added value to it. With free fattyacid as the major component which composes the PFAD, then the esterification process was the right choice. Utilization of strong acidic cation resin as a catalyst is interesting. The catalyst could be easily separated physically. Natural esterification reaction would run reversibly so that the reflux system would be created to remove water. Reflux system used xylene as the solvent. To find the optimum condition for reaction parameters, reaction temperature, mole ratio of PFAD-glycerol, and catalyst loading were varied. Two heterogeneous reaction mechanisms, Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal model, were tried to fit with the experimental data which resulted in the first model fitted the experimental data better than the second model. The reaction mechanism would involve the side reaction of diglyceride and triglyceride formation.
While  produced biodiesel by esterifying PFAD and maintaining it at the reaction temperature in a refluxed batch reactor. The mixture of the methanol and concentrated sulfuric acid were added to the molten PFAD with continuous stirring for 120 minutes. The variables investigated in the esterification step were the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (varied from 16:1 to 24:1) and reaction temperatures (60 and 70 °C) by using concentrated sulfuric acid catalyst (1 % v/w of PFAD). From their experimental results, the esterification processes reduce the acid value of the raw ma terial down from 183 mg/g KOH to less than 0.50 mg/g KOH.
1-octanol pathway (which yields higher titers of octa- noic acid) in buffered medium overlaid with 20% dode- cane confirmed the partial accumulation of octanoic acid in the organic phase (Fig. 8b). Although addition of dodecane could circumvent the inhibitory effect of added 1-octanol on growth (Fig. 7), surprisingly, this was not the case when 1-octanol was produced by the cells themselves (Fig. 8a). Here, the growth of the 1-octanol producing yeast cultures with dodecane was only slightly improved. Taken together, in situ extrac- tion could not improve 1-octanol production and the speedup of the downstream pathway for octanoic acid production is necessary to compensate the loss of octa- noic acid into the organic layer. The results also suggest that beside the toxic effect of 1-octanol, its production somehow also inhibits growth of the cells which might partially be connected to a limited supply of ATP and the cofactor NADPH required for octanoic acid pro- duction as well as for the CAR and Ahr reactions.
These derivatization reagents also sometimes interact with the active drug compound and cause changes in the results. So it is very important to use direct determination of the fatty acids without using any derivatization agents. Analysis of underivatized acids was first carried) by using Gas chromatography in 1956 7, 8 . After three years, same authors published another article presenting the GC analysis of fatty acids in the form of methyl esters. In early days this technique has its own limitations in the form of large amount of sample requirement and sample wastage. But today the technique is much developed with fully automated computerized methods. A derivatization free GC- FID method was developed which resulted in good recoveries and reproducibility 11 .
Determination of fattyacid composition. The determination of fattyacid composition was carried out according to the IUPAC 2.302 (1992) method. The fatty acids were determined from their methyl esters by gas chromatography using a HP 5890 series II (Hewlett Packard, Palo Alto, USA) with a Supelco- wax 10 capillary column with the dimensions 30 m × 0.53 mm; 1.0 µm film. The sample was analysed un- der the following conditions: injector temperature at 250°C; flame-ionisation detector temperature at 260°C; helium as carrier gas with 7 cm 3 /min flow
A series of experiments was performed during the induction of starvation ketosis and in the acute reversal of the ketotic state. In contrast to the predictions of two widely held theories of ketogenesis, control of acetoacetate production by the liver appeared to be unrelated to changes in fattyacid mobilization from the periphery, fattyacid oxidation, fattyacid synthesis, or the acetyl coenzyme A concentration in the liver.
It shall be highlighted here that there are no standards available to verify which region of the FTIR spectra is indicative of the problem for palmfattyacid ester insulation oils. For this reason, the findings of Suleiman et al. (2014) are used as a reference to verify the FTIR spectra for the PFAE oil samples in this study. It is expected that the chemical composition of PFAE oil will be different from that for mineral oil since PFAE oil is biodegradable and thus, it does not have detrimental impact on the environment. According to Suleiman et al. (2014), the absorption band which appears at a wavenumber range of 1000–1250 cm -1 is attributed to C-
Abstract: A thorough analysis and comparison of the fattyacid profiles of stipe and blade from Laminaria hyperborea, a kelp species found in the northern Atlantic, is presented. Lipids were extracted and fractionated into neutral lipids, free fatty acids and polar lipids, then derivatized to fattyacid methyl esters prior to GC-MS analysis. A total of 42 fatty acids were identified and quantified, including the n-3 fatty acids α-linolenic acid, stearidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. An n-6/n-3 ratio of 0.8:1 was found in blade and 3.5:1 in stipe, respectively. The ratios vary between the lipid fractions within stipe and blade, with the lowest ratio in the polar lipid fraction of blade. The fattyacid amounts are higher in blade than in stipe, and the highest amounts of n-3 fatty acids are found within the neutral lipid fractions. The amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids are 3.4 times higher in blade than stipe. This study highlights the compositional differences between the lipid fractions of stipe and blade from L. hyperborea. The amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, compared to saturated- and monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as the n-6/n-3-ratio, is known to influence human health. In the pharmaceutical, food, and feed industries this can be of importance for production and sale of different health products. Additionally, lipids are today among the unused by products of alginate production, exploiting this material for commercial interest should give both economical and environmental benefits.
to glycerol dietary inclusion, a numerical increase of total MUFA and C18:1n-9 values and a decrease in total PUFA and C18:2n-6 concentrations were observed. Corresponding statistical tendencies (0.06 < P < 0.10) are shown in Table 4. In agree- ment with this study, Mourot et al. (1994) observed that dietary glycerol increased C18:1n-9 and re- duced C18:2n-6 in backfat and semimembranosus muscle tissue of pigs. Kijora et al. (1997) did not observe any significant change in the SFA profile of the backfat, but reported a moderate increase in C18:1n-9, accompanied by a decrease in C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 concentrations, thus producing a decline in the PUFA/MUFA ratio in backfat. That is to say that interactions Sex × Fat and Fat × Gly in individual and total PUFA concentrations were detected (Table 4). The lower concentration in bar- rows was more noticeable in animals fed palm oil and the glycerol inclusion in palm oil diet produced a higher decrease of PUFA concentration than the addition to lard diet. These results seemed expect- able considering that the SFA/PUFA ratio in palm oil diet was higher than in the lard one.
Traditional technologies mainly used for crude palm oil extraction in developing countries are responsible for high water content, which consequently increases FFA content with oil aging [13, 16]. The common solution to overcome this issue is the use of refined oil. However, a system processing biodiesel from refined palm oil is technically successful, but not economically viable compared to using crude raw materials with pretreatment. In fact, refining will bring in FFA reduction, deodorization and bleaching, and require additional manpower and equipments, which will definitely increase the production cost . Moreover, Dominik R. and Rainer J. argued that FFA which should have been converted into FAME is lost through refining, thus resulting in a decrease of the overall yield, especially if the feedstocks FFA content is high . To this add the issue of cold flow properties of biodiesel which is a function of fattyacid composition. Since the type of feedstock plays an important role regarding the impurities and ways they must be removed, biodiesel from unrefined palm oil must be thoroughly purified and handled carefully. In fact, monoglycerides and sterol glucosides are at the origin of precipitations in biodiesel. Sterol glucosides are not soluble in biodiesel and crystalize slowly as the biodiesel cools down, and initial biodiesel seems to meet specification but after few days of storage filterability issue shows off. Sterol glucosides which are considered as dispersed fine solid particles as low as 35 ppm may accelerate crystallization and coprecipitation of other compounds and creation of deposits in the biodiesel. Those deposits are at the origin of filter clogging at temperatures even above cloud point . Furthermore, unrefined palm oil produced by traditional presses contains too much solid materials like sludges, fiber, palm seeds, leaves, and cakes which need to be removed before any pretreatment.
Cycas, the only currently known genus of the Family Cycadaceae, are considered as fossil plants though they may have evolved only about 12 million years ago (Nagalingum et al., 2011). The cycads resemble palms in morphology and are commonly called sago palm. These are widely distributed in the Tropics, with species found in Asia, Africa, Southeast Asia, Pacific, and Australia (Donaldson, 2013). They also grow on volcanic, limestone, ultramafic, sandy, or even water-logged soils in grassland and forest habitats (Madulid and Agoo, 2009). In the Philippines, there are eleven cycad species namely, C. aenigma K. D. Hill & Lindstrom, C. curranii (J. Schust.) K. D. Hill, C. edentata de Laub., C. lacrimans Lindstrom & K. D. Hill, C. nitida K. D. Hill & Lindstrom, C. riuminiana Porte ex Regel, C. saxatilis K. D. Hill & Lindstrom, C. sancti-lasallei Agoo & Madulid, C. wadei Merr., C. vespertilio Lindstrom & K. D. Hill, and C. zambalensis Madulid & Agoo (Madulid and Agoo, 2009; Lindstrom et al., 2008; Agoo and Madulid, 2012). All species,
The fatty acids analysis in serum provided direct evidence on the fatty acids synthesis in the liver . The saturated fattyacid (SFA), such as palmitic acid and yields of its conversion in to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsat- urated fatty acids (PUFAs) from the n-3 and n-6 families are connected through the metabolic activity of the liver . Unger., in 2003  has reported that free fatty acids (FFAs) are important mediators of lipotoxicity, they act as possible cellular toxins and leads to the lipid over-accumulation. When lipids are over-accumulated in non-adipose tissue, they may enter into non-oxidative deleterious pathways leading to cell injury and death. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the FFA in serum provide an ancillary source of evidence on the synthesis of FA in the liver .
To explore the mechanism of enhancing fatty alcohol production with fattyacid starvation, whole-genome transcriptional analysis was performed. Sequence data are available in public databases (NCBI SRA acces- sions SRA200924). Strains MGKCBA/pL1 and W/pL1 were cultured and collected 12 h after isopropyl β-D-1- thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction. The transcription levels of 44 genes in four modules closely related to fatty alcohol production changed (Table 2). (a) The transcrip- tion levels of most genes from the glycolysis module were upregulated, particularly ptsG (3.37-fold, p = 0.0023), thus implying that the engineered strain accelerated glycolysis and therefore supplied more precursors for fatty alcohol synthesis (Fig. 1). (b) The transcription levels of most genes from the TCA cycle (except for acnA) were downregu- lated, particularly sdhA (0.29-fold, p = 0.0031), thus imply- ing that the engineered strain reduced the consumption of the carbon source for cell growth, and this surplus carbon source could then be used for fatty alcohol production. (c) The transcription levels of most genes from the fattyacid synthesis module were upregulated, thereby satisfying the growth demands. (d) The transcription levels of most genes from the fattyacid degradation module were downregu- lated, particularly fadB (0.36 fold, p = 0.0263), thus imply- ing that the fatty acids produced by the engineered strain Table 1 Plasmids and strains used in this study
Stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) is the key fattyacid biosynthetic enzyme that introduces the double bond into the saturated stearoyl-ACP (C18:0-ACP) to produce mono-unsaturated oleoyl-ACP (C18:1- ACP). As SAD was not detected in the quantitative evaluation, the relative abundance of this enzyme between the two mesocarps could not be determined. However, results from the offline 2DLC-MS/MS showed no substantial difference in the detected number of peptides between low and high oleic acid mesocarps. This observation contrasted with the findings from previous studies as the expression of SAD was up-regulated in oleic acid accumulating tissues in earlier published work. Loei et al. described that the level of SAD in oil-accumulating fruit had been elevated although the result could not be validated either (Loei et al., 2013). Kilaru et al. also reported that the up-regulation of SAD in avocado was likely to be involved in increasing the high oleic acid level in mesocarp oil (Kilaru et al., 2015). Plants defective in SAD were also reported to accumulate high levels of C18:0-ACP and low level of C18:1-ACP fatty acids (Kachroo et al., 2007; 2003). A potential explanation of the non-existent up- regulation of SAD in high oleic acid mesocarp is the feedback inhibition mechanism by the end product; oleic acid. The accumulation of oleic acid could result in the inhibition or even down-regulation of SAD, which control its synthesis. Purified monomeric ACCases from maize, diatom and Brassica napus were revealed to be inhibited by palmitoyl-CoA (Roessler, 1990; Nikolau and Hawke, 1984) and stearoyl-ACP (Andre et al., 2012). Decanoyl-ACP was also reported to inhibit KAS activity in canola, spinach and Cuphea (Schuch et al., 1997; Bruck et al., 1996). The exact mechanism regulating this feedback in fattyacid biosynthesis is unknown (Ramli et al., 2002a; Shintani and Ohlrogge, 1995). This feedback could occur through biochemical or post-translational modified fattyacid biosynthetic enzymes (Andre et al., 2012). The relevance of feedback inhibition in this study is unclear because the changes in the pools of stearoyl-ACP and oleoyl- ACP were not measured.