Abstract: Common traditional techniques of breaking palmkernel nuts in rural areas where it is produced involved a lots of drudgery and hazard. The goal of this research work was to design, construct and test the performance of a palmkernel nut crackingmachine for local use at affordable cost. Samples were test-ran, cracked and replicated at different shaft speeds (r/min). with developed machine. The results showed that the un-cracked nuts were 2.50%, 2.00%, 1.50%, 1.25% and 1.00 %, the partially cracked were 2.75%, 2.75%, 2.25%, 2.00% and 1.75 %, the un-broken kernels were 93%, 94%, 95%, 94.5% and 94 %, that of broken kernels were 1.75%, 1.50%, 1.50%, 2.50% and 3.25 % at set speeds of 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 and 2400 r/min respectively. The throughput of the machine increased from 10.91 to 38.00 g/s as the speed of the machine increased from 800 to 2400 r/min. Also the performance efficiencies of the developed machine were 93%, 94%, 95%, 94.5% and 94% while the overall efficiencies were 90.86%, 92.12%, 93.58%, 93.08% and 93.06 % for the set speeds. The cost of the developed palm nut cracker was N150,000 (US$ 909), while the imported machines of similar capacity had market price range between N250,000 (US$ 1,515) to N300,000 (US$ 1,818). Conclusively, the locally-made machine performed well and was found cheaper and more economical for the establishment of small scale industry especially in the developing countries than imported types.
20 Similarly, Ezeoha (2012), Akubuo & Eje (2002) and Koya et al (2004), determined the bulk density and porosity that affect the structural load acting on the well storage structure and its effect on the performance of palm nut commercial cracking machines. They all maintained that bulk density affects the machine performance. Furthermore, nut hardness is the ability of a material to resist cracking, scratching or identation when external forces is applied, Gbadomonsi (2006). Accordingly, Ezeoha et al (2012) proposed on average hardness value ranges from 10.32 – 38kN/m 2 which could affect the performance of commercial palm nut cracking machines.
The modifications made in addressing the identified sho rtcomings were nuts pre-screening and grading into large, medium and small size categories for cracking; repeated impact cracking of the graded nuts using the determined minimum cracking speed and incorporation of external kernel-shell pre-cleaner cum classifier with the cracker. The modified palm-nut cracker therefore mainly consists of a hopper, cracking chamber and pre-cleaner cum classifier. Palm nuts are primarily pre-screened to remove dirt and immature nuts, categorized into four size grades and then loaded into the machine through the hopper, in batches for nut cracking. The cracker mixture is then transported to the external pre-cleaner cum classifier, to further remove dirt, immature kernels and smaller shell particles, before proceeding to classify the mixture of kernel and shell based on their sizes.
3 occupational hazard creates unsafe working environment due to excessive noise exposure at the nut cracking station. This condition can be found during nut cracking process using nut crackers also known as ripple mill. The ripple mill is a machine used to crack nuts and separate kernel and shell. During the cracking process, a very loud noise produced by the machine. This exposure of noise can lead to hearing loss to workers when they are continuously exposed to the noise in a long period. According to Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (OSHA 1994), the noise hazard can be prevented using three approaches such as administrative controls, engineering controls, and personal protective equipments. In this study, the second approach is used to design a noise insulator for ripple mill. In the recognition the importance of minimizing occupational hazard associated with noise exposure at the nut cracking station, the aim of this study is to design a noise insulator for ripple mill to reduce noise risks among the machine operators and the co-workers.
Abstract- The Palmkernel cracker is a machine used for crackingpalm nuts by palm fruit farmers and palm fruit products related industries. The conventional palmkernel cracker which uses a long rotating hammer for cracking nuts was discovered to be less efficient since it misses any nut that is not in its line of action or axis of rotation. Also by virtue of its design, it is only capable of cracking the nuts and as such makes the palm nut farmer expand enormous extra energy in the course of to manually separate the cracked shells from the kernels. A modified palmkernel cracker with a cracking rectangular channel welded to a cracking flywheel with a centralized hole through which every nut must pass and as such capable of making contact with every nut and thus cracking nearly all the nuts was sequentially designed and fabricated in this project to overcome the earlier mentioned constraints. The improved palm nut cracker also incorporates two different set of filters (separators) for separating the kernels from the cracked shells.
significant effect on cracking force, absorbed energy and required power. Altuntas et al. (2010) indicated that the effects of compression along the axis and speed on the rupture force were highly dependent on almond cultivars. Aydin (2002) found that the maximum force required to crack almond nuts was measured when nuts were placed at right angles to the longitudinal axis; whereas the minimum force required to crack nuts occurred when the force was applied along the longitudinal axis. Borghei et al. (2000) have investigated the effect of feeding method and walnuts size on the required cracking force. They found that, the cracking force and strain of walnuts were in the range from 110 to 800 N and from 0.01 to 0.045, respectively at 6% moisture content (wet basis). The study also showed that large sized walnuts required higher cracking force than small ones. Many investigators designed different cracking machines with different cracking mechanisms. Ghafari et al. (2011) designed a walnut cracker and evaluated its performance. Their cracker consists of a hopper fitted with a flow rate control device, a cracking unit, a sorter and power system. The principle of attrition is using a crushing force from a cylinder and helix. Ogunsina (2008) designed machine for cracking dika nut; the nuts is fed by hand in a toggle mechanism comprising of a slider and a fixed block. Fracture mechanism was based on the deformation characteristics of dried dika nuts under uni-axial compression. When actuated, the slider compresses the nutshell to failure along its line of symmetry. Koya (2006) modelled and tested two models for crackingpalm nut under repeated load. The models were based on the conservation of energy impacted on the nut by falling weight, the kinetic energy of a moving object and the strain energy required for cracking the nutshell. Ojolo and Ogunsina (2007) developed a roasted cashew nuts machine, its components are the metal casing, feeding tray (i.e., supported by mild steel box), cracking lid, and lever arm. The impact of the lid against the feeding tray cracks nuts. The centrifugal nutcrackers have high productivity; however, the process has quite number of deficiencies, which include breaking of kernels in the course of cracking as well as kernel loss. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop efficient Almonds
Free fatty acid was produced manually in batches by hydrolysis process before epoxidation of the double bonds takes place. 50g of RBD palmkernel oil was filled in a two-necked round bottom flask and was added with ethanolic potassium hydroxide. The solution was mixed together before underwent hydrolysis process at 60 o C for 2 hours. Samples were extracted using hexane and wash with water before
The relevance of the higher calcium balance noted with the NoPALM versus PALM feeding in the current study is not diminished by the observed impact of cal- cium intake on the percent calcium absorption when used as a covariate. First, calcium absorption has been suggested to be enhanced at lower calcium concentra- tion and reduced at higher concentration [27,28]. None- theless, calcium absorption will also depend on many other factors as well. It is well accepted that calcium ab- sorption from HM is significantly higher than that from many infant formulas despite the lower level of calcium in HM and the consequential lower intake of calcium from HM [24,25]. Obviously, the lower level of calcium in the PALM in this study did not result in enhanced calcium absorption as in HM. Secondly, the significantly lower percent calcium retention noted with the PALM feeding was maintained after adjusting for calcium intake as a co- variate in the analyses of variance. This suggests that the differences in the fat blends of the study formulas have relevant impact on the calcium balance noted in the study. Calcium retention and bone mineral content are better markers or functional outcomes for the impact of dietary calcium on calcium homeostasis compared to calcium ab- sorption . A recently published study  demon- strated a significantly (p = 0.041) lower bone mineral content at 3 months of age in term infants fed a POL con- taining partially hydrolyzed whey protein-based formula compared to a similar formula containing no POL. The fat blends of formulas compared in that study were similar to the PALM and NoPALM formulas assessed in our current study except for the inclusion of PKO and canola in the PALM formula of our current study.
6.8 Air permeability & pore size test machine 70 6.9 Sample filter cut in disc size for pore size test 71 6.10 Pour methyl alcohol for 1/3 of the hole of sample holder cover 71 6.11 The sample paper wetted by methyl alcohol after pore size test 72 6.12 Display screen of air permeability machine 73 7.1 Dust paper filter (FC8046) Philips brand in left Figure
The effect of antioxidant additive on the thermal stability of the palmkernel oil ester derivatives were studied with the addition of tertiary butilated hydroxyquinone (TBHQ) in the ester samples. The percentage of additive that yields optimum performance was determined by varying the amount of the additive. The effect of the antioxidant was evaluated by comparing the onset temperature of oxidation on the DSC thermogram with the oxidation onset temperature of the same sample without antioxidant (Table 2). While 4% (w/w) tertiary butilated hydroxyquinone (TBHQ) in PKOAE1 was found to yield optimum OOT, only 3% (w/w) was required for the other ester samples above which there was no significant change in OOT. The antioxidant suppressed the thermal degradation of C-H bonds of the fatty acid backbone. This result demonstrates that antioxidant is able to protect the oxidative degradation of
moisture content (KMC), kernel heating temperature (KHT), kernel heating duration (KHD) and kernel particle size (KPS) on palmkernel oil (PKO) yield by a mixed variety of oil-palm kernels using a locally fabricated screw press was investigated. The one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) experimental approach was employed. Design-Expert 8P (Version 8.0.6) software was used for statistical analysis of data. Within the range of values of variables studied, the results showed that at the 5% significance level only kernel size significantly affected PKO yield. Thus, KPS is a critical factor in PKO extraction using the screw press. Oil- palm kernels should not be crushed when using a screw press designed for whole kernels, because, doing so will most likely result to poor oil yield.
116 as a by-product. Crushed palm kernels seeds generally results in the production of PKC and palmkernel shell as by-products . They constitute about 45%-48% by weight of palm nut and on a wet basis; the kernels contain about 47%-50% by weight of the oil whose properties and characteristics are quite different from palm fruit oil but rather resembles coconut oil . Palmkernel cake (PKC) is a by- product of palmkernel oil extraction provides moderate nutrition with approximately 16-18% of crude protein (CP) and 13-20% crude fiber (CF) hence, usage of PKC is common in ruminant diets, but limited in the non-ruminant diets especially in poultry diets due to the high fibre content . PKC is one alternative feed resource that can be used in
The importance of activated carbon as an adsorbent, catalyst and catalyst support has increased in industrial and environmental applications due to its special features; a very high surface area absorbency, inertness, and porosity. The surface structure and porosity of an activated carbon largely depended on the starting materials and the activation method used. In this study, activated carbons were prepared from palmkernel shell by chemical activation using zinc chloride, ZnCl 2
SWM, and LR is competitive in Example 1 as the data within each class indeed follows a Gaussian distribution sharing a common covariance structure, and thus the lin- ear combination is optimal. Their performance becomes less competitive in other examples when linear combina- tion is no longer optimal. It is evident that in Examples 3 and 4, with nonlinear patterns specified, the GKME out- performs all other methods. Especially, in Example 4, the performance of GKME is outstanding due to a strong nonlinear pattern specified. In general, the performance of KSM is less competitive. It could be due to the over- fitting issue when applying the Gaussian kernel to estimate sensitivity and specificity. With similar exhaustive grid search, the performance of SWM is better than MMM in Examples 1 and 4 but worse in Examples 2 and 3. As for the two classification methods, LR yields competitive performance in Examples 1 and 2 and becomes less com- petitive when logistic models with nonlinear patterns are applied in Examples 3 and 4. The performance of TREE is modest considering the nature of recursive partition.
moisture absorption as palmkernel shell is lightweight, sustainable, environmentally friendly as well as low cost in obtaining raw material. Coconut kernel shells are available abundantly in Malaysia and all these wastes were disposed to the landfill. The huge amount of the coconut kernel shell wastes increased rapidly, and this leads to the huge disposal area and environmental pollution. Coconut kernel shell is rich in lignin, carbon content but low in ash content which provides high strength and hardness to the products . Therefore, palmkernel shell and coconut kernel shell are selected for this research to enhance the tensile strength of the elastomeric polymer matrix.
(Tecan Group Ltd., Switzerland) at a wavelength of 405 nm. MICs were expressed as the lowest palm oil concentration that resulted in 80% growth re- duction compared to the oil-free growth control. In addition, a susceptibility test of all strains to penicillin G was also performed by MIC determi- nation, like in the case of palm oils. All combina- tions of oil/penicillin G per strain were tested in three individual experiments, each of which was carried out in triplicate. The final MIC was de- termined as the mode of all values. In accordance with turbidity values measured in the wells of the microtiter plates before and after incubation of the stock solution of three tested palm oils and eight bacterial strains, MIC values for the selected oils and bacteria were calculated. No antimicrobial activity of palm oils was observed without prior lipase cleavage (Hovorkova et al. 2018); therefore, the results mentioned below apply only to oils after cleavage by a lipase from M. javanicus.
SVMs (Support Vector Machines) are the efficient technique for data classification and prediction. It works on the principle of supervised learning. As we discussed that kernel function plays an important role in the classification by support vector machine. Kernels are used to project the data points in the higher dimensions for better classification of the datasets as shown in fig.1. Some kernel functions are present in support vector machine algorithm are based on neural networks. Support vector machine is considered easier to use than neural networks but time taken by support vector machine is more compared to neural network . The radial basis kernel, polynomial kernel and sigmoid kernel of support vector machine is used for non-linear separation and works on the principle of neural networks.
The moisture content of palmkernel measured after each equilibrium relative humidity determination was observed to be lower than the moisture content before the determination. The difference is believed to be due to loss of moisture that accompanied the evacuation process during equilibrium relative humidity determination. A similar observation was made by Labuza (1976) and Lewicki et al. (1978). The moisture content after evacuation was always considered to be in equilibrium with the measured relative humidity. The experimental values of equilibrium relative humidity for palmkernel at different conditions considered were taken each as the average of two readings and are presented in Table 1. These were used to estimate the para- meters in both the ERH and EMC models.
residues from oil palm industry . Thus, transforming PKS to bio-fuel under a thermal conversion offers a greater advantage to substitute fossil fuels, and it minimizes the disposal problems related with the generation of agricultural by-products . PKS exhibited great prospective as fuel to produce gas with enhanced hydrogen and energy content . However, high moisture, low heating value and energy density inhibit the PKS as valuable fuel . Accordingly, these complications can be handled through torrefaction.