of a machine. Some researchers (Degrimencioglu, Srivastava 1996; Shefii et al. 1996; Mohammed 2002; Ndirika 2006) used the dimensional analysis based on the Buckingham’s π theorem as veritable instrument in establishing a prediction equation of various systems. Therefore the present study is under- taken to establish a mathematical model for predict- ing the cracking efficiency of vertical-shaft centrifugal palmnutcracker using the dimensional analysis.
Abstract: This study examined the major shortcomings of conventional crackers, and developed a modified palm-nutcracker with the view of reducing the level of mechanical kernel damage. Equation relating the required speed for cracking operation and force requirement in fracturing the nut was expressed, and the force was experimentally determined before machine development. The machine was designed and fabricated based on standard engineering principles for part-sizing and selection of materials. The machine was tested with dura nuts classified into four groups of sizes and varied during experimentation. The performance evaluation of the machine show that cracking efficiency ranged between 86.10%-97.27% at an average value of 4.59% kernel breakage and whole kernels ranging between 94.85%-95.97%. Analysis of results using Minitab 17 show that efficiency of the machine was influenced by nut sizes and variation in the selected feed rates. The result indicated that the machine is suitable for processing, palm nuts of all sizes when operated at moderate feed rates.
Abstract: A mathematical model for predicting the performance efficiency of an integrated palm-nutcracker and kernel-shell separator was developed using dimensional analysis based on Buckingham’s π theorem. The developed performance model was iterated in Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB), to predict the efficiencies, by varying the parameters of the materials in contact. The predicted performance efficiencies ranged between 88.26%-99.98%, while the evaluated performance efficiencies were in the range of 56.16%-96.57%. The correlation between the predicted and experimental numerical values using MINITAB17 suggested relationship and validity of the developed model (optimum r 2 = 99.6%).
due to the high grade quality oil recovered since the level of kernel breakage is low. It also exposes the operator to the danger of flying shells which can in- jure the eye or any part of the body. However due to the global demand of palm kernel and its by-prod- ucts, an effort has been geared towards an improved method of palm kernel extraction. The modern crackers are of two types, the hammer-impact and the centrifugal-impact types. The hammer-impact type breaks or cracks the nut by impact when the hammer fail on the nut, while the centrifugal-im- pact nutcracker uses centrifugal action to crack the nut. The nut is fed into the hopper and it falls into the housing where a plate attached to the rotor is rotating. According to some researchers shelling has always posed a major problem in the process- ing of bio material and they attributed this to the shape and the brittleness of the kernel, rendering Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the vertical-shaft centrifugal palmnutcracker: 1 – hopper, 2 – feed rate control, 3 – rotor, 4 – crack- ing ring, 5 – vertical placed shaft, 6 – collector chute, 7 – frame, 8 – bearing, 9 – shaft sheave, 10 – channel, 11 – housing/crack- ing chamber
Abstract- The Palm kernel cracker is a machine used for cracking palm nuts by palm fruit farmers and palm fruit products related industries. The conventional palm kernel cracker which uses a long rotating hammer for cracking nuts was discovered to be less efficient since it misses any nut that is not in its line of action or axis of rotation. Also by virtue of its design, it is only capable of cracking the nuts and as such makes the palmnut farmer expand enormous extra energy in the course of to manually separate the cracked shells from the kernels. A modified palm kernel cracker with a cracking rectangular channel welded to a cracking flywheel with a centralized hole through which every nut must pass and as such capable of making contact with every nut and thus cracking nearly all the nuts was sequentially designed and fabricated in this project to overcome the earlier mentioned constraints. The improved palmnutcracker also incorporates two different set of filters (separators) for separating the kernels from the cracked shells.
Modern Methods: The development of mobile palm kernel nut cracking machine is a major effort made to reduce drudgery on nut cracking in rural areas. Palm kernel nut cracking occurs when nuts are loaded to rupture without crushing the embedded kernel. Researchers around the world espe- cially in the tropics where palm trees are found have made various contributions to the design of cracking devices. Some have designed and tested various cracking ma- chines. Eric et al. (2009) and Oke, (2010) worked on the determination of some de- sign parameters for palmnutcracker. Oth- ers have investigated the effects of the exist- ing crackers on the quality of recovered ker- nel and showed that certain factors affect the cracking efficiency of the nutcracker. These factors are:
Abstract: Common traditional techniques of breaking palm kernel nuts in rural areas where it is produced involved a lots of drudgery and hazard. The goal of this research work was to design, construct and test the performance of a palm kernel nut cracking machine for local use at affordable cost. Samples were test-ran, cracked and replicated at different shaft speeds (r/min). with developed machine. The results showed that the un-cracked nuts were 2.50%, 2.00%, 1.50%, 1.25% and 1.00 %, the partially cracked were 2.75%, 2.75%, 2.25%, 2.00% and 1.75 %, the un-broken kernels were 93%, 94%, 95%, 94.5% and 94 %, that of broken kernels were 1.75%, 1.50%, 1.50%, 2.50% and 3.25 % at set speeds of 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 and 2400 r/min respectively. The throughput of the machine increased from 10.91 to 38.00 g/s as the speed of the machine increased from 800 to 2400 r/min. Also the performance efficiencies of the developed machine were 93%, 94%, 95%, 94.5% and 94% while the overall efficiencies were 90.86%, 92.12%, 93.58%, 93.08% and 93.06 % for the set speeds. The cost of the developed palmnutcracker was N150,000 (US$ 909), while the imported machines of similar capacity had market price range between N250,000 (US$ 1,515) to N300,000 (US$ 1,818). Conclusively, the locally-made machine performed well and was found cheaper and more economical for the establishment of small scale industry especially in the developing countries than imported types.
Context: George Stevenson and his brother Bob have decided to form a new business— the Crummy Cracker Company. This fictitious setting provides an opportunity to discuss many of the issues covered in an introductory managerial accounting course. The first unit follows George and Bob as they go through the steps necessary to get the business started. Because our focus is on the accounting impact of each step, time is compressed. Getting a business like this started would realistically take several months, so several simplifying assumptions are added. The case assumes that they get everything done in a week. Let’s follow George and Bob as they get the business started.
Bambara nut (Voandzeia substerranean L.), cassava (Manihot esculenta) and soybean (Glycine max) flour blends were used in producing “akpekpa” which is similar to “okpa” wrapped in Thaumatococcus daniellii leaves (Ikya-kon). The blends at different percentages (Sample A = 100% Bambara nut flour, B = 80% Bambara nut flour + 20% cassava flour, C = 80% Bambara nut flour + 20% soyflour and D = 70% Bambara nut flour + 15% cassava flour + 15% soyflour) were studied for proximate composition, functional and sensory properties of the akpekpa made from the flours. The result of the proximate composition showed significant difference (P------< 0.05) in carbohydrate (62.87 – 67.88), fat (4.04 – 5.75), moisture (8.95 – 10.01) and protein (14.25 – 16.25), while ash (3.49 – 3.50) and fibre (1.40 – 1.45), showed no significant difference between the samples, measured in percentages. The result of functional properties also showed significant difference (P------< 0.05) in foaming capacity (11.77 – 23.77ml/g) and water absorption capacity (1.93 – 2.15g/g), while bulk density (0.69 – 0.71g/cm 3 ), oil absorption capacity (2.26 – 2.73g/g)
Abstract: In order to reduce mechanical damage and improve extraction quality of walnut kernel during walnut cracking, the Wen-185 walnut cultivar was selected as the research object, and the mechanical properties of walnut under different cracking parts were assessed by combining compression tests and finite element analysis (FEA) method. The compression test results showed that the relationships between rupture force and deformation of walnut were nonlinear, and the cracking process of shell mainly consisted of three stages (elastic stage, plastic stage and composite elastic-plastic stage). The best method to crack walnut was the spherical compression, and the peak value of rupture force and corresponding deformation were 211.83 N and 1.68 mm, respectively. In condition of spherical compression, the shell-breaking rate, first-grade kernel rate and whole kernel rate were (91.67±2.89)%, (88.33±2.89)%, (80.00±5.00)%, respectively. The FEA results indicated that spherical compression was also the suitable way to rupture walnut, which resulted in the obvious propagation trends of shell cracks and further a better integrity of extracting walnut kernel. Therefore, the spherical contact form between walnut and cracking parts may be considered to design the structural shape of key components of walnut cracking machines, which was consistent with the analysis of compression test results. The comparison between experiment results and FEA results showed that the established FEA model can be used to analyze the mechanical properties of walnut. The research results can provide references for the structural design and optimization of key components of cracking machines for walnut or other nut crops.
The development of the arecanut cracker was based on a hypothesis that pneumatic force collision disintegrates shells and continuous uniform dislocation results in enhanced breakage. Similar studies involving mechanical stresses have been carried out for macadamia nuts  and pea nuts processing.. Figure 2 shows the schematic view of the equipment developed. The machine comprises six major components assembled together. The cracking unit consists of the frame, a hopper, nozzle, breaking plate, pneumatic system and a collecting bin.
Abstract:- Thermo photovoltaic (TPV) system technology is based on the phenomenon of direct conversion of radiation coming from a heat source into electrical energy by means of photovoltaic cells. One of the heat source means is radiative heat transfer from combustion. In this work, we proposed a model for the calculation of thermal fluxes on the surface of TPV absorber coming from the combustion of palmnut shells. For this, we modeled the combustion flame by a cylindrical approach. A radiative model for calculating the incident and net fluxes is presented and, from the first thermodynamics principle, a temperature model for the TPV absorber surface is derived. The obtained models are discretized and solve simultaneously using iterative scheme in MATLAB. From the simulations runs, results of the incident and net fluxes at the surface of the TPV absorber are represented and analysed. The effect of thermal convection on the fluxes is carried out. Further, sensitivity are performed for different TPV heat sink - absorber distances. The model proposed here is suitable for any incident and net fluxes investigation at the surface of the TPV absorber, necessary for any TPV system design.
Depending on the source of phenolic compound (i.e. carda- nol, palm oil, lignophenols) the side group may be alkylene chain, methyl or methoxy group etc. The modification of side chain allows further possibilities to tailor the structure. The polymers obtained from the phenolic monomers can be either used as such crude or modified.
The explosion of a conventional fire cracker generates a blast wave that spreads out from a point source. The blast wave consists of two parts — a shock wave of high pressure, followed closely by a blast wind, or air in motion. The physics of blast waves is nonlinear and complex. In general, damage produced by blast waves decreases exponentially with distance from the point source of the blast. This factor is very important in hand injuries, because injury occurs mostly when the victim is holding the cracker in his/ her hand.
Areca palm (Areca catechu) is an erect, unbranched palm reaching heights of 12-30 m, depending upon the environmental conditions. .Areca nutpalm is an monoecious plant with male and female flowers occurring on the same spadix. The stem is marked with scars of the fallen leaves in a regular annulated form, which becomes visible only when the palm is about 3 years old. Girth depends on genetic variation and soil conditions. Root system adventitious, typical of monocots (Laurijssen, et.al., 2010). The adult palm has 7- 12 open leaves, each with a sheath, a rachis and leaflets. The leaf stalk extends as the midrib until the end of the leaf and ends as leaflets. Male flowers very numerous, sessile, without bracts, calyx 1-leaved, small, 3- cornered, 3-parted, petals, oblong, rigid striated, stamens, anthers. Female flowers are solitary or 2 or more near the base of each ramification of the spadix, sessile, without bracts, sepals permanent, staminodes, connate stigmas, short, triangular. Fruits are monolocular, one-seeded berry, 3.8-5 cm long, smooth orange or scarlet when ripe, with a dense fibrous outer layer. The generic name is derived from the common name used by the people of the Malabar Coast in the south western part of India. Every year 3-4 inflorescences are produced. The first inflorescence on the young palms is produced only by male flowers. Areca nut almost always exists in cultivation therefore, the conditions of its natural habitats are difficult to predict. It thrives in the areas of high rainfall. Although tolerant to moderate elevations on mountains, it generally do not grow best in low altitudes. Being a shade-loving species, it grows well in a a mixed cultivation with fruit trees. Soil should be deep to ensure a well-developed root system with high organic carbon content and a pH range from acidic to neutral (Sunita Chauhan and A.K.Sharma, 2014).
Crackers are popular among all types of age group including younger and older. They are considered as healthy snacks due of fat but they are in low content of Dietary Fiber (DF). Since there is Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in adults, the acker with enhanced DF content by incorporating selected locally available whole grain cereals and legumes. Flour composition of a normal cracker formulation (i.e. 100% (W/W) containing Finger Millet (FM), Brown Rice (BR) and legumes; either Green Gram (GG), Chick Pea (CP) or Soya Bean (SB) in different ratios. Since 50% substitution (BR: FM: legume=1.5:1.5:2) was not be able to produce the required rheological properties in the dough, studies were continued with 40% and 30% substitutions. In 40% substitution of wheat flour with the multi-grain flour was 1:2:1 and 1:1:2 ratios of BR: FM: CP. The 30% substitution was possible to formulate crackers with all types of selected legumes when the ratios of grain flour had 1:1:1(BR: FM: legume). Proximate composition and the DF content of both raw materials and final ) and sensory attributes of formulated crackers were carried out. Of the raw materials, SB had the highest DF content (24.88%) while CP, GG, FM and BR had a DF content of 11.27%, 10.58%, 9.57% and pectively. Of the formulated crackers, the highest DF content of 3.91% was obtained for the 40% substitution grain flour was 1:1:2 in BR: FM: CP (F1) and it was significantly higher than DF of wheat e formulated crackers, the lowest predicted Glycemic Index of 57.28% was obtained for F1 and it was lower than that obtained for wheat cracker (70.23%). The mean ranks for appearance, color, flavor, crispiness, ity in sensory evaluation obtained by F1 were not significantly different from grain flour was the optimum level of atio in BR: FM: CP was the best formulation.
It is well known that environment factors can affect nut qualities, while different cultivars have different adaptabilities in the same area. The comprehensive evaluation of nut quality and adaptability is of great significance for future utilization of these cultivars. In this article, we conducted a detailed phenotypic analysis of nut-quality traits. Both the physical traits and chemical aspects, including nut weight, nut shape, shell thickness, kernel, lipid, fatty acid content, tocopherol content, antioxidant capacities of lipids, phenolics contents and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated on 14 Chinese-grown pecan cultivars. These data will be useful for future utilization of these cultivars.
The nut was reported to be rich in sodium, Calcium, potassium, and trace of copper . It also contains magnesium which helps to promote normal muscles and nerve functions to keep the heart beat steady, support immune functions strengthen bones and keep blood pressure at healthy levels and process proteins. It contains high amino acids especially arginine which is a precursor to nitric oxide which helps keep blood vessels wide enough to keep blood flow normal and thus help control blood pressure. Tiger nuts helps to cure erectile dysfunction, protect the body from cardiovascular disease, may prevent heart attacks, thrombosis, activate blood circulation, gives potassium boost . The oil was found to contain 18% saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid and stearic acid) and 80% unsaturated fatty acid (oleic and linoleic acid .