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Biomass Residue from Palm Oil Mills in Aceh Province: A Potential Usage for Sustainable Energy

Biomass Residue from Palm Oil Mills in Aceh Province: A Potential Usage for Sustainable Energy

CPO includes sterilization, pressing, digestion-pressing, clarification, purifying and drying. Observation results indicated that not all factories have a palm kernel shell (PKS) processing facility for producing kernel oil. The FFB from the plantation are transported by truck and weighted at fruit reception prior to introduced to a station loading ramp for fruits selection. The FFBs are sterilized in a horizontal direct contact steam sterilizer at 120°C for 80-90 min to inactivate the lipolytic enzymes and loosen the fruit still attached to the bunches. Generally the enzymes will be inactive at 50oC. Steam (about 450 kg/ton FFB) at a pressure of 2.8 kg/cm2 is used in the sterilization process, and hence, generate waste water. The sterilized bunches are fed by hoisting crane into a rotary drum thresher to separate the fruits from the bunches. The EFBs are conveyed to the dumping ground. The fruits are fed into a digester where water at 90-95°C is added. Digester is used to crush the fruit , separating the flesh with seeds , and facilitate process in pressing unit. The homogenous oil from the digester is pushed through a screw press, and later passes through clarification unit (sand trap tank, vibrating screen, vertical clarifier tank, a hydrocyclone and separators) to separate oil, fine solids and water. Oil purification is then used to remove water from the oil. Vacuum driers, sludge tank, sand cyclone and centrifugal are used to further purify the oil before pumping it to a storage tank. Products from digestion unit are transfer to PKS processing unit includes depericarping, drying, cracking, winnowing, hydrocyclone and drying process. The schematic process diagram and material balance of typical CPO milling process can be seen in Fig.1.
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Biodegradation of fresh palm oil mill effluent and fungal biomass protein recovery by aspergillus niger and trichoderma virens

Biodegradation of fresh palm oil mill effluent and fungal biomass protein recovery by aspergillus niger and trichoderma virens

Previous researches had found that filamentous fungi have been utilized to treat wastewater ingredients such as metals, inorganic nutrients and organic compounds (Karim and Kamil., 1989; Pechsuth et al., 2001., Alam et al., 2003; Santos and Linardi, 2004; Rodríguez-Couto, 2009) Therefore, implementation of filamentous fungi for POME treatment could help ease the maintenance, monitoring and land requirement required by the conventional ponding system. Since typical ponding system requires longer hydraulic retention time where it involves higher operating costs, hence, by applying filamentous fungi to treat POME it is believed that the retention time required for treatment can be considerably reduced. Moreover, as compared to the conventional treatment method, it may offer better quality final effluent, less usage of chemicals, low energy consumption and low maintenance and operating costs since filamentous fungi can be easily obtained in nature.
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Multiple criteria decision analytical tools in assessing risk for green growth: the case of oil palm biomass in Malaysia

Multiple criteria decision analytical tools in assessing risk for green growth: the case of oil palm biomass in Malaysia

17 [50] illustrate bio-economy as a new growth opportunity in both traditional and emerging bio-based sectors to counter global challenges (i.e., climate change, food security, energy security, scarce resources) with environmental constraints. Bugge et al. [51] categorized bioeconomy into three main groups, namely biotechnology vision, bio-resource vision and bio-ecology vision. Biotechnology vision maximises the usage of the resources to solve resource shortages and resource scarcity. Bio-resources vision minimises environmental impact in the process of value creation and bio-ecology vision prioritises on the hierarchy of the usage of the resources for sustainability. For example, reuse and recycle the waste prior to remanufacture or refurbish for other use. Different from CE’s and GE’s concept that emphasizes more on environmental preservation and conversation for environmental impact reduction, BE intends to create new opportunity to transform natural and renewable biological resources for energy, chemicals and materials application and substitution[52]. It is deemed to be more appropriate for rural development, rather than urbanization or industrialization [29]. A few works also described BE as a subset of GE, playing an integral role to aid the green growth initiatives [24,53]. Similar to CE, the definition and understanding of BE vary depending on the nature of the industry as well. It has been widely adopted in developed countries, particularly on European nations and America, and receive significantly less attention in developing country thus far.
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Quality Assessment Of Physicochemical Properties Of Palm Oil From Different Palm Oil Mills In Isoko, Delta State

Quality Assessment Of Physicochemical Properties Of Palm Oil From Different Palm Oil Mills In Isoko, Delta State

The result obtained from the research shows that all parameters analyzed were within limit except for moisture 0.32 % and the free fatty acid after the required day (tenth- day). However, the study concluded that the palm oil is of good quality. The scope of this work is to determine the physical and chemical properties of palm oil samples obtained from different local oil palm processing mils within Isoko North and Isoko South L.G.A of Delta state. In the present study, the physical and chemical properties determined includes the Peroxide value, Relative density, free fatty acid, saponification value, ester value, moisture content and pH value. The information obtained from this research work will be very important to food processors, palm oil consumers within the LGA and also the information gathered will be of great benefit for optimization of the relevant industrial processes.
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“Knowledge Level of Improved Oil Palm Cultivation Technique by Oil Palm Growers of Kolasib District in Mizoram, India”

“Knowledge Level of Improved Oil Palm Cultivation Technique by Oil Palm Growers of Kolasib District in Mizoram, India”

Oil palm is an unbranched monoecious solitary columnar trunk with short internodes which can reach up to 20 – 25m vertically on full maturity. It is the highest edible oil yielding plant among perennial oil-yielding crops, producing palm-oil and palm-kernel oil. The oil is commonly used for culinary as well as industrial purposes. Palm oil is also known as palmolein. Palm oil contributes 70% of total vegetable oil import of India and is one of the cheapest oils due to high productivity per hectare. It is composed of about 40 percent oleic acid (mono-unsaturated), 10 percent linoleic acid (poly-unsaturated), 44 percent palmitic acid (saturated) and 5 per cent stearic acid (saturated) fatty acids. The oil is mainly extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the fruit which contains about 35-70% oil and from the palm kernel (seed) which contains about 50% oil. Palm oil is a natural source of antioxidant, vitamin E, constituent of tacopherols and tocotrienols. The natural antioxidants act as a scavenger of the damaging oxygen-free radicals, which play a protective role in cellular aging, cancer and atherosclerosis. It is good for heart as it reduces the blood cholesterol in humans. It is also used in the manufacture of soap, cosmetics, bakery products, antibiotics, gums, candles and other industrial products.
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Potential of Palm Oil Solid Waste as Steam Power Fuel (Case Study at XYZ Palm Oil Mill)

Potential of Palm Oil Solid Waste as Steam Power Fuel (Case Study at XYZ Palm Oil Mill)

From the results of the study, there is a large amount of available solid waste in the form of shells, fibers, and empty bunches originating from the Palm Oil Mill, which is about 50% of the total solid waste produced. The availability of solid waste has quite good potential as a biomass plant fuel for PT. XYZ Utilization of solid waste as biomass fuel for PT. XYZ provides considerable benefits for the company, as well as having a positive impact on the surrounding community, in the form of job creation and meeting electricity needs in the West Bangka area.
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Knowledge Level Of Improved Oil Palm Cultivation Technique By Oil Palm Growers Of Kolasib District In Mizoram, India

Knowledge Level Of Improved Oil Palm Cultivation Technique By Oil Palm Growers Of Kolasib District In Mizoram, India

Table 1.1 showed that 52.5 per cent of the respondents were aware of the recommended practice of cultivating Oil palm at an elevation of 400-900msl. Table also showed that 37.5 per cent of the respondents knew that Oil palm required 150mm rainfall or water per day. The Table further revealed that 69.17 per cent of the respondents had knowledge regarding the optimum minimum and maximum temperature required i.e. 22-24° C and 29-33 ° C respectively. Table 1.1 also indicated that 32.5 per cent of the respondents knew that Oil palm require 5 hours of sunshine per day. Further, the Table also showed that 21.67 per cent of the respondent knew that 80% humidity is required by the palms. Cent per cent of the respondents knew that well aerated alluvial soil rich in organic matter is recommended for Oil palm and extremely acidic and saline soils are not suitable for Oil palm.
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Understanding the oil palm change in Nong Khai Province: the farmers perspectives and the policy processes of the oil palm plantations

Understanding the oil palm change in Nong Khai Province: the farmers perspectives and the policy processes of the oil palm plantations

Social network analysis or network mapping is a set of relationships mapped between key actors. The actors are represented as nodes and their interactions are represented as links, with the aim of understanding the social and political situation by focusing on both formal and informal structures. The characteristics of actors such as their power/influence and goals are given less attention. That is to say the power/influence of actors is only explained by the positions of the actors in the network, for example, their closeness, betweenness, and centrality. Power mapping, on the other hand, is good for collecting data about the perceived power of various actors within a policy field. By bridging these two methods, Net-Map creates a three-dimensional structure in which interviewees and interviewers together draw a network map of the actors involved in the issue, including the different kinds of links between the actors. Then influence towers are added to the network in order to transfer abstract concepts of power/influence into the three-dimensional form. Finally, the interviewees are asked to assess the goals that these different actors pursue (Schiffer and Waale, 2008). However, my experience in the field suggested that there were not many stakeholders involved in oil palm adoption issues in the three villages: a total of 15 key actors, which included government agencies, private seedlings suppliers, private merchants, large-scale oil palm producers, inspirational local leaders, and large-scale palm oil refinery in Chonburi province. Thus, their networks and influences could be mapped and understood individually through the semi-structured interview. Difficulty in gathering the oil palm farmers together was another constraint on the application of this research method. I had made several attempts to assemble the oil palm farmers in Baan Tarn village, but failed for various reasons, such as the workload in the rice paddy fields, the necessity for them to be at social events such as ‘tum boon’ at the temple or attending an ordination ceremony, and unavailability in the morning due to harvesting rubber at night. When I asked if it would be possible to gather the oil palm farmers at a place in the village, the head of Baan Tarn village responded, “Can they be rice farmers instead? Rice farmers are a lot easier to find and make a group. We have plenty of them around here, every household. Oil palm farmers, we have like 10 to 15 households in each village around this area. Difficult. Very difficult.”
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Phytoremediation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by using Pistia Stratiotes Plant and Algae Spirulina sp for Biomass Production (RESEARCH NOTE)

Phytoremediation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by using Pistia Stratiotes Plant and Algae Spirulina sp for Biomass Production (RESEARCH NOTE)

correlation between optical density at 680 nm and biomass is presented in Figure 6. The growth of algae in control and POME medium is shown in Figure 7. As compared to the control medium, the growth of algae in remediated POME is lower in achieving biomass. This is probably due to amount of excess substrate or nutrient derived from POME and synthetic nutrients can inhibit the growth of Spirulina. Bacteria from activated sludge were still present in the waste which may inhibit the growth of algae [21]. Figure 7 provides growth rate constant (m) of 0.25/day for control variable and 0.19 /day for POME medium. The final COD, nitrogen and phosphor contents from second stage was 75, 1 and 0.4 mg/L, respectively.
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Thermal stability evaluation of palm oil

Thermal stability evaluation of palm oil

Table 3 shows the details for the point of 1% weight loss temperature, onset temperature, offset temperature and final temperature. The onset temperature for the fresh oil A (no additive) is sig- nificantly lower than that of the oils with additive (B, C, D). This shows that the additives used in this study managed to protect the oil from oxidation. Hindered phenol is among the earliest oxi- dation inhibitor packages suggested. In our case, we use L135, a phenolic anti-oxidant. It works as a free radical scavenger. However, the onset temperature of oil with L135 additive is lower than that of the oil with F10 additive of the same percentage. The onset temperatures for A and E of the aged cases are very similar while those for the samples with additive are slighly higher.
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Effects of Palm Oil on Cardiovascular Risk

Effects of Palm Oil on Cardiovascular Risk

Effects of palm oil on cardiovascular risk Med J Malaysia Vol 46 No 1 March 1991 Effects of palm oil on cardiovascular risk Y H Chong, PhD Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, p O Box 10620, 50720[.]

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The production of crude palm oil in Malaysia

The production of crude palm oil in Malaysia

Despite Malaysia being the world’s second-largest palm oil exporter, the Malaysian palm oil industry has seen rapid development over the past few decades in line with the development of the palm oil plantation sector. In order to promote and develop the Malaysian palm oil industry, the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) was established under the Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities. The growth of the industry has been evidenced by the expansion of the plantation areas. The planted area has more than doubled to 5.74 Million Hectares (Mn Ha) in 2016 from 2.03 Mn Ha in 1990. In addition, the same trend has also been seen in the palm oil mill sector due to the parallel development between the two sectors. In 1990, there were only 261 palm oil mills in operation with a total processing capacity of 42.9Million Tonnes (Mn T) of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) per year and this has increased to 453 mills with a total capacity of 110.3 Mn T (MPOB, 2017). The palm oil industry relies heavily on foreign demand, making it an export-oriented industry (Vijaya, Ma, & Choo, 2009). Of the total palm oil output, only 10% is consumed locally in Malaysia while the rest is exported worldwide. The industry is very aggressive and is one of the key contributors to the nation’s income (Man & Baharum, 2011). In fact, in 2016, Malaysia’s palm oil industry alone contributed 3.5% to the national economy amounting to RM42.8 billion (DOSM, 2017).
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ESG issues in the palm oil investments : an event study on the listed palm oil companies in Singapore, Indonesia, and Malaysia

ESG issues in the palm oil investments : an event study on the listed palm oil companies in Singapore, Indonesia, and Malaysia

We present the analysis of the impact of the Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) issues on the stock return of the listed palm oil companies in Singapore, Indonesia, and Malaysia using the event study framework. The center of an event study is the measurement of an abnormal stock return, which is the actual ex-post return of the security over the event window minus the normal return of the firm over the event window (MacKinlay, 1997). In this research, the chosen model to calculate the normal return on the initial assessment is the market model, while the constant mean return model is used as the reliability test. The main events analyzed in this research are divided into three main groups, which are the haze crisis in 2015, the ESG issues reports, and the ESG commitment reports. Eventually, the statistical conclusion of our assessment on the haze crisis in 2015 shows a significant negative impact to the stock return, which is also in line with the reported news regarding the events. For the ESG issues reports, we also have the evidence of the negative impact, but it is relatively low and on the significance level of 10%. Then, we do not have evidence to show the impact of the ESG commitment reports. The lack of samples is proven to result problems in the validity of the model as for the groups that have relatively low number of samples, the normality assumption is violated. In terms of reliability, our initial assessment model is proven to be robust as it leads to the same statistical conclusion in the sensitivity analysis on the changes of event window and estimation window length. Also, the market model and the constant mean return model result consistent inferences in this research, though with significant difference of cumulative average abnormal returns (CAAR) in some of the results.
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Cleaner Production Implementation In Palm Oil Mill

Cleaner Production Implementation In Palm Oil Mill

Chapter 2 shows the reviews from the previous study about the palm oil mill processing which is the basic process to compare with the Keck Seng Palm Oil Mill. Furthermore, this chapter shows the advantages of CP implementation in palm oil mill. There is the source of carbon emission obtained from the palm oil mill that is listed in this chapter. The carbon emission factor is reviewed in order to use as a calculation in methodology.

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NEUTRON BACKSCATTERED TECHNIQUE FOR QUANTIFICATION OF OIL PALM FRUIT OIL CONTENT

NEUTRON BACKSCATTERED TECHNIQUE FOR QUANTIFICATION OF OIL PALM FRUIT OIL CONTENT

Presently used methods to predict oil content in palm oil fruits mostly restricted to the colour of mesocarps. Due to the lacks of available techniques, a new method using nuclear technology is introduced. Jonah et al. [8] was used Am-Be neutron source to determine the hydrogen content of oil samples from Nigeria. They found that this technique was economical and suitable to determine moisture in solid sample. A fast neutron transmission technique to measure the moisture content in sugar and wood samples also has been reported [9]. A total of 2.8 MeV of neutron was transmitted through the wood and sugar samples and detected by NE213 Scintillation detector. In addition, Norpaiza et al. [10] was conducted an experiment with neutron device for in-situ detection to measure water content in a bulk of used paper using neutron backscatter technique.
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Usage of palm shell activated carbon to treat landfill leachate

Usage of palm shell activated carbon to treat landfill leachate

Leachate generated from the municipal landfill contains organic and inorganic pollutants, including heavy metals, which makes it unsuitable to be discharged in natural bodies without any prior treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the capability of palm shell activated carbon activated carbon powder to remove heavy metals from landfill leachate, by using an adsorption process. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the performance of palm shell activated carbon powder powder with different contact times of 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. The results obtained show that the percentage of Fe and Cr removal increases with contact time. The removal of Fe and Cr was 14% and 18.78% respectively activated carbon powder at 90 minutes of contact time. Our results also demonstrated that palm shell activated carbon powder powder shows a better performance in removing Fe and Cr, compared to common activated carbon powder powder. Therefore, palm shell activated carbon powder powder has a good potential as a low cost alternative adsorbent in removing heavy metals from landfill leachate.
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Performance evaluation of palm oil-based biodiesel combustion in an oil burner

Performance evaluation of palm oil-based biodiesel combustion in an oil burner

The wall temperature was measured using thermocouples (K-type) placed at nine points along the combustion chamber starting from the burner outlet until the end of the chamber (the distance between each point is 100 mm). Experimental results confirm that diesel fuel generated higher wall temperatures than palm oil-based biodiesel and its blends during the combustion tests. Under stoichiometric conditions, the combustion of CDF produced a maximum wall temperature value of 704.6 ˝ C (with the 1.25 nozzle), 723 ˝ C (1.50 nozzle) and 763.9 ˝ C (1.75 nozzle), whereas, PME

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Fiber Optic Sensor For Palm Oil Detection

Fiber Optic Sensor For Palm Oil Detection

security and agricultural economy. The two most common types of bio-fuels are ethanol and bio-diesel [A. A. Aziz, 2006]. Chiyuki and Jun-ichi (1998) concluded that de-acidified rapeseed oil could be used in a single cylinder Yanmar IDI diesel engine but degummed and crude rapeseed oil were unsuitable for use as fuel due to the high level of incombustible materials in the oil. Suporn (1987) found that using 100% refined palm oil in a Kubota diesel engine model KND 5B resulted in the best power output and best emission while using 70% refined palm oil blended with 25% diesel resulted in the best specific fuel consumption [T. Apichato, 2003]. For vehicles powered with diesel engines, an alternative substitute of diesel fuel has been developed namely, biodiesel. It is produced from the chemical bonding of an alcohol with oils, fats, greases or chemically known alkyl esters [R. Zanzi, 2006]. These esters have similar properties as the mineral diesel fuel and even better in terms of its cetane number. In addition, biodiesel is better than diesel fuel in terms of sulfur content, flash point and aromatic content [C. Y. May, 2005]. As a liquid fuel, biodiesel is simple to use and can be used in compression ignition (diesel) engines without modifications. It also can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend [A. Aziz, 2005]. Regarding these qualities of vegetable oils, Malaysia has committed to investigate the use of biodiesel with blends of palm oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. This paper presents palm biodiesel as an alternative green renewable bio-fuel for diesel engines.
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The Study Of Palm Oil Fiber For Filtration Application

The Study Of Palm Oil Fiber For Filtration Application

The oil palm sector is one of the major industries in Malaysia. Since the 1970s, Malaysia has been the largest producer and exporter of palm oil products in the world. Palm oil industry in Malaysia is currently the number 2 export commodity in the country. According to the Figure 1.1 USDA report, the palm oil production in Malaysia is increasingly year by year start from 1979.

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Characterization of Cohesive Cake Formation and Stickiness of Starches at Various Water Levels in the Presence of Palm oil and Palm Oil Fractions

Characterization of Cohesive Cake Formation and Stickiness of Starches at Various Water Levels in the Presence of Palm oil and Palm Oil Fractions

and produce a well-developed dough. In the previous section, it was shown that water content was a principal factor determining the powders’ flow and packing properties. However, the presence of oil also altered the parameters to various degrees which might be related with the physical status of the fat used. According to [2], oil could affect changes in the behaviour of the starchy materials in two different ways. Firstly, the liquid oil could add to the moisture levels and provide an increase in the volume of the fluid phase in which the starchy material was suspended. Secondly, the oil could coat the starches and thus reduce the hydrophilic starch interaction with the aqueous phase. The concept of coated starches with oil before adding moisture is a well-established method to reduce starch/starch interactions and hence clumping when water is added to starchy materials. Table 1 summarised the results of CI and CS obtained for the starches powders measured at three water levels and oil concentration of 5 % of the total dry material weight.
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