researchers, professionals, policy-makers can access these data they could probably bring new research and policy questions, enabling the generation of additional knowledge. Second, opening the dataset to others significant stake- holders would guarantee the reliability of results because it would allow the replicability of all analyses. This would reinforce the strength of the final policy recommendations, so that the EC would be justified in leveraging on these results and orienting future research and projects. The growing concerns about the quality of the evidence that un- derpins healthcare decision-making [28–32] obliges more than ever EC-funded projects―being publicly funded by taxpayers―to consider the possibility to open their datasets to the scientific community in order to guarantee the reliability of their results. In this regard, the EC has already moved the first steps in this direction, giving the oppor- tunity to winners of H2020 grants to apply to the open data protocol (http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/open- data-0). This initiative needs to be treated with attention in order to manage sensitive aspects like privacy that involves the laws of different Countries. Making data sets publicly available is a delicate matter, particularly when the data set is sourced from a wide-range of member states. Legal concerns regarding confidentiality of patient data and permission requirements need to be well exam- ined within the state legislation for each member state involved. Additionally, rules on using the data for publica- tion and the process of gaining consent from the data’s source also need to be taken into consideration; particu- larly, when the data yields a negative result which may make its use politically sensitive.
In this section the independent variable proximity and the dependent variable transnational learning will be further elaborated upon. In order to understand the relationship between the variables it is crucial to gather data on both the dependent and independent variables. The choice was made for a single case study in which mixes of both qualitative and quantitative data have been used. The research question set out in this thesis: “to what extent does geographical, institutional, cognitive and organizational proximity affect knowledge transfer between partners of the URMA network?” will be answered by comparing partners on proximity and on learning. Hence the independent variable will be compared to the dependent variable (see figure 8). Because partners are compared to one another they may be regarded as subcases within this single case study. By comparing project partners it may be seen in how far proximity has influenced learning. Proximity levels between partners (regions) will be measured and ranked according to quantitative data. I.e. regional data will be gathered in order to investigate the proximity between employees working in different regional administrations. Transnational learning will be explored by doing qualitative research; by means of interviews with project partners learning processes will be examined. These learning processes will later be categorized according to the SECI model.
The expected large-scale roll out of smart grid products and solu- tions during the next few years requires a multi-disciplinary under- standing of several domains. The validation and testing of such com- plex solutions gets more important as in the past and there is a clear shift from component-level to system-level testing. An integrated, cyber-physical systems-based, multi-domain approach for a holistic testing of smart grid solutions is currently still missing which is ad- dressed by the ERIGrid approach. Four main research priorities have been identified in this project to tackle the shortcomings in today’s validation and testing of power systems and corresponding compo- nents. The research focus is put onto the development of a holis- tic validation procedure and the improvement of simulation-based methods, hardware-in-the-loop approaches, and lab-based testing, which can be combined in a flexible manner. The integration and online connection of the partners’ labs is also a challenging research and development task in ERIGrid. All these activities need to be sup- ported by the training of researchers and power system profession- als. Proper curricula and education material is currently in develop- ment.
The Project Leader stated that it is also nec- essary to extend collaboration and networks in countries outside Europe. Researchers’ contacts with colleagues from abroad and discussions during national meetings are incentives for developing new research projects in several areas of the disease: pro- gress in imaging technologies should pave the way for original research projects in the field of fibrous dysplasia addressing potential improvements in diagnostic and prognostic value of novel tech- niques, and prediction and assessment of response to different bone-targeted treatments; molecular studies could help improve diagnostic procedures while precluding the use of invasive tissue sampling; new therapeutic targets could be identified such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and alternative drugs could be tested (a trial testing tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor, IL-6R, will actually be initiated by late 2012). RANK-ligand denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against the RANK-L, is currently used in other bone diseases and could be promising in fibrous dysplasia. These fascinating avenues need to be explored through a collaborative international effort in order to gather the number of patients needed for an appropriate answer to these research questions.
In terms of risk, the passenger volumes suggest that France and Italy are locations potentially of significant concern with 3.8 and 1 million inbound passengers each year from active regions, respectively. We have estimated the poten- tial number of viraemic visitors this may represent, and this shows that France has the highest number, while Italy has the third highest number (Table 1). While these esti- mates are worrisome, they are also of limited usefulness due to the small sample used in creating this estimate, the potential complexity in unraveling flight patterns and vis- itor movements that are not direct from point to point. We urge that they be used with extreme caution, as is dis- cussed below, and were intended as a preliminary analysis for the development of a more in-depth researchproject. Discussion & conclusion
• Impact on agreement among parties. The various insurance and liability issues raised here will require attention in the development of the legal instrument for a research vessel. First, for operations conducted by the vessel under such a legal instrument, provi- sions should be included which would provide for the apportionment among participating States of insur- ance costs (if any) attributable to specific research projects. As one voyage may involve participation by multiple institutions, criteria and a process for the attri- bution of insurance costs to the entity operating the research vessel or individual participating State should be developed. Second, where damage or loss occurs (in particular where it is self-insured or in excess of insurance coverage), the legal instrument should pro- vide for the attribution of such losses, whether based on degree of participation in the project or on actual Under the Bunker Convention and the Wreck
It should be underlined that the choice of one of these two recommended legal forms (limited liability com- pany or association) should be based on a comparative analysis and importance for AURORA BOREALIS of the following criteria: general approach to the business, tax treatment, and application of procurement procedures. Once the most suitable legal form is determined a national jurisdiction of the entity should be chosen. The leading criterion for choosing a national jurisdic- tion should be the location where the main activities of the project will take place. In the case of AURORA BOREALIS clearly the operation of the vessel will not be concentrated only in one place. She will be operated both in the Arctic and Antarctic, remaining for several years in one of these two hemispheres. Therefore RV Aurora Borealis will be operated in waters under the jurisdiction of different States as well as in high seas where only flag State jurisdiction applies. In this regard the home port of the vessel and her flag should be taken into account. In conclusion, the most suitable ownership structure for AURORA BOREALIS depends also on the funding structure opted for, and in particular on the will and commitment of each Partner. Therefore, the final choice of the legal structure for the ownership of RV Aurora Borealis will depend on the interests and commitments of the Partners involved in the Project.
The LFS is conducted at a quarterly basis in each EU member state, and in particular by the individual National Statistical Services. The sample of the survey varies across the members states. Even though it is difficult to achieve perfect comparability among countries, the level of comparability of the LFS is quite high due to; the collection of the same information, the use of common definitions and classifications, and the centralized co-ordination by Eurostat. The harmonisation of the variables and definitions in the countries’ LFS makes the EU-LFS one of the most important official micro databases for comparative social research in Europe. The LFS as any sample survey is subject to sampling errors as well as other errors such as mistakes by the interviewers, miscoding, unwillingness to provide valid information etc. Nevertheless, the reliability of the LFS is assured by the sample size and the sampling methods adopted. For a full description of the LFS data see European Commission (2006).
these kind of networks can have difficulty fitting the transnational model of supporting organizations theorized by scholars in the field of agenda setting. The existing literature examines the first steps in the setting of the agenda by drawing on case studies that are very different in nature from electoral reform, such as environmental policy or agriculture policy. The emergence of an issue at European level and its entry into the generic governmental agenda (through a debate inside one or more of the institutions of the EU) is dealt with through an analysis on how interest groups manage cross-border cooperation, shift an issue at European level and use public mobilization to exercise pressure on EU policy-makers. In the case of electoral reform, however, the relevance of this dynamic appears to be much more limited for two main reasons. First, the complexity of the issue makes it difficult for the supporters to go beyond the typically Brussels environment, privileging other strategies inside the institutional venues. Second, electoral reform constitutes a perfect example of how, even in presence of weak pressure “from the outside” on decision-makers, an issue can easily reach the governmental agenda (where the perspective of active decision-making is still far from the actual discussion) “from the inside”. If we analyse the dynamics that led to the birth of the Duff proposal of 2009- 2012, we can notice the activism of the same policy-makers who were entitled to decide on the issue, who were at the forefront in picking up the issue and promoting a debate on it. This is consistent with previous analyses on the policy dynamics taking place in the AFCO committee,
The aim of the European Collaborative Research (EUROCORES) Scheme is to enable researchers in different European countries to develop collaboration and scientific synergy in areas where European scale and scope are required to reach the critical mass necessary for top class science in a global context.
FROM GLOBAL SCALE TO THE CASE FOR EUROPE. At the global scale, the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5; Taylor et al. 2012) provides a basis for coordinated and consistent global climate simulations, and is the underlying basis for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2013). Other projects have also provided some consolidation of information, producing simulations of global and regional climate changes that provide common data that underpins projections in a num- ber of member countries [e.g., the Ensemble-Based Predictions of Climate Changes and Their Impacts (ENSEMBLES) project in Europe, Hewitt and Griggs (2004)] but, as noted above, such global-level stud- ies often lack the detailed focus and robustness that decision-makers and policymakers need on a regional and national scale.
The current work explores the effects of pre-stress forces on modal parameters of oil pan. The harmonic response analysis of pre-stressed oil pan is one of the key objectives in this project. The harmonic response analysis of pre- stressed oil pan using ANSYS has been explored. FE simulations of the oil pan are presented, which are aimed to indentify the most dominant mode shapes within a frequency range of 0-1200 Hz. First pre-stress modal analysis is performed using block lanczo's method on the oil pan and then harmonic analysis of the pre-stressed oil pan is completed using full harmonic method. Based on the results obtained, efforts are made to optimize the design of oil pan to reduce the resonance effect caused due to vibrations. NX-CAD software is used to design the oil pan.
The POCARIM survey of policies at national level found a good deal of awareness of European-level perspectives on interdisciplinarity. Evidence for this was both explicit in policies and discourses that named interdisciplinarity as a goal, and implicit in policies and discourses that referred to the need for collaboration on cross-cutting problems. An important distinction that emerged between countries was the degree to which interdisciplinarity was supported in practice through structural initiatives or funding. On the one hand, we found that Germany, France, UK, and Switzerland had funding and structures in place. For example, Research Councils UK invested almost £1.4 billion in interdisciplinary projects between 2008 and 2011 (Lyall et al., 2011). On the other hand, in Portugal, Italy and Spain we found discourses only, but no specific policies.
manifestations of pan-Africanism in the Brand Africa initiative. Brand Africa, it is noted, makes explicit claims to continue/renew this tradition, once again drawing on a rejuvenated (and now rebranded) pan-African supranationalism to enhance Africa’s economic prospects and sense of self-esteem once more. Pan-Africanism, therefore, is shown to reside as a source of inspiration and ontological security in the face of others’ continuing malign representations and ‘knowledge’ about Africa. However, the assumed synergies and compatibility between historical decolonial discourses of pan- Africanism and those of contemporary Brand Africa are far from seamless. If historical decolonialisation discourses framed pan-Africanism through largely socialist and decolonial lenses, then Brand Africa restages pan-Africanism through a capitalist framing that impacts notably on its (geo)political and (geo)economic effects/implications. The final section further explores some of these tensions, in particular noting that the pan-Africanism embedded within the Brand Africa initiative also occludes how the initiative works to the benefit of some African nations more than others. As such, this raises questions about the presumed synergies between nation branding and supranational branding that underpins the very idea of Brand Africa.
Either budgets allocated to pan-European broadcasts were constrained by client’s difficulty in securing a central budget; or proposals that looked good were not acted upon because the client had no mechanism for taking a central decision; or local agency opposition defeated a consensus. From the client angle, nothing would seem to work worse than the quite common practice of going cap in hand to local offices in order to stump up their contributions. Some want the campaign, others are sure to prefer to invest in domestic media, quite possibly urged on by the local agency, which does not want to see part of its natural budget disappear, and so on. The end result is frustration for all concerned. 3
The Council Decisions provide coverage under the Community guarantee for 65% of the overall amount of loans signed. Under the risk-sharing arrangements, EIB loans with non-sovereign project guarantees are covered only for political risk by the Community guarantee, whereas loans with sovereign project guarantees are covered for all risks by it. The Bank would call the Community guarantee for an individual loan only if the project guarantee for that loan failed to reimburse the Bank, either for political reasons in the case of a non-sovereign project guarantee or for any reason in the case of a sovereign project guarantee. Such a call would be for the full loan amount outstanding.