Lee DG, Kim KT, Lee S. Taste proﬁle characterization of white ginseng by electronic tongue analysis. Afr J Biotechnol 2012;11:9280e7 .
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Given to the above, this study indicates that due to production of free radicals and also induction of apoptosis, the number and size of ovarian follicles have reduced in three-month-old female rat infants born to diabetic mothers. The extract of Panaxginsengroot due to its antioxidant compounds and its adaptogenic properties improves ovarian tissue in three-month-old female rat infants born to diabetic mothers. So, the extract is recommended to use, since it will be able to reduce the complications of diabetes.
Administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) impaired antioxidant mechanisms, increased peroxidation and impaired mitochondrial redox activity causing brain inflammation as well as neuronal damage and impairment of brain monoamines. Panaxginseng (P.ginseng) is a well-known herbal medicine; the main active constituent of ginseng is ginsenosides or ginseng saponins that have neuroprotective activity. The aim of our experiment was to study the role of Panaxginsengroot in maintaining brain monoamines levels through the protection against LPS - induced oxidative stress in rat model. In this experiment, we used forty rats and divided them into: control, ginseng, lipopolysaccharide and ginseng treated groups. malondialdehyde (MDA) and paraoxonase activity (PON-1) were estimated colorimetrically. Comet assay technique was used to determine the percent of DNA damage in addition to brain monoamines assessment by HPLC. The data showed that lipopolysaccharide significantly increased brain MDA, DNA damage percent and brain monoamines concomitant with a reduction in serum PON-1. Contrarily, ginseng supplementation improved these values in treated group. P. ginseng is a very important supplement that protects against brain injury and its benefit effect may be attributed to its high amounts of ginsenosides that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects that augment impairment of brain monoamines.
degradation seem responsible for the extirpation of seven populations (Table 3). American ginseng usually grows under closed forest canopy. Logging activities open the canopy and strongly modify the ecological parameters of a site (Nault, et al., 1998). After the canopy is opened, light intensity increases, soil moisture declines, daily temperature fluctuations of the forest floor are higher, invasive species are introduced, and competition from tree seedlings, shrubs and herbs increases dramatically. Large individuals that survive such major habitat disturbances, also face intense grazing and seed predation by deer who are attracted by the vigourous forest floor regrowth (pers. observ.). In the eastern Ontario and Quebec portion of ginseng’s range, there was a severe ice storm in January of 1998 that caused major damage to the forest canopy. The canopy loss in many ginseng colonies is comparable to heavy selective logging (pers. observ., 1998) and this storm may have a lasting negative impact on a number of colonies.
Panaxginseng investigated the increase in free radical‐ scavenging activity of Panaxginseng as a result of heat‐ processing and its active compounds related to fortified antioxidant activity. In addition, the therapeutic potential of heat‐processed ginseng (HPG) with respect to oxidative tissue damage was examined using rat models. Based upon chemical and biological activity tests, the free radical‐scavenging active components such as less‐polar ginsenosides and maltol in Panaxginseng significantly increased depending on the temperature of heat‐ processing. According to animal experiments related to oxidative tissue damage, HPG displayed hepatoprotective action by reducing the elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBA‐RS) level, as well as nuclear factor‐kappa B (NF‐κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expressions, while increasing heme oxygenase‐1 in the lipopolysaccharide‐treated rat liver and HPG also displayed renal protective action by ameliorating physiological abnormalities and reducing elevated TBA‐RS, advanced glycation end product (AGE) levels, NF‐κB, cyclooxygenase‐2, iNOS, 3‐nitrotyrosine, Nε‐(carboxymethyl)lysine and receptors for AGE protein expression in the diabetic rat kidney. Therefore, HPG clearly has a therapeutic potential with respect to oxidative tissue damage by inhibiting protein expression related to oxidative stress and AGEs, and further investigations of active compounds are underway. This investigation of specified bioactive constituents is important for the development of scientific ginseng‐ derived drugs as part of ethnomedicine. 18
Although the beneficial effects of KRG are well documented, the administration of high dose of KRG might be detrimental through their toxicity. Several studies have reported that overdose and long-term usage of ginseng are associated with side effects such as hypertension, nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, and headache, which is known as ginseng abuse syndrome (Seely D et al. 2008). Ginsenoside Rh2, which is one of the active ginsenosides of KRG, is known to have anticancer activities, while it showed cytotoxic effects to human hepatocyte cells (Wei G et al, 2012). KRG extract may prevent hepatocarcinogenesis through modulation of the liver oxidative environment, but the chemopreventive effects may differ based on the concentrations.
Panaxginseng (PG) has long been widely used as a folk and conventional medicine for the prevention and/or treatment of many diseases. Ginsenosides, known as ginseng saponins, are the fundamental compounds responsible for the multiple physiological and pharmacological activities of ginseng  . With the increasing consumption of ginseng as a pharmacological agent, its in ﬂuence on body temperature, particularly a “hot feeling,” has been considered a potential side effect, although there is a lack of sci- enti ﬁc evidence. Recent animal studies have shown that PG has no effect on body temperature under normal conditions [2,3] , whereas intraperitoneal injection of ginsenoside Rb1 increased thermo- genesis in rats exposed to cold conditions, indicating that Rb1 improved cold tolerance  .
Augustyniak et al. experimental study revealed that central nervous system is highly susceptible to the oxidative stress due to high brain metabolic and neuronal membrane that contains a large amount of fatty acids oxidized by free radicals. Cerebrospinal fluid contains a large amount of ascorbic acids and iron that are regarded as a source of toxic free radicals (8) . Psychological stress due to external psychomental stimuli is linked with stimulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) production due to triggering oxidative free radical formations. Mental stress in medical students during examination contributes to the induction of oxidative stress and elevation of MDA serum levels. Thus, overwhelming psychological stimuli activate neuronal oxidative phosphorylation at mitochondrial site, leading to imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant levels, causing profound lipid peroxidation (9, 10). Moreover, cognitive impairment is correlated with high free radical generations and low antioxidant capacity, indicating an association between the neuropathology and oxidative stress (11). Furthermore, oxidative stress markers are malondialdehyde (MDA), metalloenzymes, and selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (12). However, MDA is regarded as a significant intermediate of hydroxyl radical, causing neuronal dysfunction and degeneration as MDA is a serious neuronal toxin (13). Brain oxidative stress is normally ameliorated and eliminated by free radical scavenger mechanisms including superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Thus, administration of PanaxGinseng or other antioxidants leads to significant activation of antioxidant activity and reduction of MDA serum levels (14).
Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Tenericutes, and Bacteroidetes were predominant in EWG samples of prior to ginseng intakes, whereas Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria were dominant in IWG samples ( Table 5 , Fig. 5 A). Relative abundances of Actino- bacteria and Proteobacteria in EWG were lower than those in IWG, whereas phyla of Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were more abundant in the EWG than IWG. Furthermore the relative abundances of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were signi ﬁcantly different between both groups. These results partly correspond with the earlier one. Samples with fecal activity potently metabolizing ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K had lower levels of Proteobacteria and higher levels of Tenericutes and Bacteriodetes than in samples with fecal activity non-metabolizing ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K  . For detailed microbial composition, we analyzed the composition of genera, it had also noteworthy differ- ences between groups ( Table 5 , Fig. 5 B). The three predominant genera in EWG were Blautia, Anaerostipes, and Oscillibacter, whereas those in IWG were Bi ﬁdobacterium, Blautia, and Clostridium_g4. The relative abundances of Anaerostipes and Eubacterium_g5 were increased in EWG, whereas that of Lactobacillus was increased in IWG. Furthermore, the relative abundance of Bi ﬁdobacterium, Escherichia, and Clostridium_g23 in EWG were signi ﬁcantly lower than those in IWG. However, the genera that had signi ﬁcant differ- ences between the groups (Clostridiales_uc_g, Oscillibacter, Rumi- nococcus, Holdemania, and Sutterella) were not consistent with a previous study  . Individual variations of gut microbiota  can generate these different results, so it is not easy to compare directly between the two limited sample sized studies.
American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius L., is an herbaceous perennial species that is destructively harvested for its bioactive compounds called ginsenosides. The demand for this herb fosters illegal poaching and over-harvesting that reduces genetic variability and population viability. Five wild populations in western North Carolina were studied to better understand the production of ginsenosides in leaf and root tissues. Total ginsenoside concentration was signifi- cantly higher in leaves than roots, though total yield was higher in roots due to greater root biomass. However, some ginsensosides (Rb2, Rd and Re) had higher or more consistent yields in leaves than roots, so might be developed into a sustainable source of these medicinally-active compounds. Additionally, we identified regional root chemotypes that differed in the production of the ginsenosides Rg1 and Re and could be developed into regional cultivars depending on the desired panel of ginsenosides.
chronic systemic infections or inflammatory conditions in the last three months; 4) pregnancy, breast-feeding or women intending to become pregnant during the course of the study; 5) serious illnesses such as heart, liver or kidney diseases; 6) those who are unable to adequately perform spirometry tests; 7) those taking long-term immunosuppressive agents or immunosti- mulants; 8) those who have an allergic history to gin- seng products; 9) those currently using a ginseng- containing product or have used a ginseng product within the last three months; 10) those who are cur- rent users of anticoagulants, anti-hyperglycaemics or monoamine oxidase inhibitor anti-depressants; and 11) those who have undertaken pulmonary rehabilitation within three months of the commencement of the study, or intend to enter pulmonary rehabilitation dur- ing the study.
S u m m a r y
We carried out histochemical studies to find the localization of ginsenosides in roots of Panax quinquefolium cultivated in Poland. We performed an anatomical study on the structure and localization of secretory canals on the cross section of 4-year-old American ginseng roots. We observed the occurrence of large secretory canals, mainly in the middle part of the secondary cortex and less in the phloem layer. In our studies, moreover, we demonstrated the production of secretory canals within the periderm layer. After the anatomical study, the 4-year-old ginsengroot was divi- ded into periderm, cortex and xylem, and the ginsenosides were extracted from each part of the root. The TLC separation of ginsenosides was performed on silica gel Si60 glass plates with chloroform-methanol-ethyl acetate-water-hexane, 20+22+60+8+4 (v/v) as mobile phase. Quantitative analysis of ginsenosides was performed by using the TLC-densitometric method. Concerning the distribution of ginsenosides in the different anatomical parts of the root of Panax quinquefolium, they were contained in the periderm layer at the highest level.
In conclusion, the present study reported the pro ﬁle of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng with respect to the cultivation year. The total phenol contents in 3 e6-yr-old ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots were 0.03 e0.3% (dry weight basis) of each ginseng sample and the phenol content was usually found to be higher in ginseng fruit and leaves than in ginseng roots (p < 0.05). The total phenol content of ginseng roots (r ¼ 0.365*) and fruit (r ¼ 0.501**) increased with increasing cultivation year, whereas that of ginseng leaves (r ¼ - 0.740****) decreased. Among the 23 phenolic compounds studied, the phenolic acids were more abundant in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots than the ﬂavonoids and other compounds (p < 0.05). This study showed that chlorogenic acid, gentisic acid, p- and m-cou- maric acid, and rutin were the main phenolic compounds in 3 e6- yr-old ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots. In contrast, gallic acid, myr- icetin, and biochanin A were not found in 3 e6-yr-old ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots. In addition, the DPPH activity was signi ﬁcantly correlated with the total phenol content in the ginseng samples (r ¼ 0.928****). In particular, p-coumaric acid (r ¼ 0.847****) and ferulic acid (r ¼ 0.742****) greatly affected the DPPH activity. This study provides basic information about the composition and con- tent of phenolic compounds in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to the cultivation years. This information is potentially
The activity of adaptogens seems to be mediated, at least partly, by the increase in the essential energy element, such as ATP, in the muscle-mitochondria in mice that were subjected to repeated swimming exercise . Oxidative stress due to repeated swimming exercise increases the lipid peroxidation levels and decreases glutathione levels in the muscle-mitochondria . On treatment with WSE even at the lower dose level, restoration of the lost glutathione levels occurred along with decrease in the lipid peroxidation levels (data not shown), which ultimately results in augmentation of the endurance capacity of the treated animals. The present investigation thus suggests that WSE, even at a low dose level, can protect the mitochondria against the oxidative onslaught and activate the restoration of lost ATP in mitochondria during and after the repeated swimming exercise. This mechanistic postulate regarding the ATP augmenting effect of anti-stress agents has precedence in the literature . Panaxginseng, on the other hand, showed effective adaptogenic activity only at the higher dose level (100 mg/kg) . However, long term administration of Panaxginseng at a dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o. might result in a number of adverse side-effects collectively termed the “ginseng abuse syndrome” [24, 25], characterized by high blood pressure, water retention (mineralo-corticoid effect), higher muscle tone, insomnia and hormonal disbalance in women. WSE, on the other hand, composed of the tested bioactives of Withania somnifera [4, 8], does not suffer from any of the potential deficiencies of Panaxginseng. The present study suggests that sustained use of WSE even at a low dose level would provide energy restoration needed under stressed conditions without any adverse side effects. Administration of higher dose of WSE, which is also devoid of any adverse side effect, would elicit and maintain the energy restoration effects within a short period of time.
disc height was maintained, revealing that the herbal medicine plaster might potentially benefit the compressed disc. The lack of any significant change in disc morph- ology might be due to the short therapeutic period of three weeks. Kroeber et al.  demonstrated that mor- phological signs of disc regeneration were associated with the duration of disc distraction, with more pronounced changes occurring after 28 days of distraction compared with those occurring after 7 days of distraction. The main- tenance of disc height in the CM group might have resulted from the vasodilative effect of Panax notoginseng [6,27]. The vasodilation of circumferential blood vessels increases vascular permeability and blood flow , which would probably increase the intradiscal water content and subsequently prevent further decreases in disc height. Fur- thermore, the lack of obvious morphological changes revealed that the change in disc height is multi-factorial, and that a favorable change in disc height does not neces- sarily indicate a positive change in disc morphology. Extra- cellular matrix components (particularly proteoglycans, collagen and matrix-degrading enzymes) are also import- ant with respect to changes in disc height. Further bio- chemical analysis of the contributions of extracellular matrix components to disc height is required to explore the beneficial effects of herbal medicine plasters compris- ing tienchi.
The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups; 1 control and 3 treatment groups, then labeled and treated as follows: group A (control) was administered only tap water and feed. Group B was administered flutamide and Cissus populnea, group C was administered flutamide and Panaxginseng and group D was administered flutamide alone. Flutamide was given at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day ; Panaxginseng at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day; and Cissus populnea at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day . The animals were dosed orally once daily for 15 days using a canula. All procedures involving animals in this study conformed to the guiding principles for research involving animals as recommended by the Declaration of Helsinki and the Guiding Principles in the Care and Use of Animals  and were approved by the Departmental Committee on the Use and Care of Animals in conformity with internationally acceptable standards.
We excluded participants who had a history of asthma or chronic systemic infections or inflammatory condi- tions other than COPD that require systemic corticoster- oid treatment in the last 3 months; were pregnant, breast-feeding or intending to become pregnant during the course of the study; had a serious illness such as se- vere heart, liver or kidney disease; were taking long-term immunosuppressive agents or immune-stimulants; had an allergic history to ginseng or currently were taking ginseng; were users of monoamine oxidase inhibitor an- tidepressants, anticoagulants and/or antihyperglycaemic medications; and had undertaken pulmonary rehabilita- tion within three months of the commencement of the study or intended to enter pulmonary rehabilitation dur- ing the study.
ginsenoside Re (groups, namely protopanaxatriol-type saponin from ginseng) lowers blood glucose and lipid in high-fat diet fed mice. However, effects on adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells on PGBE have not yet been reported. The chemical composition and biological activities of the P. ginseng berry may differ according to the maturation stage. We have looked for lipid accumu- lation in adipocyte inhibitory plants using PGBE as an in vitro assay system. During the course of screening, the water extract of P. ginseng berry was significantly inhibited this activity. The metabolic profiling can be useful for quantifying a group of related compounds. There are few previous studies about profiling metabolic compounds of ginseng by using NMR [12,13]. However, no study reported in differences of the metabolic compounds among different maturation stages in ginseng fruits. The aim of this study was to classify the ginseng berry (Panaxginseng) extract using 1 H NMR spectroscopy and evaluates its inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3 T3-L1 cells.
The preparation of extraction solution of ginseng farm soils (herein referred to as the Solution): the ginseng farm soils were collected from a ginseng farm in Changchun City of China in March 2013. The land has been used in the continuous cropping of ginseng for 3 years, and the soils were black soils. The samples were dried in the shade in our laboratory, and filtered through the sieve with the pore diameter of 0.25mm. 200g of samples were taken and added with 300mL of the deionized water, and treated with the overnight vibrating extraction in a thermostated shaker (RPM of 60r/min). The solution was extracted for 3 times, and each time the extraction lasted for 24 hours. After the filtering, the filtrates were combined to prepare the mother solution with the mass fraction of 40%. Via the trial test, the Solutions at the low concentration (10g/mL), medium concentration (20g/mL) and high concentration (40g/mL) were prepared for later tests. All Solutions were placed in the refrigerator for further use.
This trial was designed as a single-blind randomized study, which was approved by Institutional Review Board of the Sookmyung Women’s university (SM-IRB-10-0720- 004: Seoul, S. Korea). Inclusion criteria for the present study are healthy young women (21–30 yrs), however, who experienced pre-menstrual syndrome, e.g. menstrual pain, menstrual irregularity, etc. We excluded the people, who had any other health problems or took medicine. All participants filled out the informed consents before par- ticipating in this study. Volunteers who experienced men- strual pain or irregularity were recruited on bulletins in the above school. The consumption of KRG or placebo was determined by lot, a simple random sampling. Con- sidering safety and other previous clinical trials [26,27], we administered 9 capsules of placebo or KRG (2.7 g of KRG powder)/day to the subjects after meals for 2 weeks (N = 22: N = 11 for KRG; N = 11 for placebo). During the trial period, we collected their urine before breakfast on 4 spots, day 0, 4, 8 and 14 days and stored at −20°C until analysis was performed. At the same time, all subjects re- corded daily food intake (items and volume/meal) during the trial and filled out questionnaires containing items of QOL, side effects of raw ginseng and potential endpoints of EDCs including the 17 complaints, i.e. menstrual pain, menstrual irregularity, cold hands and feet, anemia,