Panax ginseng root

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High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of phytosterols in Panax ginseng root grown under different conditions

High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of phytosterols in Panax ginseng root grown under different conditions

[23] Lee DG, Kim KT, Lee S. Taste profile characterization of white ginseng by electronic tongue analysis. Afr J Biotechnol 2012;11:9280e7 . [24] Lee DG, Lee AY, Kim KT, Cho EJ, Lee S. Novel dammarane-type triterpene saponins from Panax ginseng root. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2015;63:927e34 . [25] Chang IM, Yun HS, Yamasaki K. Revision of 13 C- NMR assignments of b - sitosterol and b -sitostery-3-O- b -d-glucopyranoside isolated from Plantago asiatica seed. Kor J Pharmacogn 1981;12:12e4 .

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Effects of Panax Ginseng Alcoholic Extract on Histomorphometric Changes of Ovaries in Offspring Rats from Diabetic Mothers

Effects of Panax Ginseng Alcoholic Extract on Histomorphometric Changes of Ovaries in Offspring Rats from Diabetic Mothers

Given to the above, this study indicates that due to production of free radicals and also induction of apoptosis, the number and size of ovarian follicles have reduced in three-month-old female rat infants born to diabetic mothers. The extract of Panax ginseng root due to its antioxidant compounds and its adaptogenic properties improves ovarian tissue in three-month-old female rat infants born to diabetic mothers. So, the extract is recommended to use, since it will be able to reduce the complications of diabetes.

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Panax Ginseng Regulates Brain Monoamines in Lipopolysaccharide Induced Experimental Brain Injury

Panax Ginseng Regulates Brain Monoamines in Lipopolysaccharide Induced Experimental Brain Injury

Administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) impaired antioxidant mechanisms, increased peroxidation and impaired mitochondrial redox activity causing brain inflammation as well as neuronal damage and impairment of brain monoamines. Panax ginseng (P.ginseng) is a well-known herbal medicine; the main active constituent of ginseng is ginsenosides or ginseng saponins that have neuroprotective activity. The aim of our experiment was to study the role of Panax ginseng root in maintaining brain monoamines levels through the protection against LPS - induced oxidative stress in rat model. In this experiment, we used forty rats and divided them into: control, ginseng, lipopolysaccharide and ginseng treated groups. malondialdehyde (MDA) and paraoxonase activity (PON-1) were estimated colorimetrically. Comet assay technique was used to determine the percent of DNA damage in addition to brain monoamines assessment by HPLC. The data showed that lipopolysaccharide significantly increased brain MDA, DNA damage percent and brain monoamines concomitant with a reduction in serum PON-1. Contrarily, ginseng supplementation improved these values in treated group. P. ginseng is a very important supplement that protects against brain injury and its benefit effect may be attributed to its high amounts of ginsenosides that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects that augment impairment of brain monoamines.
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American Ginseng Panax quinquefolius

American Ginseng Panax quinquefolius

degradation seem responsible for the extirpation of seven populations (Table 3). American ginseng usually grows under closed forest canopy. Logging activities open the canopy and strongly modify the ecological parameters of a site (Nault, et al., 1998). After the canopy is opened, light intensity increases, soil moisture declines, daily temperature fluctuations of the forest floor are higher, invasive species are introduced, and competition from tree seedlings, shrubs and herbs increases dramatically. Large individuals that survive such major habitat disturbances, also face intense grazing and seed predation by deer who are attracted by the vigourous forest floor regrowth (pers. observ.). In the eastern Ontario and Quebec portion of ginseng’s range, there was a severe ice storm in January of 1998 that caused major damage to the forest canopy. The canopy loss in many ginseng colonies is comparable to heavy selective logging (pers. observ., 1998) and this storm may have a lasting negative impact on a number of colonies.
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“PANAX GINSENG A DIVINE CHINESE HERB” by Rajani
Chauhan, Km.Ruby, Jaya dwivedi, India.

“PANAX GINSENG A DIVINE CHINESE HERB” by Rajani Chauhan, Km.Ruby, Jaya dwivedi, India.

Panax  ginseng  investigated  the  increase  in  free  radical‐ scavenging  activity  of  Panax  ginseng  as  a  result  of  heat‐ processing  and  its  active  compounds  related  to  fortified  antioxidant activity. In addition, the therapeutic potential  of heat‐processed ginseng (HPG) with respect to oxidative  tissue  damage  was  examined  using  rat  models.  Based  upon  chemical  and  biological  activity  tests,  the  free  radical‐scavenging  active  components  such  as  less‐polar  ginsenosides  and  maltol  in  Panax  ginseng  significantly  increased  depending  on  the  temperature  of  heat‐ processing.  According  to  animal  experiments  related  to  oxidative  tissue damage, HPG  displayed hepatoprotective  action  by  reducing  the  elevated  thiobarbituric  acid  reactive  substance  (TBA‐RS)  level,  as  well  as  nuclear  factor‐kappa B (NF‐κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase  (iNOS)  protein  expressions,  while  increasing  heme  oxygenase‐1  in  the  lipopolysaccharide‐treated  rat  liver  and  HPG  also  displayed  renal  protective  action  by  ameliorating  physiological  abnormalities  and  reducing  elevated  TBA‐RS,  advanced  glycation  end  product  (AGE)  levels,  NF‐κB,  cyclooxygenase‐2,  iNOS,  3‐nitrotyrosine,  Nε‐(carboxymethyl)lysine  and  receptors  for  AGE  protein  expression  in  the  diabetic  rat  kidney.  Therefore,  HPG  clearly  has  a  therapeutic  potential  with  respect  to  oxidative  tissue  damage  by  inhibiting  protein  expression  related  to  oxidative  stress  and  AGEs,  and  further  investigations  of  active  compounds  are  underway.  This  investigation  of  specified  bioactive  constituents  is  important  for  the  development  of  scientific  ginseng‐ derived drugs as part of ethnomedicine. 18  
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A CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RABBITS: EVALUATION OF CURATIVE ROLE OF TURKISH PANAX GINSENG

A CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RABBITS: EVALUATION OF CURATIVE ROLE OF TURKISH PANAX GINSENG

Although the beneficial effects of KRG are well documented, the administration of high dose of KRG might be detrimental through their toxicity. Several studies have reported that overdose and long-term usage of ginseng are associated with side effects such as hypertension, nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, and headache, which is known as ginseng abuse syndrome (Seely D et al. 2008). Ginsenoside Rh2, which is one of the active ginsenosides of KRG, is known to have anticancer activities, while it showed cytotoxic effects to human hepatocyte cells (Wei G et al, 2012). KRG extract may prevent hepatocarcinogenesis through modulation of the liver oxidative environment, but the chemopreventive effects may differ based on the concentrations.
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Effects of Panax ginseng extracts prepared at different steaming times on thermogenesis in rats

Effects of Panax ginseng extracts prepared at different steaming times on thermogenesis in rats

Panax ginseng (PG) has long been widely used as a folk and conventional medicine for the prevention and/or treatment of many diseases. Ginsenosides, known as ginseng saponins, are the fundamental compounds responsible for the multiple physiological and pharmacological activities of ginseng [1] . With the increasing consumption of ginseng as a pharmacological agent, its in fluence on body temperature, particularly a “hot feeling,” has been considered a potential side effect, although there is a lack of sci- enti fic evidence. Recent animal studies have shown that PG has no effect on body temperature under normal conditions [2,3] , whereas intraperitoneal injection of ginsenoside Rb1 increased thermo- genesis in rats exposed to cold conditions, indicating that Rb1 improved cold tolerance [4] .
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Eustress and Malondialdehyde (MDA): Role of Panax Ginseng: Randomized, placebo controlled prospective study

Eustress and Malondialdehyde (MDA): Role of Panax Ginseng: Randomized, placebo controlled prospective study

Augustyniak et al. experimental study revealed that central nervous system is highly susceptible to the oxidative stress due to high brain metabolic and neuronal membrane that contains a large amount of fatty acids oxidized by free radicals. Cerebrospinal fluid contains a large amount of ascorbic acids and iron that are regarded as a source of toxic free radicals (8) . Psychological stress due to external psychomental stimuli is linked with stimulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) production due to triggering oxidative free radical formations. Mental stress in medical students during examination contributes to the induction of oxidative stress and elevation of MDA serum levels. Thus, overwhelming psychological stimuli activate neuronal oxidative phosphorylation at mitochondrial site, leading to imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant levels, causing profound lipid peroxidation (9, 10). Moreover, cognitive impairment is correlated with high free radical generations and low antioxidant capacity, indicating an association between the neuropathology and oxidative stress (11). Furthermore, oxidative stress markers are malondialdehyde (MDA), metalloenzymes, and selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (12). However, MDA is regarded as a significant intermediate of hydroxyl radical, causing neuronal dysfunction and degeneration as MDA is a serious neuronal toxin (13). Brain oxidative stress is normally ameliorated and eliminated by free radical scavenger mechanisms including superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Thus, administration of Panax Ginseng or other antioxidants leads to significant activation of antioxidant activity and reduction of MDA serum levels (14).
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Influence of Panax ginseng on obesity and gut microbiota in obese middle-aged Korean women

Influence of Panax ginseng on obesity and gut microbiota in obese middle-aged Korean women

Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Tenericutes, and Bacteroidetes were predominant in EWG samples of prior to ginseng intakes, whereas Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria were dominant in IWG samples ( Table 5 , Fig. 5 A). Relative abundances of Actino- bacteria and Proteobacteria in EWG were lower than those in IWG, whereas phyla of Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were more abundant in the EWG than IWG. Furthermore the relative abundances of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were signi ficantly different between both groups. These results partly correspond with the earlier one. Samples with fecal activity potently metabolizing ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K had lower levels of Proteobacteria and higher levels of Tenericutes and Bacteriodetes than in samples with fecal activity non-metabolizing ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K [20] . For detailed microbial composition, we analyzed the composition of genera, it had also noteworthy differ- ences between groups ( Table 5 , Fig. 5 B). The three predominant genera in EWG were Blautia, Anaerostipes, and Oscillibacter, whereas those in IWG were Bi fidobacterium, Blautia, and Clostridium_g4. The relative abundances of Anaerostipes and Eubacterium_g5 were increased in EWG, whereas that of Lactobacillus was increased in IWG. Furthermore, the relative abundance of Bi fidobacterium, Escherichia, and Clostridium_g23 in EWG were signi ficantly lower than those in IWG. However, the genera that had signi ficant differ- ences between the groups (Clostridiales_uc_g, Oscillibacter, Rumi- nococcus, Holdemania, and Sutterella) were not consistent with a previous study [20] . Individual variations of gut microbiota [35] can generate these different results, so it is not easy to compare directly between the two limited sample sized studies.
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Comparing Ginsenoside Production in Leaves and Roots of Wild American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius)

Comparing Ginsenoside Production in Leaves and Roots of Wild American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius)

American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius L., is an herbaceous perennial species that is destructively harvested for its bioactive compounds called ginsenosides. The demand for this herb fosters illegal poaching and over-harvesting that reduces genetic variability and population viability. Five wild populations in western North Carolina were studied to better understand the production of ginsenosides in leaf and root tissues. Total ginsenoside concentration was signifi- cantly higher in leaves than roots, though total yield was higher in roots due to greater root biomass. However, some ginsensosides (Rb2, Rd and Re) had higher or more consistent yields in leaves than roots, so might be developed into a sustainable source of these medicinally-active compounds. Additionally, we identified regional root chemotypes that differed in the production of the ginsenosides Rg1 and Re and could be developed into regional cultivars depending on the desired panel of ginsenosides.
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Panax ginseng C A Meyer root extract for moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Panax ginseng C A Meyer root extract for moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

chronic systemic infections or inflammatory conditions in the last three months; 4) pregnancy, breast-feeding or women intending to become pregnant during the course of the study; 5) serious illnesses such as heart, liver or kidney diseases; 6) those who are unable to adequately perform spirometry tests; 7) those taking long-term immunosuppressive agents or immunosti- mulants; 8) those who have an allergic history to gin- seng products; 9) those currently using a ginseng- containing product or have used a ginseng product within the last three months; 10) those who are cur- rent users of anticoagulants, anti-hyperglycaemics or monoamine oxidase inhibitor anti-depressants; and 11) those who have undertaken pulmonary rehabilitation within three months of the commencement of the study, or intend to enter pulmonary rehabilitation dur- ing the study.
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Localization of ginsenosides in Panax quinquefolium root tissues

Localization of ginsenosides in Panax quinquefolium root tissues

S u m m a r y We carried out histochemical studies to find the localization of ginsenosides in roots of Panax quinquefolium cultivated in Poland. We performed an anatomical study on the structure and localization of secretory canals on the cross section of 4-year-old American ginseng roots. We observed the occurrence of large secretory canals, mainly in the middle part of the secondary cortex and less in the phloem layer. In our studies, moreover, we demonstrated the production of secretory canals within the periderm layer. After the anatomical study, the 4-year-old ginseng root was divi- ded into periderm, cortex and xylem, and the ginsenosides were extracted from each part of the root. The TLC separation of ginsenosides was performed on silica gel Si60 glass plates with chloroform-methanol-ethyl acetate-water-hexane, 20+22+60+8+4 (v/v) as mobile phase. Quantitative analysis of ginsenosides was performed by using the TLC-densitometric method. Concerning the distribution of ginsenosides in the different anatomical parts of the root of Panax quinquefolium, they were contained in the periderm layer at the highest level.
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Comparative phenolic compound profiles and antioxidative activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) according to cultivation years

Comparative phenolic compound profiles and antioxidative activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) according to cultivation years

In conclusion, the present study reported the pro file of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng with respect to the cultivation year. The total phenol contents in 3 e6-yr-old ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots were 0.03 e0.3% (dry weight basis) of each ginseng sample and the phenol content was usually found to be higher in ginseng fruit and leaves than in ginseng roots (p < 0.05). The total phenol content of ginseng roots (r ¼ 0.365*) and fruit (r ¼ 0.501**) increased with increasing cultivation year, whereas that of ginseng leaves (r ¼ - 0.740****) decreased. Among the 23 phenolic compounds studied, the phenolic acids were more abundant in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots than the flavonoids and other compounds (p < 0.05). This study showed that chlorogenic acid, gentisic acid, p- and m-cou- maric acid, and rutin were the main phenolic compounds in 3 e6- yr-old ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots. In contrast, gallic acid, myr- icetin, and biochanin A were not found in 3 e6-yr-old ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots. In addition, the DPPH activity was signi ficantly correlated with the total phenol content in the ginseng samples (r ¼ 0.928****). In particular, p-coumaric acid (r ¼ 0.847****) and ferulic acid (r ¼ 0.742****) greatly affected the DPPH activity. This study provides basic information about the composition and con- tent of phenolic compounds in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to the cultivation years. This information is potentially
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Comparative Effect of Withania Somnifera and Panax Ginseng on Swim-Stress Induced Impaired Energy Status of Mice

Comparative Effect of Withania Somnifera and Panax Ginseng on Swim-Stress Induced Impaired Energy Status of Mice

The activity of adaptogens seems to be mediated, at least partly, by the increase in the essential energy element, such as ATP, in the muscle-mitochondria in mice that were subjected to repeated swimming exercise [26]. Oxidative stress due to repeated swimming exercise increases the lipid peroxidation levels and decreases glutathione levels in the muscle-mitochondria [20]. On treatment with WSE even at the lower dose level, restoration of the lost glutathione levels occurred along with decrease in the lipid peroxidation levels (data not shown), which ultimately results in augmentation of the endurance capacity of the treated animals. The present investigation thus suggests that WSE, even at a low dose level, can protect the mitochondria against the oxidative onslaught and activate the restoration of lost ATP in mitochondria during and after the repeated swimming exercise. This mechanistic postulate regarding the ATP augmenting effect of anti-stress agents has precedence in the literature [27]. Panax ginseng, on the other hand, showed effective adaptogenic activity only at the higher dose level (100 mg/kg) [10]. However, long term administration of Panax ginseng at a dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o. might result in a number of adverse side-effects collectively termed the “ginseng abuse syndrome” [24, 25], characterized by high blood pressure, water retention (mineralo-corticoid effect), higher muscle tone, insomnia and hormonal disbalance in women. WSE, on the other hand, composed of the tested bioactives of Withania somnifera [4, 8], does not suffer from any of the potential deficiencies of Panax ginseng. The present study suggests that sustained use of WSE even at a low dose level would provide energy restoration needed under stressed conditions without any adverse side effects. Administration of higher dose of WSE, which is also devoid of any adverse side effect, would elicit and maintain the energy restoration effects within a short period of time.
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Effects of Panax ginseng-containing herbal plasters on compressed intervertebral discs in an in vivo rat tail model

Effects of Panax ginseng-containing herbal plasters on compressed intervertebral discs in an in vivo rat tail model

disc height was maintained, revealing that the herbal medicine plaster might potentially benefit the compressed disc. The lack of any significant change in disc morph- ology might be due to the short therapeutic period of three weeks. Kroeber et al. [26] demonstrated that mor- phological signs of disc regeneration were associated with the duration of disc distraction, with more pronounced changes occurring after 28 days of distraction compared with those occurring after 7 days of distraction. The main- tenance of disc height in the CM group might have resulted from the vasodilative effect of Panax notoginseng [6,27]. The vasodilation of circumferential blood vessels increases vascular permeability and blood flow [28], which would probably increase the intradiscal water content and subsequently prevent further decreases in disc height. Fur- thermore, the lack of obvious morphological changes revealed that the change in disc height is multi-factorial, and that a favorable change in disc height does not neces- sarily indicate a positive change in disc morphology. Extra- cellular matrix components (particularly proteoglycans, collagen and matrix-degrading enzymes) are also import- ant with respect to changes in disc height. Further bio- chemical analysis of the contributions of extracellular matrix components to disc height is required to explore the beneficial effects of herbal medicine plasters compris- ing tienchi.
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Effects of Cissus populnea and Panax ginseng on Flutamide-Induced Testicular Defect in Pre-Pubertal Male Rats

Effects of Cissus populnea and Panax ginseng on Flutamide-Induced Testicular Defect in Pre-Pubertal Male Rats

The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups; 1 control and 3 treatment groups, then labeled and treated as follows: group A (control) was administered only tap water and feed. Group B was administered flutamide and Cissus populnea, group C was administered flutamide and Panax ginseng and group D was administered flutamide alone. Flutamide was given at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day [15]; Panax ginseng at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day; and Cissus populnea at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day [16]. The animals were dosed orally once daily for 15 days using a canula. All procedures involving animals in this study conformed to the guiding principles for research involving animals as recommended by the Declaration of Helsinki and the Guiding Principles in the Care and Use of Animals [17] and were approved by the Departmental Committee on the Use and Care of Animals in conformity with internationally acceptable standards.
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Panax ginseng therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical trial protocol and pilot study

Panax ginseng therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical trial protocol and pilot study

We excluded participants who had a history of asthma or chronic systemic infections or inflammatory condi- tions other than COPD that require systemic corticoster- oid treatment in the last 3 months; were pregnant, breast-feeding or intending to become pregnant during the course of the study; had a serious illness such as se- vere heart, liver or kidney disease; were taking long-term immunosuppressive agents or immune-stimulants; had an allergic history to ginseng or currently were taking ginseng; were users of monoamine oxidase inhibitor an- tidepressants, anticoagulants and/or antihyperglycaemic medications; and had undertaken pulmonary rehabilita- tion within three months of the commencement of the study or intended to enter pulmonary rehabilitation dur- ing the study.
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Classification of ginseng berry (Panax ginseng C A  MEYER) extract using 1H NMR spectroscopy and its inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3 T3 L1 cells

Classification of ginseng berry (Panax ginseng C A MEYER) extract using 1H NMR spectroscopy and its inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3 T3 L1 cells

ginsenoside Re (groups, namely protopanaxatriol-type saponin from ginseng) lowers blood glucose and lipid in high-fat diet fed mice. However, effects on adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells on PGBE have not yet been reported. The chemical composition and biological activities of the P. ginseng berry may differ according to the maturation stage. We have looked for lipid accumu- lation in adipocyte inhibitory plants using PGBE as an in vitro assay system. During the course of screening, the water extract of P. ginseng berry was significantly inhibited this activity. The metabolic profiling can be useful for quantifying a group of related compounds. There are few previous studies about profiling metabolic compounds of ginseng by using NMR [12,13]. However, no study reported in differences of the metabolic compounds among different maturation stages in ginseng fruits. The aim of this study was to classify the ginseng berry (Panax ginseng) extract using 1 H NMR spectroscopy and evaluates its inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3 T3-L1 cells.
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The allelopathic effect of ginseng root exudates on rice seeds

The allelopathic effect of ginseng root exudates on rice seeds

The preparation of extraction solution of ginseng farm soils (herein referred to as the Solution): the ginseng farm soils were collected from a ginseng farm in Changchun City of China in March 2013. The land has been used in the continuous cropping of ginseng for 3 years, and the soils were black soils. The samples were dried in the shade in our laboratory, and filtered through the sieve with the pore diameter of 0.25mm. 200g of samples were taken and added with 300mL of the deionized water, and treated with the overnight vibrating extraction in a thermostated shaker (RPM of 60r/min). The solution was extracted for 3 times, and each time the extraction lasted for 24 hours. After the filtering, the filtrates were combined to prepare the mother solution with the mass fraction of 40%. Via the trial test, the Solutions at the low concentration (10g/mL), medium concentration (20g/mL) and high concentration (40g/mL) were prepared for later tests. All Solutions were placed in the refrigerator for further use.
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Effects of Korean red ginseng (Panax Ginseng Meyer) on bisphenol A exposure and gynecologic complaints: single blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety

Effects of Korean red ginseng (Panax Ginseng Meyer) on bisphenol A exposure and gynecologic complaints: single blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety

This trial was designed as a single-blind randomized study, which was approved by Institutional Review Board of the Sookmyung Women’s university (SM-IRB-10-0720- 004: Seoul, S. Korea). Inclusion criteria for the present study are healthy young women (21–30 yrs), however, who experienced pre-menstrual syndrome, e.g. menstrual pain, menstrual irregularity, etc. We excluded the people, who had any other health problems or took medicine. All participants filled out the informed consents before par- ticipating in this study. Volunteers who experienced men- strual pain or irregularity were recruited on bulletins in the above school. The consumption of KRG or placebo was determined by lot, a simple random sampling. Con- sidering safety and other previous clinical trials [26,27], we administered 9 capsules of placebo or KRG (2.7 g of KRG powder)/day to the subjects after meals for 2 weeks (N = 22: N = 11 for KRG; N = 11 for placebo). During the trial period, we collected their urine before breakfast on 4 spots, day 0, 4, 8 and 14 days and stored at −20°C until analysis was performed. At the same time, all subjects re- corded daily food intake (items and volume/meal) during the trial and filled out questionnaires containing items of QOL, side effects of raw ginseng and potential endpoints of EDCs including the 17 complaints, i.e. menstrual pain, menstrual irregularity, cold hands and feet, anemia,
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