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Becker, Cordula
  

(2005):


	Subjective visual experiences of colour and form induced by temporally modulated light.


Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Psychologie und Pädagogik

Becker, Cordula (2005): Subjective visual experiences of colour and form induced by temporally modulated light. Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Psychologie und Pädagogik

for years, even though some amount of interindividual variation was observed. Un- fortunately, in the paper of Smythies [80] no clear distinction between monocular and binocular patterns was undertaken (although it was stated that binocularly more patterns were reported), but among the patterns occurring at binocular stroboscopic stimulation were circles, grids and checker-boards, cobwebs, wheels and flowers, mosaics, clovers, pattern of squares, central vortices and spots, suns, stars and radiation patterns, spirals, diffraction patterns, mazes, chains, herring- bone patterns, diamonds, and honeycombs. The patterns were classified into the following groups: unformed elements (i.e. blobs, dots), single lines, patterns of parallel straight lines, patterns of radially arranged straight lines, complex pat- terns based on straight lines (i.e. honeycomb), patterns of curved lines, designs and formed images. Smythies [80] stressed the fact that only very rarely pat- terns were composed of straight and curved lines as connected elements, these two configurations seemed to exclude their mutual appearance. During a given stimulation epoch patterns could change into another by continuous transforma- tion, a sudden change, breaking up of the first pattern and formation of the next out of these broken elements, or intervened periods of no pattern between the two patterns. The colours of the observed patterns varied widely between subjects. While some observers reported only achromatic colours, others saw pastel shades and others again brilliant and saturated colours. The amount of experiences de- pended on the colour and luminance of the stimulation, white light and brighter stimulation being more effective than red light and less bright stimulation. An influence of stimulation frequency on the generation of subjective experiences was found: more patterns were described for 12 or 18 Hz than for stimulation at 6 Hz. In addition, with increasing frequency the reported patterns became finer and made up of smaller elements.
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One class of generalized boundary value problem for analytic functions

One class of generalized boundary value problem for analytic functions

In this paper, a boundary value problem for analytic functions with two unknown functions on two parallel straight lines is studied, the general solutions in the different domains as well as the conditions of solvability are obtained in class {1}, and the behaviors of solutions are discussed at z = ∞ and in the different domains, respectively. Therefore, the classic Riemann boundary value problem is extended further.

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INVERSION AND PROBLEM OF TANGENT SPHERES

INVERSION AND PROBLEM OF TANGENT SPHERES

The task mentioned above can be solved using an inversion in circle in its general configuration. It is a quite effective and nice method and it leads to the truly easy construction of a circle tangent to two parallel straight lines and a circle inscribed in our special configuration. Figure 2 was constructed in GeoGebra, too.

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Observed drought and wetness trends in Europe: an update

Observed drought and wetness trends in Europe: an update

In b straight lines denote the fitting linear trends for the whole period thick black line and the shorter period thick read line, while in c thick nonlinear lines are the reconstructed [r]

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A Simple Theoretical Approach of Aqueous Solutions of Salts and Organic Solvents  in Paper Chromatography

A Simple Theoretical Approach of Aqueous Solutions of Salts and Organic Solvents in Paper Chromatography

All these curves (Figure 13) make it possible to visualize the coherence of the proposed chromatographic system. The water/alcohol series gives a straight line revealing the exact proportionality with the number of carbons. With azeotropic mixtures of organic solvents, there is a reduction in the Rf of Fructose as a func- tion of the “load” in carbon atoms as has been observed with mineral salts. But with the formic and the acetic series, a rise in Rf is observed, due to the relative increase of the total hydrophilic fraction of the mixture of organic solvents, showing the preponderance of the total solvent fraction which produces the same Rf whatever the origin of the hydroxyl functions. These numerical data make it possible to calculate the total percentage of the hydroxyls of the consti- tuents of the mixture taking into account the number of active hydroxyls of the organic acids, according to equation (13):
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Lines and Angles. Chapter 1 Points, Lines, Planes, and Angles. Chapter 2 Reasoning and Proof. Chapter 3 Parallel and Perpendicular Lines

Lines and Angles. Chapter 1 Points, Lines, Planes, and Angles. Chapter 2 Reasoning and Proof. Chapter 3 Parallel and Perpendicular Lines

because they are only explained using examples and descriptions. Even though they are undefined, these terms can still be used to define other geometric terms and properties. For example, two lines intersect in a point. In the figure at the right, point P represents the intersection of AB and CD . Lines can intersect planes, and planes can intersect each other. terms

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All Sluiced Up, But No Alleviation in Sight...

All Sluiced Up, But No Alleviation in Sight...

cleft/resumptive construction in multiple wh-sluices is impossible. In section 4, I discuss further evidence that the interpretation of the sluice can involve a semantically parallel continuation that can but does not have to utilize clefts (Merchant 2001). In section 5, I discuss the possibility of resumptive pronouns playing a role in sluice continuations. In section 6, I discuss the differences and similarities between sluicing and VP ellipsis. I will argue that a cleft ending is impossible for VP ellipsis and hence the apparent inability of VP ellipsis to alleviate Island effects.
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8-they-look-like-us-exercises.pdf

8-they-look-like-us-exercises.pdf

In each grouping of eight words below, draw straight lines between the synonyms (words that mean similar things) and squiggly lines between any antonyms (words that mean nearly opposite[r]

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PARALLEL LINES ASSUMPTION IN ORDINAL LOGISTIC REGRESSION AND ANALYSIS APPROACHES

PARALLEL LINES ASSUMPTION IN ORDINAL LOGISTIC REGRESSION AND ANALYSIS APPROACHES

The aim of this article is to examine Proportional Odds Model (POM), Non- Proportional Odds Model (NPOM) and Partial Proportional Odds Model (PPOM) models and to determine the most suitable model according to the structure of data and assumptions. Data related to the variables which affect job satisfaction of media employees has been used in line with this aim, and Maximum Likelihood Estimator and Odds ratios of the examined models have been obtained. Model validity and comparison have been tested by Likelihood Ratio statistics. It has been concluded in the study that NPOM and PPOM are required to be preferred compared to POM and multinomial logit model when Parallel Lines Assumption is not hold.
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Parallel Lines. A Report on Dual Diagnosis Service Provision in Croydon

Parallel Lines. A Report on Dual Diagnosis Service Provision in Croydon

This report aims to provide an insight into the experiences of service users accessing both mental health and drug and alcohol services, in Croydon with a specific focus on the exper[r]

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Cocoyam Used as Substitute of Cassava in the Preparation of Starch Based Biofilms and Biocomposites by Casting Method

Cocoyam Used as Substitute of Cassava in the Preparation of Starch Based Biofilms and Biocomposites by Casting Method

Figure 4: Water vapor permeability of cocoyam straight lines and cassava dashed lines starch control film and mineral composite films vs.. starch/fillers weight ratio..[r]

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Geometry Simulation Test 2014.docx

Geometry Simulation Test 2014.docx

Alternate interior angles of parallel lines are congruent.. Reflexive Property of Congruence4[r]

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Segmentation Based Optical Character Recognition for Handwritten Marathi characters

Segmentation Based Optical Character Recognition for Handwritten Marathi characters

Line segmentation divides the A4 size page document into number of images equal to the lines present in page. That individual image is again segmented which is word segmentation and it gives separated words from single straight lines. Word segmentation is easier than line segmentation and character segmentation. Words are segmented by the projection based method. Each word is saved in new image and further it is segmented in characters.

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Detecting Leg Bone Fracture In X-Ray Images

Detecting Leg Bone Fracture In X-Ray Images

As mentioned in the introduction, this paper considers the problem of detecting leg bone fracture. Many X-ray images are collected from local hospitals and Internet websites. In this experiment, 21X-ray images are tested. Among them, 16 images are fractures and 5 images are normal X-ray images. The algorithm cannot detect correctly in 2 fracture images. According to the test results, the performanceof the detection method affect by the quality of the image. This paper examines the performances of Canny edge detector in comparison with other edge detectors such as Sobel, Prewitt, and Robert, which are applied to the X-ray images of lower leg bone. From the experimental results, it is observed that the Canny operator gives better results and produces good view of bone structure. After edge detection, this system discussed the performance of Hough transform which is applied on edge image to find the straight line and angles at which bone pieces are found.The idea of Hough transform is that every edge point in the edge map is transformed to all possible lines. After that all, this system determined whether a fracture exists or not in the image.
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Towards a Fixed Parameter Tractability of Geometric Hitting Set Problem for Axis Parallel Squares Intersecting a Given Straight Line

Towards a Fixed Parameter Tractability of Geometric Hitting Set Problem for Axis Parallel Squares Intersecting a Given Straight Line

Since each optimal hitting set contains at most one point pk from any region 𝜃 𝑘 , the initial continuous problem is polynomially equivalent to the corresponding combinatorial one of finding a minimal hitting set among subsets of the finite set 𝒫 = {𝑝 1 , . . . , 𝑝 𝐾 }, 𝑝 𝑘 ∈ 𝜃 𝑘 \∪ 𝑙≠𝑘 𝜃 𝑙 . Indeed, for any collection of 𝑛 axis-parallel squares (and even rectangles), the corresponding set 𝒫 contains at most 𝑂(𝑛 2 ) elements (see Fig. 1) and can be constructed in polynomial time.

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A Novel Decoupling Network Using Parallel Coupled Lines for Increasing the Port Isolation of Two Coupled Antennas

A Novel Decoupling Network Using Parallel Coupled Lines for Increasing the Port Isolation of Two Coupled Antennas

of the coupled lines. Then, the insertion loss of the PCLs can be controlled by the coupling coefficient k, as shown in Fig. 4. When the coupling coefficient k of the PCL increases from 0.1 to 0.5, the insertion loss will be also increase from −10 dB to almost 0 dB. Then, the magnitude of this network will be controlled by the strip width and gap width of the PCL. Shown in Table 1 is the relationship between the physical parameters and coupling coefficient of the PCL. The network is fabricated on a substrate with dielectric constant of 3.38, loss tangent of 0.0027, and thickness of 0.8 mm.
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Network Expression for Coupling Analysis of Arbitrarily Directed Multiple Transmission Lines

Network Expression for Coupling Analysis of Arbitrarily Directed Multiple Transmission Lines

Section 2 in the figure is 7.8-cm long. In this model, near-end crosstalk characteristics were also studied using the cascading technique and compared those with other results to show that the cascading technique cannot efficiently estimate crosstalk because discontinuity effects are not considered in the technique. That is, the crosstalk analysis was performed by using an ordinary transmission-line theory because of weak-coupling assumption. Assuming that transmission lines in Sections 1 and 3 are of an isolated single line and only the parallel lines in Section 2 play a role of crosstalk, we can obtain an overall ABCD matrix by cascading each section as
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ON PARAMETERIZED COMPLEXITY OF HITTING SET PROBLEM FOR AXIS–PARALLEL SQUARES INTERSECTING A STRAIGHT LINE

ON PARAMETERIZED COMPLEXITY OF HITTING SET PROBLEM FOR AXIS–PARALLEL SQUARES INTERSECTING A STRAIGHT LINE

As for the future work, it would be interesting to establish the complexity status of the con- sidered problem in the case, where this parameter is unbounded. Also, it is interesting to answer the question, does the Hitting Set Problem for Axis-Parallel Squares belong to the class of Fixed Parameter Tractable (FPT) problems.

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ONE-TO-ONE NONLINEAR TRANSFORMATION  OF THE SPACE WITH IDENTITY PLANE

ONE-TO-ONE NONLINEAR TRANSFORMATION OF THE SPACE WITH IDENTITY PLANE

Purpose. Study of geometric transformations. We will consider the so-called point transformations of space. Methodology. The most important are one-to-one transformations. They allow exploring and studying the proper- ties of the transformed object using the properties of the original object (line, surface and figure) and the properties of the transformation. Cremona transformations occupy a special place in the set of one-to-one nonlinear transfor- mations. Construction of one-parameter (stratifiable) transformations is carried out as one-parameter set of plane transformations, both linear and non-linear ones. The plane, in which the specific transformation is prescribed, moves in space by a certain law forming a one-parameter set of planes. The set of such plane transformations makes up the space transformation. Findings. The designed graphics algorithms and the established transformation equa- tions allow building the visual images of transformed surfaces and conducting their research by analytical geometry methods. Originality. By completing elementary algebraic transformations of this equation, we obtain the cissoids equation. If the plane φ is continuously moved parallel to itself, it results in occurrence of surface, whose carcass will be the set of cissoids and the set of front-projecting lines. Practical value. The considered set of stratifiable algebraic transformations gives an effective means for exploring new curves and surfaces obtained by transforming the known algebraic lines and surfaces. These graphic algorithms allow graphically depicting the transformed lines and surfaces. The considered procedure of drawing up analytical formulas of specific transformations allows us to study the transformed surfaces and lines using the methods of analytic geometry. The above transformations can be of arbitrary high order, which is especially important during the design of complex technical surfaces such as air- craft components, parts of water and gas turbines, supports of the structures subject to strong flow of liquid, etc. Space modelling issues, including the building of graphic plane models of space, are relevant both in theoretical terms and in terms of application of the non-linear surfaces investigated on their basis for constructing the technical forms of parts and aggregates of construction machine movable elements, the middle surfaces of shells, the surfaces of turbulent blade, etc.
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Review on Comparative Study between Straight Tube Heat Exchanger and Helical Coil Heat Exchanger

Review on Comparative Study between Straight Tube Heat Exchanger and Helical Coil Heat Exchanger

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to determine the relative advantage of using a helically coiled heat exchanger over a straight tube heat exchanger. It is found that the heat transfer in helical circular tubes is higher as compared to Straight tube due to their geometrical shape. Helical coils offer advantages over straight tubes due to their compactness and increased heat transfer coefficient. The increased heat transfer coefficients are a consequence of the curvature of the coil, which induces centrifugal forces to act on the moving fluid, resulting in the development of secondary flow. The curvature of the coil governs the centrifugal force while the pitch (or helix angle) influences the torsion to which the fluid is subjected to. The difference in velocity sets-in secondary flows. The fluid particles flowing at the core of the pipe have higher velocities than those flowing near to the pipe wall. Thus the fluid particles flowing close to the tube wall experience a lower centrifugal force than the fluid particles flowing in the tube core. This causes the fluid from the core region to be pushed towards the outer wall. This additional convective transport increases heat transfer and the pressure drop when compared to that in a straight tube.
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