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The Effection of Whitecaps on the Parameters Measured by Altimeter

The Effection of Whitecaps on the Parameters Measured by Altimeter

The reflectivity of the sea surface is 0.0421 or even 0 at ku band when foams cover the sea surface, while the reflectivity is 0.236 when foams and droplets cover the sea surface. This calculated result indicates that droplets not only have a larger effect of reflecting the electromagnetic pulses emitted by the satellite radar altimeter and but also reflect back the electromagnetic pulses early before they arrive at the sea surface or the foam layer due to the larger reflection effect. And thus the measured range from the satellite to the sea surface is the range from the satellite to the droplets. The sea surface height (SSH)will be overestimated because of the range. The measured SSH is in fact the height of the interface between the droplet layer, the foam layer and the sea water mixture. The order of the bias will be the same as the thickness of the droplet layer.
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The influence of non-ionisable excipients on precipitation parameters measured using the CheqSol method

The influence of non-ionisable excipients on precipitation parameters measured using the CheqSol method

It is obvious that the excipients increase the pH induced supersaturation (higher peak neutral species concentration) and equilibrium solubility but changes to the experimental curve’s shape are also evident. These changes are similar to those presented for “spring and parachute” type systems [16] and therefore amenable to a comparative area under the curve (AUC) analysis to determine excipient gain factors. Due to the nature of the CheqSol method AUC results incorporate supersaturation and equilibrium solubility with excipient free experiments providing the drug’s supersaturation factor [3]. In addition the initial pH shift is employed as the “spring” to create supersaturation not addition of a water miscible solvent solution or high solubility amorphous form. All three excipients are known to assist supersaturation and Guzman et.al., [16] reports that poloxamers can inhibit precipitation of celecoxib for over 60 minutes. Hsieh et.al., [20] have reported on the precipitation behaviour of weak bases and reported similar curves to this study but did not examine the influence of excipients. The results indicate that for ibuprofen, gliclazide and propranolol, HPCD and poloxamer 407 and 188 can act as parachutes increasing the measured AUC in a concentration and drug excipient combination dependent manner. For atenolol there is very little relative change in area indicating that none of the excipients are influencing behaviour in this system.
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Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies of the Alcoholic Extract of Litsea Polyantha Juss Bark

Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies of the Alcoholic Extract of Litsea Polyantha Juss Bark

mg/kg b.w. (i.p.) in mice. In sub-chronic toxicity studies 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg b.w. of the alcoholic extracts (MELP) of the bark were administered orally to the test groups while distilled water was given to the control group. The parameters measured include food and fluid intake, body weight, absolute and relative weight of various organs, haematological parameters [total white blood cell (WBC) and packed cell volume (PCV)], and tests for liver function: Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Rats treated with MELP in the therapeutic dose level had no progressive increase in body weight or fluid intake. There were no significant changes in both the absolute and relative organ weights between the control and the test groups. The liver enzymes and haematological parameters were statistically equal in all the groups. In dose higher than LD 50 , animal were dying
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Investigation of the structure and optical properties of LiNb1 xTaxO3

Investigation of the structure and optical properties of LiNb1 xTaxO3

The measured a lattice parameters for the single crystals are plotted in figure 5-5a along with the fit to the the powder measurements in section 3.2. The errors in the lattice pa- rameters have been estimated from the scatter of the values measured across the com- positional range. The LV flux grown crystals are marked by the black squares and show an increase with LT content. This agrees with the expected trend measured on powder samples of LNT. The a lattice parameters measured for the flux grown crystals are less than those measured on the powder samples, which is likely because of the lower ac- curacy in determining lattice parameters using the single-crystal di ff raction technique. The LNT94 crystal produced using a floating zone furnace has a higher a lattice param- eter than those produced using a LV flux, which is consistent with the observation of Li 2 O being lost during the growth process.
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Effect of Seed Orientation on Parameters of the Oilseed Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai

Effect of Seed Orientation on Parameters of the Oilseed Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai

12 parameters were measured from the seeds germination to plants flowering: four viability parameters: Germination duration (GD), Germination rate (GR), and Germination speed (GS) and Seedling with integuments, (SI) four vigor parameters: Emergence duration (ED), Emergence rate (ER), Emergence speed (ES), plants mortality rate (PMR), Seedlings length (SL) and Seedlings weight fresh (SWF) and vegetative and flowering parameters: plants creeping duration (PCD), First flower male emergence duration (FFMED), first flower female emergence duration (FFFED). Those parameters were subjected to statistical analysis. Analysis started by comparison between both experiences periods. In case of significant difference between trial periods, the one which provides the best value of parameters tested is chosen for the rest of the analysis. The data from this period is used to test blocks effect. Two ways could result from this last analysis. First, when block effect is not checked, data from whole blocks are put together. Secondly, if the block effect is noticed, it is corrected before continuing analysis. After the two previous tests, a one way analysis of variance is realized to test seed orientation effect on parameters measured. For parameters boosted by this production factor, ANOVA1 is completed by the Least Significant Difference (LSD) multiple range-tests. This test allows identifying one or some parameters which differ significantly to others. All analysis has been done with solfware program STATISTICA version 7.1.
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Effect of temperature on crossing over in the mus309 mutant, deficient in DNA double strand break repair, of Drosophila melanogaster suggests a mechanism for crossover interference

Effect of temperature on crossing over in the mus309 mutant, deficient in DNA double strand break repair, of Drosophila melanogaster suggests a mechanism for crossover interference

It was observed that in the control crosses, none of the mean values of the parameters measured was dependent on the temperature, whereas in the experimental crosses all the parameters except for the frequency of true single crossovers in the cv-v interval, the recombination fre- quency of the v and f markers, and the coefficient of co- incidence, changed due to the effect of temperature. When comparing the genotypes studied, a significant difference between them was observed in all the parameters studied, except for the frequency of the true single crossovers in the cv-v interval. These results support the counting number model of the mechanism of interference based on the genetic distance, but are in contradiction with the models based on physical distance.
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Decomposition and Mineralization Effect of Various Sources of Pig Manure on Water Quality and Nutrients Availability for Agro Fish System in Benin

Decomposition and Mineralization Effect of Various Sources of Pig Manure on Water Quality and Nutrients Availability for Agro Fish System in Benin

4.3. Correlations between Parameters Measured in Situ and Nutrient Dynamics in Water According to our results, the Pearson correlation test revealed an interaction between abiotic parameters such as pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and nutrient dynamics in water containing pig manure during mineralization. In spite of the increase in the content of nitrogenous nutrients throughout the experiment, signifi- cant nitrogen losses were recorded for all treatments particularly during the third and sixth weeks of experi- mentation, periods corresponding to lower rate of dissolved oxygen and an increase in temperature. Many au- thors showed the influence of abiotic physico-chemical parameters on the dynamics of nutrients in the water. Thus, according to Hafiane et al. [36], hot weather leads to increased net loss of nitrogen as NH 3 . In the same
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Parameters influencing hand grip strength measured with the manugraphy system

Parameters influencing hand grip strength measured with the manugraphy system

Hand strength is clearly dependent on hand length and this also varies between the sexes. Men generally have larger hands [28, 29, 32]. A larger hand means a greater hand area is applied to the sensor mat with the manugraphy measurement system and thus stimu- lates more sensors when gripping than a smaller hand [1, 29, 33]. For a small hand, the large measur- ing cylinder or the wide grip position is more un- comfortable. Greater force must be exerted by the distal phalanges of the fingers which reduces the overall force applied [1, 34]. The hand length correlates with the height and weight of the person examined. For people of normal weight, an increase in the height and weight means an increase in muscle mass which explains the greater hand strength [28, 29, 35]. The difference in the strength measured with a hand that is one centimetre longer is more pronounced for the dominant hand than for the non-dominant hand. This difference could again be explained by routine training.
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IN VIVO MANAGEMENT OF EARLY BLIGHT DISEASE OF POTATO WITH HERBAL FORMULATION

IN VIVO MANAGEMENT OF EARLY BLIGHT DISEASE OF POTATO WITH HERBAL FORMULATION

Among the various treatments, T4 (Formulation no.22) treatment was found to be effective against Alternaria solani both during in vitro as well as in vivo trials. This treatment was not only found to be reducing the disease incidence but also helpful in improvement of all the growth parameters. However characterization of this active treatment via advanced molecular techniques like IR, NMR, GC-MS etc. and further quality assurance and then field trials could be very helpful to overcome the problem of non targeted fungicides.

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Effects of microcompartmentation on flux distribution and metabolic pools in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts

Effects of microcompartmentation on flux distribution and metabolic pools in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts

Since we assumed that k depends not only on environmental parameter, like temperature and pressure, but also includes regulation, which cannot be integrated in mass-action kinetics (e.g., allo- steric regulation), we asked for the minimum difference in k between pyrenoid and stroma leading to a feasible solution of the program. For reactions with known enzymatic turnover obtained from BRENDA (Chang et al., 2015) (Supplementary file 3), we integrated this information by restricting the respective parameter boundaries. Since the model provides subcompartment-specific estimates of metabolite concentrations, we considered the sum of the respective stroma and pyrenoid metab- olite concentrations and compared them to the estimated and measured metabolite concentrations in the chloroplast. We then determined the goodness-of-fit for each set of simulated metabolite con- centrations and enzyme distribution and rank the parameter sets based on their chi-square value considering the 1,000 top ranked for further investigation.
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Grouping of 24 apple cultivars on the basis of starch degradation rate and their fruit pattern

Grouping of 24 apple cultivars on the basis of starch degradation rate and their fruit pattern

The storability of apples depends to a great extent on the harvest date. In the course of the ripening process the quality parameters improve, but stor- ability deteriorates (Lau 1985; Watkins 2003). The determination of the harvest date is thus an unavoid- able compromise between the quality and storability (Tóth 2003; Streif 2010). The conversion of starch to sugar is one of the most important processes that indicate the ripening stage of apples (Jackson 2003; Watkins 2003). A close correlation was found be- tween the rate of starch degradation and the ethyl- ene production (Tomala, Piestrzeniewicz 1998). Starch hydrolysis begins at the end of the fruit devel- opment process, around 2–3 weeks before the start of
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APPLICATION OF SENSITIVITY  MEASURED PARAMETERS FOR MODELS EVALUTION.

APPLICATION OF SENSITIVITY MEASURED PARAMETERS FOR MODELS EVALUTION.

reduction in speed, which can be achieved by increasing traction (Ghosal and Das, 2008). Soil strength is often represented by the cone index, CI, which is the average force per unit area required to force a cone –shape probe vertically into the soil at a steady rate. Cone index of agricultural soils is a very important factor that is measured in most tillage studies, and it indicates the resistance of soil to penetration. Fasinmirin and Olorunfemi (2013) reported from the findings of other researchers that cone index of an agricultural soil affects the penetration of plant roots. Cone index is extensively used in assessing soil compaction (Canillas and Solakhe, 2012), soil traffic ability (Goering et al., 2003) and the effectiveness of tillage operations (Canarache, 1990). Drawbar pull is the total thrust minus the total resistance to vehicle motion. It is the lateral forward force a wheel can develop when moving and indicates the force the wheel or the tractor can generate over the main force resisting to movement consisting of rolling, obstacle, slope steering resistances (Saarilahti, 2002).
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WATER QUALITY MONITORING & ANALYSIS USING IOT

WATER QUALITY MONITORING & ANALYSIS USING IOT

Monitoring the environment in our daily life is important as well as monitoring our health. It is associated to human due to the fact by monitoring the best of water and air surround them will help to enlarge the recognition to maintain the environment considering that the environmental awareness among the public is still not adequate. These days, observing a water quality continuously faces difficulties as a result of a worldwide temperature alteration constrained water assets, developing populace, and so on. Consequently there is need of making better procedures to checking the water and air quality parameters progressively. This paper presents platform to display the surroundings environment at the open water surface area focusing on rivers or lakes. The platform is placed on the water floor area and left for several days to gather the data of temperature, humidity, carbon monoxide and pH of the surrounding environment. The water magnificent parameters pH estimates the familiarity with hydrogen particles. It demonstrates the water is acidic or basic. Unadulterated water has 7pH esteem, substantially less than 7pH has acidic, more than 7pH has soluble. For drinking purpose it be 6.5-8.5pH. Turbidity sensor measures the large number of suspended particles in water that is invisible. Lower the turbidity then the water is spotless. Higher the turbidity higher the risk of the runs, cholera. Temperature sensor senses the surrounding temperature of water in rivers or lakes. Carbon monoxide sensor senses the presence of the carbon monoxide gasoline that used to be released. All the collected data from every sensor are saved into the data logger and cloud. The conventional techniques for water quality screen includes the manual accumulation of water tests from various areas and after 2 days lab process gives final reading. Using the collected data we can say that the water is drinkable or not as an acidic base. By using data that we can say that the particular area is use for fishing or not and also from data we can specify spices of fish. Although we can say that water is useable for agriculture area.
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The application of microwave sensing to the measurement of cheese curd moisture

The application of microwave sensing to the measurement of cheese curd moisture

PC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 4.4 Schematic of six-port circuit used in prototype moisture sensing instrument. 68 4.5 Phase of reflection coefficients of six-port calibration standards vs frequency. 71 4.6 Measured tuning characteristic of AV7224-9 YIG-tuned oscillator at two

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STUDIES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND JUMPING PARAMETERS OVER A VERTICAL FENCE IN SPORT HORSES

STUDIES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND JUMPING PARAMETERS OVER A VERTICAL FENCE IN SPORT HORSES

implication part of the influence of the studied parameters (a, b, c, …, s), parameters that are in fact the morphological measured traits, the dependent variable y, representing the entire length of the jump in one hand, and the bar limbs distance in the other hand, the following results (table 3) were obtained. In this sense, the studied parameters had been explained from 49% to 98% of the variance of the independent variable in the case of the jump length, and from 41% to 99% of the variance of the independent variable in the case of bar-limbs distance.

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Parameter Identification of a Brushless Resolver Using Charge Response of Stator Current

Parameter Identification of a Brushless Resolver Using Charge Response of Stator Current

It has been shown that the amplitude of the measured voltage is slightly larger than simulated one and the maximum amplitude error is about +5.89%. This error maybe comes from capacitive effect of winding in high frequency operation which is ignored in our simulation. So the simulation and experiments has been repeated with the same current and lower excitation frequency such as one tenths of nominal frequency (0.1×f n =400

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EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SOLAR DRYER WITH A BACKUP INCINERATOR

EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SOLAR DRYER WITH A BACKUP INCINERATOR

The wind velocity (Va) was also measured. For the incinerator drying, same experiment was repeated and the same parameters were measured. The incinerator drying was loaded in a shield[r]

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Influence of Measured Scattering Parameters on the Convolution Simulation of Nonlinear Loaded High-Speed Microstrip Interconnects

Influence of Measured Scattering Parameters on the Convolution Simulation of Nonlinear Loaded High-Speed Microstrip Interconnects

a physically longer microstrip line interconnects. Finally, Fig. 5 shows the convolution simulation responses for the ε r = 3.0 microstrip line interconnects, once again when the measured scattering parameters (red) and those obtained from the closed-form formulas (blue, and green for a one a half time shorter interconnects) are used. As can be seen from this figure, the red and green traces differ once more from the green one but now the differences are dramatically augmented clearly showing that the S-parameter closed-form formulas fail when wideband simulations are involved.

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Statistical Analysis of Surface Roughness Parameters for
    Weft Knitted Fabrics Measured by the Textile Surface
    Tester (TST)

Statistical Analysis of Surface Roughness Parameters for Weft Knitted Fabrics Measured by the Textile Surface Tester (TST)

Samples were produced with jersey structure medium densities by using a 7 gauge knitting machine. Yarn was of 50/50 cotton/acrylic and had a count (C) of C1=125 tex and C2=150 tex. Two levels of the machine tension, 3.6 and 4.6, were taken into account for the manufacturing of the samples on the knitting machine. The loop length (L) of the knitted fabric was measured according to the French standard NF G 07-101 (June 1971) to determine the unit loop length. Two values of the loop length were calculated (L1=0.78 cm and L2=0.92 cm). For each sample the measurement was carried out on the two sides; the upper face (UF) and the back face (BF). In calculation, UF and BF are replaced by 1 and 2 respectively. So we obtain the levels of the three structural factors; Face, L and C. The other three factors are related to the test conditions as shown below.
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Efficacy of Seratrodast, a Thromboxane A2 Receptor Inhibitor in a Double Blind Comparative Clinical Trial with Monteluklast

Efficacy of Seratrodast, a Thromboxane A2 Receptor Inhibitor in a Double Blind Comparative Clinical Trial with Monteluklast

Methods: Patients (n=205) with mild to moderate asthma continuing on the lowest dose of inhaled corticosteroid were recruited from 3 different centers across India. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either seratrodast 80 mg (n=103) or montelukast 10 mg (n=102) once daily for 28 days. The treatments were compared for improvement from the baseline values, as per the changes in asthma symptom score (wheezing, shortness of breath, expectoration, cough and chest tightness), lung function parameters (PEF, FVC and FEV 1 ), sputum and mucociliary
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