It is advantageous for parentinvolvement/family engagement programs to include community agencies and resources in the loop with the home-family environment and the school. These three entities—home environment, school environment, and community agencies and resources—are akin to a three-legged stool in the context of maximizing benefits for children. The program functions best, and children gain the most, when all three legs are equal and effective in doing their part, as is the case with meaningful home-school-community partnerships (Bartz, Collins-Ayanlaja,& Rice, 2017, p. 4).Epstein and Sheldon (2016) label this phenomenon as theory of overlapping sphere of influence. They observe that some educators “Still hold the old view that family engagement is about the parents and that it is up to parents to get involved—or not—in their children’s education. This view omits the concept of partnership and ignores the benefits of a strong agreement among educators, parents, and policy leaders that education is a shared responsibility of home, school, and community” (p. 216). In the context of home-family-school partnerships, Epstein (2011) states that “Community includes the family and the school [including self], and it extends to the neighborhood, the city or township, and all of society. The vastness of the term means every school, district, or state must identify its community and design productive connections that will strengthen the school programs, assist families and students, and advance the interest of the community”(p. 611).When school personnel view community in this context, resources for enhancing children’s education are rich and fluid. Big Brothers and Big Sisters, YMCAs, Parks and Recreation Departments, 4-H clubs, libraries, museums, business sponsorships, mentoring resources, church facilities for after school and weekend programs, service clubs, professional sororities and fraternities, and universities’ services are some of a plethora of resources available. The understanding and utilization of the available resources within a community will aid in the child’s overall educational experience.
Despite the wealth of literature on the relationship between parentinvolvement and academic achievement, little research explicitly examines how parentinvolvement affects student attitudes and behaviors, thereby translating into improved academic performance. This question has been posed by several researchers in the past two decades (i.e. Bierman 1996; Coleman 1991; Epstein 1992; Hill et al. 2004; Muller 1995), although it has received very little empirical attention. One of the very few studies that might be able to shed light on this issue is that by Hill and her colleagues (2004).Their ability to answer this question, however, is limited. While the researchers include measures of parentinvolvement as reported by the teacher, parent and child, they do not distinguish between the various types of involvement – which previous research has clearly established is essential given different types of involvement have different effects on adolescent behavior and achievement. Hus , the best summary is that previous research has in essence realized that there are key mediating mechanisms that translate some forms of parentinvolvement into gains in some forms of achievement for some kids, but
During the Clinton administration, precisely within the passage of Goals 2000: Educate America Act, funds were distributed to schools to address parental involvement, towards the establishment and building of partnerships with parents in an effort to promote the social, emotional, and academic growth of a child (Goals 2000: Educate American Act, 1993).Various programs were also put into place in order to help develop the relationships with parents, create stronger communication pathways, and provide opportunities for parents to have an active role in their children’s education. Finally No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 brought forth other obligations upon K-12 schools that were intended to have a direct effect on the means schools take to improve children’s academic achievement. The legislation also mandated that schools have written parental involvement policies and programs. All schools receiving Title I funds are “responsible for holding parent meetings to discuss parentinvolvement strategies and for helping parents to better understand school standards, assessments, and report cards“ (Ji & Koblinsky, 2009, p.688). The act also requires schools to conduct annual evaluations of parental involvement programs to determine the extent and potential barriers that prevent or hinder parents’ participation (No Child Left Behind, 2002). The imposed mandates on schools have forced schools to reconsider how and in what ways parental involvement can be addressed and increased within their districts.
Catholic ParentInvolvement Committee parent members to attend the World Meeting of Families with Pope Francis in Philadelphia from September 22, 2015 to September 27, 2015, through the Diocese of St. Catharines package, with an approximate total cost of $2500.00 Canadian for two (2) participants, which includes the WFM Congress Registration, and 5 nights hotel
Epstein  suggested a model of partnership between families and schools showing three overlapping spheres of impact with regard to students’ learning: family, schools, and community. Epstein  showed six types of parentinvolvement: (1) Parenting, (2) Communicating, (3) Volunteering, (4) Learning at home, (5) Decision making, and (6) Collaborating with community. Parenting activities refer to parental support at home that supports the child’s success at school. Communicating pertains to communication about school programs and the student’s academic progress and achievement between home-school and school-home. Newsletters from the school, telephone conversations between parent and teacher, parent-teacher conferences and other such activities embedded in this group. Volunteering activities refer to involve families as volunteer participants in programs. Learning at Home procedures support homework and curricular-linked involvement. Decision making activities is include parents as collaborative partners. Hebel  in the process of collaborating with community, parents looking for reinforce school programs via links with other organizations. Epstein  also suggested an important instruction for conceptualizing parent-teacher collaboration and communication in IEP process. Epstein  showed that when a teacher listens to parent’s dilemma and is able to obtain constructive collaborative outcomes, the parents are able to have strong impact in their children’s education achievement. Additionally, parental assistance of a child's education is an important issue in student academic achievement . Useful collaboration with parents can be facilitated children’s educational achievements Epstein . Epstein  demonstrated that the collaboration between parent and teacher may predict higher student
The Center on Family, School, and Community Partnerships at Johns Hopkins University, have developed a useful framework of six types of parentinvolvement. Epstein (1990, 1996) proposed six types of parentinvolvement, mainly focusing on the collaboration between the home and school environments. These six types are the most widely recognized and cited in the literature (Hoover- Dempsey & Sandler, 1995). It shows how parentinvolvement is frequently broken down and defined. Many researchers used some variation of this framework. Some researchers condensed this list into parentinvolvement at home and at school, using definitions like engaging in learning activities at home, including helping with reading skills and checking homework, supervising children and monitoring how they spend their time out of school, talking about school and what children are learning, attending school events, going to parent-teacher conferences, and meeting with teachers, and volunteering in the classroom or school (Jeynes, 2003).
Although the barriers to parentinvolvement corresponded to those identified in other studies, without a much larger sample size from each school it remains unknown whether the perceived barriers and enablers noted here reflect that of the whole parent body. Additionally, as already stated, the perceptions noted under each of the five main categories pertain to the same small sample population, thus, they may not reflect the views of the greater parent body of either school. Regardless of this limitation, the findings were very similar across the two schools in this study, and thus provide a level of confidence that the data are representative of the nature and extent of parentinvolvement in PBL, and more widely across these schools, that existed at that time. A greater number of schools from a more diverse demographic area may have shown different or more complex findings. However, it was not possible to undertake such a project given the time needed to access numerous sites and complete the extensive data collection and analysis that such a study would have required.
Although growing, the literature about homeschooling is extremely limited. One descriptive article defined homeschooling as “educating children under the supervision of parents instead of school teachers” (Lines, 2002, p. 1). Lines raised questions of whether the same children would perform better or worse academically in a classroom than at home, but stated that with the information available, it is difficult to draw any conclusions. One reason for this is that there is a lack of reliable data due to the voluntary nature of achievement testing for homeschool students. The largest study to date (Rudner, 1999) utilized the results of tests taken by homeschool students across the nation with a sample size of 20,760 students in grades K-12. He reported that homeschool students scored higher than their public school peers did on standardized tests. How- ever, the results of this survey were based upon voluntary participation and may not reflect the true situation. In the study, Rudner stated that homeschool parents are, by definition, heavily involved in their children’s education but the same, unfortunately, is not true of all public or private school parents. This statement influenced our study, in that it led us to question whether public school students have levels of achievement comparable to that of homeschool students when a perception of high levels of parentinvolvement exists.
The contents of Chapter 2 are necessary for understanding this study. In this chapter is the conceptual framework of Joyce Epstein’s overlapping spheres of influence, which extends Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. The chapter includes how Epstein’s work relates to this study. The history behind the need for parentinvolvement is based on the ideology of past pioneers like Addams, Froebel, and Pestalozzi, who contributed to many of the strategies we use today. The chapter discusses how parentinvolvement has no communal definition or perception. The types of parentinvolvement discussed are school-based, home-based, community-based, and parent teacher communication. The contents of this chapter explain the definition of academic achievement as it relates to parentinvolvement. It is important that the reader understands that schools struggle because the parent and school have different interpretations of the term and unique family circumstances can cause barriers. This chapter identifies the dynamics of the military family and military parents’ struggle to be more involved in their child’s education. Therefore, the reader is introduced to the unique characteristics of the military family, the structure of the United States Army ranking system, and what makes an elementary school military affiliated.
The academic achievement gap between some racial-ethnic minority and White racial groups in U.S. schools is a well-documented phenomenon in educational research and a primary focal point of political discourse and education reform (Stiefel, Schwartz, & Chellman, 2007). Literature documenting differences in academic achievement has found that on a number of indicators, including standardized tests, dropout rates, and GPA, White and Asian students tend to outperform Hispanic and African-American students (Han & Palloni, 2009). Controlling for factors such as SES, family composition, and school resources, considerably decreases the initial gap but does not eliminate differences by race and ethnicity (Han & Palloni; Stiefel, Schwartz, & Ellen, 2007). Efforts at closing the racial achievement gap have increasingly focused on the role of parentinvolvement in children’s academics among racial-ethnic minority and immigrant families. Although parentinvolvement has generally been linked to achievement for all children (Domina 2005; Fan & Chen, 2001; Jeynes, 2003; Lahaie, 2008) and has been found to vary among ethnic-racial groups (Fan, 2001; Lee & Bowen, 2006), few studies have empirically tested whether varying levels of parentinvolvement helps to account for the racial-ethnic achievement gap.
In this present study, according to the findings obtained by French participants, it was found that those who usually involve in decision-making are the parents whose students have high levels of achievements in schools and it can be argued that parentinvolvement partially depend on parents‟ socio-economic levels and their own educational experiences in the past. This finding concurs well with (Epstein, 1995; Fan & Chen, 2001; Sheldon, 2002) and also is confirmed by the study conducted by Welsch and Zimmer (2008) and is revealing that the educational levels of the families, the occupational and monthly incomes, and the socio-economic levels are positively associated with involvement in education. In this present study, it was confirmed that the previous experiences of parents play an important role in involving in decision-making processes. This lends support to previous findings in the literature. For example, the findings of Thuba, Kathuri and Mariene (2017) as well as Avvisati, Besbas and Guyon (2010) go so fairly well with this paper that parents‟ involvement in decision-making is shaped according to their own experiences. Basaran and Yildirim (2017) investigated the effects of parents‟ own school experiences on students‟ attitudes towards school and academic achievements and found that there was no relation between their parents' attitudes towards the school, academic achivements of students and exam scores. As an explanation for this situation, it can be suggested that in the study conducted by Basaran and Yildirim (2017), the sample consisted of high school students and this sample group may have been affected the findings in that the more students get older, the more they tend to be dependent to their parents in educational processes, and therefore they can take their own decisions. Additionally, there are studies in the literature in step with this finding and they show that family involvement is directly related to the academic achievement of the students and parents‟ own school experiences, as well. In a study conducted in France, it was determined that the parents allocate an average of 19 hours a day in primary school, 14 hours in junior high school and 6 hours in junior high school for activities and decisions related to the education of their children. (INSEE, 1994;2003). Räty (2003, 2007, 2010) investigated the reflections of parents‟ own school experiences to the children‟s early education and determined that parents‟ previous experiences have a direct relationship with academic achievements and attitudes of children.
that support student success (Part a, 2, B). Punitive measures of NCLB have since made educators and parents skeptical about the intention and value for many students (Gay, 2007). In addition, parentinvolvement has proven to be especially difficult at the middle school level in various areas including: large and complex school size, considerable number of students providing a challenge for teachers to build relationships with all students, and curricular choices that make connecting with teachers about specific subjects difficult (Hill & Tyson, 2009). Nevertheless, this policy’s emphasis on parentinvolvement is not unreasonable because several decades’ worth of education and family research supports the conclusion that parental and family involvement in school is advantageous for children of all ages (Map, Johnson, Strickland, & Meza, 2008; Mena, 2011; Pomerantz, Moorman, & Litwack, 2007). Parental involvement is positively related to achievement in middle school (Hill & Tyson, 2009).
This dissertation describes a research project that examined parentinvolvement in schools as influenced by servant leadership. Student achievement, as well as parent and family involvement, is largely influenced by leadership styles (Fullan, 1998, Thoonan, Sleegers, Oort, Pettsma, & Geijesel, 2011). Although various influences on parentinvolvement have been suggested in research, including student demographics and state and district policy and school structure, the undercurrent of organizational leadership continues to remain hidden (MacNeil, Prater, & Busch, 2009). Strategies to increase parentinvolvement in schools have fallen short and relationships between administrators, educators and parents requires investigation, and new approaches must be created to increase trust and respect between these parties (Choo & Shek, 2013; Epstein & Sheldon, 2016; Hargreaves & Fullan, 2012; Louis & Lee, 2016; Marschall & Shah, 2014; Daly, Moolenaar, Liou & Tuytens, 2015). “A servant-leader focuses primarily on the growth and well-being of people and the communities to which they belong. While traditional leadership generally involves the accumulation and exercise of power by one at the “top of the pyramid,” servant leadership is different. The servant-leader shares power, puts the needs of others first and helps people develop and perform as highly as possible”
The study sought to establish investigate the strategies that enhance parentinvolvement on performance of Early Childhood Education in Kisii, Nyamira and Homabay counties. The study was based on Epstein‟s theory of overlapping spheres of influence. This study employed a convergent parallel design. Data was collected from 223 respondents who included parents, head teachers, ECD teachers and programme officers from the three counties. The respondents were sampled using probability and non- probability sampling procedures. Questionnaires, interview guide and observation schedules were used to collect primary data. A pilot test was conducted in five schools in Kisii South Sub-County to assess validity of the research instruments whereas split half method used to ascertain the reliability of questionnaire, dependability and credibility determined the reliability of interview guide. Quantitative data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics while qualitative data was analyzed thematically. From the findings, collaboration with community strategy contributed the highest percentage to the performance of Early Childhood Education followed by communication from school and to school, decision-making and volunteering. The study recommended that is necessary that parents track their children‟s academic progress by consulting with the teachers and checking the report books.
The two-step regression models provided some insight into the types of variables that may lead to improved levels of parentinvolvement. The results demonstrated that in order to increase parents’ participation to school meetings, the school background (rural location, small size, higher poverty levels, Roma ethnicity) is nearly as important as the activity of parents’ organizations. In smaller schools and in schools located in rural areas, parent participation in school meetings seems to be higher, probably because smaller communities of parents tend to be more united. On the other hand, parents who do not have a regular income and parents who belong to the Roma minority are less willing to participate in school meetings, probably because, although poverty and social disadvantage have a serious impact on parenting, perceived deficits in families are likely to make parents feel powerless and perhaps less capable of building productive bonds with professionals (Hartas, 2008). Here, satisfactory parents’ organizations’ activity is associated with higher parent participation in school meetings, perhaps because these organizations function as social networks for parents and motivate them to get involved.
Across all regions, 84% of educators noted students expressing concerns about immigration enforcement issues at school and 70% of both administrators and certificated staff reported academic decline and increased absenteeism among immigrant students. The investigators also found that parentinvolvement has declined out of parents’ fear of leaving the home and fear that the schools could be cooperating with immigration officers. These findings are especially troubling considering that, in addition to living with the common stressors that non-immigrant families experience, immigrant students and families also face the psychological challenges that come with migration and acculturation. An increase in stress could have unforeseen effects in predominantly immigrant communities and in society in general. Furthermore, additional academic decline and increased absenteeism in communities where academic achievement and attendance were already low could aggrandize existing achievement gaps and possibly increase the percentage of EL students dropping out of school. Unfortunately, despite the fact that 88% of the educators surveyed by Gándara & Ee (2018) recognized a need on the part of schools to address these issues in community forums, relatively few schools have actually done so (Gándara & Ee, 2018).
developmentally appropriate and targeted to the most prevalent and harmful drugs. Drug education can also be more meaningful and relevant to students if it is responsive to the developmental, gender, language, socioeconomic and lifestyle concerns of the target group. Parentinvolvement in school drug education programs enhances communication between parents and schools, which helps to identify and address student needs. Schools are more likely to provide relevant and responsive drug education if students, staff, families and the broader community work together. For this to be most effective, schools need to be positive toward parentinvolvement and be aware of the benefits for themselves and their students, as well as the parents.
The purpose of this chapter is to provide a foundation for the current study by reviewing the relevant literature supporting this work and gaps in the literature. The chapter begins with a discussion of the educational status of Spanish-speaking Latinx youth in the United States, with a particular focus on educational inequities and family contexts among Latinx immigrant students. I review conceptualizations of culture and cultural responsiveness as they relate to the field of school psychology and suggest that culturally responsive parentinvolvement efforts can be used to address racial and cultural disparities in education. I also share examples of multicultural research that convey an essentialist view of culture, (i.e., the belief that each culture is separated by boundaries that clearly differentiate it from other cultures; Grillo, 2003), and discuss the need to acknowledge the limits of cultural knowledge with respect for intra-cultural diversity. I then review Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler’s (2005) model of parentinvolvement in education and summarize the research related to this model that has been conducted with culturally diverse families, including Latinx families. The chapter concludes with a summary and review of gaps in the research that set the precedent for the study.
These workshops will have a positive impact on the agency. Reason why, because the workshops will bring the parents and students to participate together, therefore, there will a small change in the parentinvolvement participation in the agency. Moreover, the need of this program was determined by my mentor, me, and Patricia. After constantly meeting with students and seeing how they have such low grades a concern feeling grew inside of me. I would ask students if their parents asked me about their homework or participated in their education by attending meetings or events and sadly most said no. I became more concern about what was going on and why weren’t parents being involved when they’re the main key to their kids’ education.
Abstract Parentinvolvement has an influence on children’s educational engagement for all school levels. The objective of this study was to examine public school principals' and teachers' practices for improving parentinvolvement in schooling. This study used a mixed method to identify the school administrators’ and teachers’ perceptions about parentinvolvement in schooling. Data was collected from 64 public schools' administrators and teachers of elementary, middle and high schools. Six hundred and sixty one (55%) of surveys returned from 28 elementary schools, 27 middle schools, and 9 high schools. Data was analyzed with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). For qualitative part, phenomenological research method was used to investigate principals' and teachers' experiences to promote parentinvolvement. Findings indicated that school levels and teachers' education levels had a statistically significant impact on combined factors of parentinvolvement. No significant differences were found in parentinvolvement among principals and teachers who are from different major, gender, and seniority groups. This study showed that educator' attitudes is the most significant factor on parental involvement in schooling. Additionally, this study claimed when principals offer different time schedule for parent and teacher meetings, parentinvolvement is increased. One of parents is selected by Parent Teacher Organization for each grade so parents might use social media for all of meetings, offers, events, and announcements.