Our findings illustrate a dose-response relationship be- tween NSCH-ACEs and a child’s parent-perceived resili- ence, as measured by self-regulation—the greater the number of ACEs, the lower the probability of resilience, even after controlling for a number of child, family, and neighborhood factors. We also identify potentially modi- fiable family and community factors independently asso- ciated with resilience, such as families sharing ideas together and living in a neighborhood with multiple amenities. While many studies focus on ACEs and long-term health in adults, few studies have linked ACEs and parent perceptions of resilience in childhood. Resili- ence is an important factor to investigate, as it has been examined as a protective factor in the development of both anti-social behavior  and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) [33–35] and is also an important factor in the relationship between emotional neglect and psychiatric symptoms [36, 37]. Our study aligns with existing literature and further elucidates the relationship of ACEs with resilience development and key resilience-promoting community and family-level factors [3, 37]. This study extends knowledge about ACEs by examining a positive outcome, such as resilience. Focus- ing on resilience in children may serve as important starting place for the development of effective interven- tions in childhood to mitigate ACEs.
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improve ADHD (45%), and that med- ication is of little bene ﬁ t when the child reaches adolescence or adulthood (47%). On a 4-point Likert scale, parents reported, on average, a medication willingness score of 2.8 (SD: 0.6) and a counseling willingness score of 3.1 (SD: 0.6). The distribution frequencies of the parent responses to the individual survey items that comprise these composite perception variables are summarized in Supplemental Table 4. Parent perceptions of care did not vary by care sector contact group, with the exception of medication willingness. For the 2 follow-up time intervals, ﬁ ndings from the bivariate analyses examining how the independent varia- bles varied by no care versus in care and by staying in primary care versus any specialty mental health care are summarized in Supplemental Tables 5 and 6.
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There was poorer agreement in the physical domain at baseline or when the impact of pain was at it’s most prevalent, however there was good agreement in the three other domains at this time point. The difference in agreement between child and parent for the physical do- main at baseline may be the reason why there was an average pain duration of 10.8 months prior to seeking medical intervention. Agreement in the physical domain improved in line with the improvement of symptoms over the 12 months. The school and emotional domains were observed to have fluctuating levels of agreement across the 12 month period but there was consistent moderate to good agreement over the 12 months. The footwear domain (single item) was noted to have signifi- cantly different agreement across the 12 month period in comparison to the other domains. It was observed the level of agreement between child and parent deteriorated from moderate to poor post intervention. The parents reported calcaneal apophysitis had a higher impact on footwear choice particularly at the first one and two months of the trial. One of the interventions within this trial was the provision of athletic footwear and this
skills. The study sought to answer the following research question, what are the perceptions among ESL parents regarding the use of educational mobile applications to help ESL elementary school students develop their language skills? To answer these question, I utilized a questionnaire with ESL parents at Unity Point Elementary School in Carbondale, Illinois. I also conducted in-depth interviews with eight ESL parents from Unity Point School. Statistical analysis of the quantitative data involved both descriptive and inferential statistics. According to Howell (2012), descriptive statistics are important because they help the researcher summarize, organize, and present the data in a meaningful way. In this study, I used measures of central tendency (e.g., mean), frequency and percentage, distributions, and dispersion measures (e.g., range and standard deviation). Then I presented the data in tables (Gliner et al., 2009). Howell (2012) also stated that inferential statistics help researchers make inferences or come to conclusions about the target population. Some of the inferential statistics I used in the survey data analysis included analysis of variance (ANOVA), Levene’s test for equality of variances, using educational mobile applications in the teaching and learning process, and educational mobile applications and language acquisition, I used five responses (strongly disagree, disagree, undecided, agree, and strongly agree). For positive items in the survey, I coded the responses accordingly: strongly disagree = 1, disagree = 2, undecided = 3, agree = 4, and strongly agree = 5; and for negative items, I used reverse codes accordingly: strongly disagree = 5, disagree = 4, undecided = 3, agree = 2, and strongly agree = 1.
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Several suggestions for information and written materials to facilitate communication and understanding were offered: (1) provide a clear, simple de ﬁ nition of ASD; (2) address and/or dispel some of the negative beliefs and stigma associated with ASD and provide a hopeful message about the long-term course; (3) explain the diagnostic process; and (4) provide descriptions of potential interventions that may be appropriate for the child. In addition to offering this information as early as possible, parents suggested that it be presented within the context of an in-person conversation that includes other key family members instead of relying exclusively on written documents. Parents also suggested that PCPs and EI providers use a culturally sensitive lens and spend time better understanding each family ’ s viewpoints and existing perceptions about ASD (eg, potential cultural stigma).
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I intend in this section to make myself visible so the reader can gain an understanding of who I am as the researcher and the influences I bring to this study (Creswell & Miller, 2000; Merrick, 1999). Conducting qualitative research allows me to become the instrument in the study and as such, I would like to identify and acknowledge the biases, assumptions and experiences I bring to this research project that may influence how I conduct the study and interpret the data. I position myself from three perspectives: gender, personal experience and professional experience. I am a woman who views the world from a woman‟s unique perspective, meaning that my perspective reflects my everyday life experiences (Smith, 1987), yet does not represent all women: each person brings their individual story. I am a parent of two children with whom I have shared the joys and challenges of co- parenting with my partner and father of the children for many years. Additionally, I have enjoyed the benefits and privileges of a two parent family during my childhood.
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results, the intent of this survey was to capture the views of a population of already established PR patients in the Upper Midwest and to demonstrate how such views might be used, in conjunction with the literature and other objective measures, to inform thinking about care expansion. It is possible that the preference for current care at our center could be due to our sampling and/or inexperience with the other care modalities. Survey results were not intended to preclude use of other care modalities but to highlight the importance of knowing where current preferences lie, to understand where there may be resistance to care expan- sion, and to appreciate factors which might make expan- sion of alternative care models more acceptable. It is important to note that the entirety of factors which contrib- ute to parent perceptions of care cannot be captured in a single survey. To more completely understand parent per- ceptions, it will be helpful in future studies to also include qualitative methods. Additionally, given limited experience with telemedicine among respondents in our survey, it will be useful to also assess telemedicine perceptions at a clinic where patients are more familiar with this modality. This, too, could include qualitative methods to identify themes around telemedicine acceptance and/or hesitation.
Despite having significant anxieties, research consistently demonstrates that most parents do not make explicit plans for the future (Taggart et al., 2012). Failure to plan for the future may lead to a crisis situation, when a parent dies and the person with ID is moved to new accommodation (Bowey & McGlaughlin, 2007). Thompson and Wright’s (2001) report highlights how crisis management can compound the trauma of bereavement through inappropriate placement, with long-term consequences on quality of life.
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A series of hierarchical regressions were conducted to test the question of whether or not the associations between young adults’ coping behaviors and their perceptions of their parents’ coping behaviors and suggestions would vary by young adults’ schemas about their parents. Specifically, these models included the covariate of gender (dummy coded; 0 = male, 1 = female) entered in step 1, followed by the respective parent schema (e.g., schema of mother) entered in step 2 and then the respective parent coping variables (e.g., mothers’ coping behaviors) entered in step 3. Then, the interaction term (parent coping behavior or suggestion X parent schema) was entered in step 4. To reduce multicollinearity, all IVs were centered (Aiken & West, 1991). The interaction terms were created as products of the centered predictor variables. Significant interactions were probed by calculating and plotting simple slopes at ± SD from the mean of the moderator (Aiken & West, 1991) and the region of significance for simple slopes was calculated using the computational tools provided online by Paul Jose (2008). Finally, because of the large number of regressions necessary to fully explicate the goals of this particular aim, specifically 18 for parents’ coping behaviors and 18 for parents’ coping suggestions, only tests that met a p-value of .025 or less were considered.
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Written informed consent was obtained for subjects prior to screening. Upon screening and prior to intro- duction to the new disposable pen (Visit 1), parent–child dyads completed Section I of the IPAQ to assess their opinion/view regarding the ease of using their current reusable pen. Next, subjects and caregivers were instructed in the proper use of the new disposable pen and were asked to use the new pen for two months. A telephone follow-up contact (Visit 2) occurred at day 7 to assess safety and address any subject questions. After two months of using the new disposable pen, dyads were asked to return to the clinic to complete Sections I and II of the IPAQ (Visit 3) regarding their experience with the new disposable pen (i.e., ease of use and preference for a specific injection pen, respectively). Instructions on questionnaire completion were provided to all dyads by trained personnel.
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Approvals were obtained from the Ministry of Education in Kuwait and RMIT University in Australia prior to commencement of this study. Twelve public schools were selected randomly (6 boy and 6 girl schools). Approvals were than obtained from the school principals. The researcher visited each school and met with the school principals and teachers to further inform them of the protocols of the study and to identify a convenient time to collect data as suggested by the teachers and the school principals. A total of 960envelopes were distributed to the students aged 11-14 years (480 boys and 480 girls) attending the 12 randomly selected schools to take home. The envelope contained the parents’ information sheets written in plain language explaining the study, consent forms that needed to be signed by the parent and two questionnaires, one for the parent and one for the students to be completed. The signed consent forms and the completed questionnaires were returned by the students the next day. All students who had the signed consent forms and the completed questionnaires were directed to the researcher who checked that all documents were complete and then directed the students to another classroom where the nurses were waiting to perform their measurements.
There are many that may feel this form of violence is unimagined given the implied power structures in the bulk of intra-familial relationships (Pagani et al., 2004). To obtain as accurate a figure as possible when considering the frequency of CPV, the primary focus of this research into CPV looks to examine perceptions of the predominant gender of offender and victims, studied across four forms of aggression in CPV (Jackson, 2003; Cottrell & Monk, 2004; Gallagher, 2004; Hunter, Nixon & Parr, 2010). As an example Gallagher (2004) would posit that his research is indicative of CPV being encompassed by many contextual circumstances, which stretch beyond conceptions of power and control that are generally associated with IFV and IPV theories. Similarly, much research and literature has its ideological origins in feminist based research theory (e.g., Downey, 1997; Cottrell, 2001; Jackson, 2003; Ulman & Strauss, 2003; Cottrell & Monk, 2004; Edenborough et al., 2008; Howard & Rottem, 2008), rooted deeply in the premises determined by Dobash and Dobash (1979; 2004). Much research, generally that of a quantitative nature (Kratcoski, 1985; Ibabe et al., 2013, 2014; Calvete et al., 2014), has strong foundations in seeking empirical evidence interpreted in line with scientific method, as opposed to dogmatic ideological belief, that clearly allows for any research in CPV to be conducted from a position that is less inhibited
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Interestingly our findings coincide with the key attri- butes of parent-nurse partnership identified in a concept analysis of family-centered pediatric care; namely parent autonomy and control, shared responsibility for decision- making and caregiving, and negotiation about care . This suggests that family-centered care could facilitate NICU parent-infant closeness. From Canadian and Finnish nurses’ perspective, fundamental actions that par- ents engaged in to promote and balance closeness were acting autonomously and playing an active role in decision-making. On the other hand, nurses balanced closeness by supporting parents to act autonomously in caregiving. For decades, studies have consistently docu- mented the stress NICU parents experience due to restric- tion of their parental role and its adverse effects on the parent-infant relationship [16, 46]. In contrast, when par- ents care for their newborn as they expected to do so if the infant had been born at term this promotes a sense of normality, fosters closeness , and promotes parental well-being and competence [15, 46, 51].
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may contribute to differences in reports of relationship quality for both teachers and children. For example, teachers reported that they maintained more positive relationships with children (mean age = 4 years, range = 37 to 83 months) of their same race (Saft & Pianta, 2001). Children’s racial and economic backgrounds are associated with how teachers perceive their relationships with children. Teachers tend to report more conflicts with African American children (Saft & Pianta, 2001), while also reporting closer relationships with Caucasian children (Ladd, Birch, & Buhs, 1999). In addition, Caucasian teachers with high concentrations of African American children tended to report a higher degree of burden for helping them adjust to a school (Rimm-Kaufman, Pianta, Cox, & Bradley, 2000). However, in another study, the teacher-child racial match did not affect children’s perceptions about their relationships with their teachers (Murray et al., 2008). Although individual factors likely do not determine the quality of the teacher-child relationship, paying attention to individual factors at the teacher and child level may be important to understanding variation in how these relationships established and maintained.
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145 Parents and EPs did not seem to describe views which particularly conflicted with each other; however, they did give some different responses to similar topics of discussion. When explaining what makes a dual educational placement effective or challenging, parents suggested a negative attitude towards inclusion from teaching staff whereas EPs highlighted how the placement is organised. An additional benefit from a mainstream placement noted by parents was that they perceived that staff have higher expectations of their child and that this acts as a motivational force. Further benefits suggested by parents were that, at an alternative placement, their child was among peers with whom they may have more in common, as well as the attitude of staff that they can cope with their child‟s needs. An additional challenge expressed by EPs about the mainstream aspect of the dual educational placement was the possibility that, despite being physically present, the child may not be fully socially integrated into a mainstream placement and, therefore, would feel excluded even if they were present. There were differences identified between the key reasons suggested for pursuing this type of placement. Parents stated that a main reason for this had been to keep their child‟s options open in terms of having the opportunity to succeed in either environment and informing their future placement decisions. EPs described that a dual educational placement may be sought when a parent is in a transition period of accepting their child‟s SEN. The final difference between parents‟ and EPs‟ data was their suggestions for future improvements. Parents focused on doing more of what they identified as currently working: increasing communication and ensuring there is a collaborative relationship between the two schools and parents. EPs proposed a few practical suggestions, some of which are likely to have the outcome of increasing communication and a collaborative relationship between the two placements. Secondly, EPs proposed that further research into the area of dual educational placement would be necessary to deliver an evidence-based practice.
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Zaidman-Zait (2008) asked an open-ended question regarding the everyday problems encountered when parenting a child with a CI. Parent responses (N = 31) were based upon experiences with 28 deaf children ranging in age from 12 months to 13 years (M = 6.32 years). The mean age of implantation was 3.53 years. All children received audiology and speech- language therapy services in the first year post-implantation. Parents submitted 137 problem descriptions that Zaidman-Zait and a colleague analyzed for content and organized into nine domains. The nine domains cited in the study were: (a) implant drawbacks, (b) communication difficulties, (c) child’s behavior and character, (d) socialization, (e) habilitation demands and parenting roles, (f) financial difficulties, (g) services, (h) educating others and/or advocacy, and (i) academic concerns. These domains are also represented in the findings of other researchers, and serve as a good outline of challenges and needs of parents of children with CIs. The results of the
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While investigating determinants of parent`s satisfaction with the quality of pre-primary education in Ilala District, Tanzania, Libent (2015) employed a descriptive survey design, where 829 parents with children in pre-schools were used for the study. Data was collected using a four-point likert scale questionnaire. After data analysis, the findings revealed that parents considered several factors in order to conclude that the pre-school education met their quality criteria. For instance, the quality of education in preschools was majorly dependent on the quality of learning environment, which depended on the physical environment, interactions, and resources. Therefore, quality dimensions was an important factor that parents considered as essential for pre-school environment before enrolling their children in preschools. This was echoed by Manyama and Lema (2017), who argued that quality of pre-school is considered by parents as an important aspect of pre-school education quality. However, the study focused on several determinants; hence parents’ perception of quality of environment did not feature significantly in the study. This was addressed in our study, where parents’ perceptions on quality has been addressed as an important variable. Further, the study did not put into consideration views of any other education stakeholders, yet such input would significantly increase the scope of responses.
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OBJECTIVE. There is considerable ethical and legal ambiguity surrounding the role of adolescents in the decision-making process for research participation. Depending on the nature of the study and the regulations involved, adolescents may have independent responsibility for providing informed consent, they may be asked to provide their assent, or they may be completely excluded from the decision- making process. This study examined parent and adolescent perceptions of deci- sion-making authority and sources of influence on adolescent research participa- tion decisions, and examined whether perceptions of influence differed based on adolescent gender and level of research risk.
The decision for children to participate in AST is a complex behaviour, so it is important to evaluate many different influences on this behaviour to fully understand the factors influencing children’s AST. There are countless reasons why children may choose to use AST based on their perceptions, and these studies are only able to evaluate a select few. The schools involved with the ASRTS program are all a part of a STP process. Results from this thesis identify areas which interventions should target in order to decrease children’s negative perceptions of barriers with the hope that this will increase children’s use of AST. After the baseline data collected for this thesis was completed, the schools then spend two or three years implementing school specific interventions. After this time, follow-up surveys occur, a process which has recently begun being collected over the last year. A comparison of baseline and follow-up data for these schools post intervention would provide invaluable insight into this form of AST intervention. As well, further research examining the evaluation of these intervention programs undertaken at these schools would provide valuable findings. Research completed with the stakeholders, community members, public health nurses, and school staff helping to implement these STP programs within the schools would provide powerful insight into the success, issues, and possibility of intervention strategy replication within different schools.
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and Feinberg (2010) and Kimani and Kombo (2010) indicated that, children are exposed to environmental variables that place them at risk for ant-social behavior like bullying. The findings were a reflection of anti- social behavior in U.S.A and Nakuru, Kenya and not Kakamega East Sub County, Kenya. Kiprop and Chepkilot (2011), noted that the role of parents in the life of the child was of paramount significance. They further observed that those who were involved in their children’s lives had a better understanding of what was acceptable and expected in school environment. According to the data at the Sub County Education Officer in Kakamega East Sub County (2011), there were 2500 students from single parenthood and 8196 students from dual parenthood students in secondary schools in Kakamega East Sub County. National Council of Churches of Kenya (2008) notes that the wave of students’ unrest sweeping across Kenyan schools is evidence of breakdown of social values and Kakamega East Sub County is not exceptional. With the available data pointing towards the existence of incidences of indiscipline within Kakamega East Sub County, it was important to find out the perceptions on the influence of single parenting on student discipline in secondary schools in the District. Table 1 shows cases of indiscipline for the last five years in Kakamega East Sub County.
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