The literature review suggests that PP, PE and PI may be interrelated. Russell (2003) suggests that expectations determine behavioural choices. According to Olsen et al. (1996) expectations can affect our beliefs, knowledge and experiences. While Vrey (1990) views perception as a process of sensing and finding meaning, these occur concurrently. This means that parents’ expectations may determine their involvement in IE. What they perceive and find meaning in would also influence their expectation and subsequent involvement. Also, there are some facilitators and inhibitors to PI. Finally demographic variables of the parents (age, educational level, gender and having a child with SEN or not) can impact on their perception, expectation and involvement in IE. Based on the literature review, Figure 2-6 was developed based on the hypothesis that PP, PI and PE may be influenced by demographic variables in Ghana. Figure 2-6 gives an overview of the major areas of the literature review and the possible relationships that may exist between demographics variables and PP, PI and PE. Figure 2-6 will be further developed based on the research questions and will guide the development of the instruments for data collection (see Figure 4-1). Findings of the study will be used to bring changes to Figure 4-1. The new Figure will then be used for the discussion chapter (see Figure 7-1). The next chapter discusses the various methodologies used to research into PP, PE and PI in IE.
relationship with them. Despite the existence of these laws and educational discourses focused on “equal partnerships,” the literature on parents’ experiences with the special education system tells a different story; a body of research underscores the tensions between professionals and parents, and reveals many parents’ perceptions of uncertainty, disenfranchisement, confusion, or frustration as a result of navigating the system (e.g., Sauer, 2007; Soodak & Erwin, 2000; Wang et al., 2004). Some parents’ narratives indicate that they believe they are merely “tolerated” rather than viewed by professionals as partners in the decision- making process (e.g., Erwin & Soodak, 1995; Fish, 2006; 2008). They also reveal the extent to which many feel alienated from the system, hold beliefs that they are in adversarial relationships with professionals, or find that their vision for the education of their children is at odds with the opinions of professionals (Erwin & Soodak, 1995; Lalvani, 2012; Wang et al., 2004). Additionally, studies that explored the experiences of culturally diverse and low- income families suggest that expectations of collaboration may be inconsistent with, or collide with, the cultural belief systems of some families (Harry, 2008; Kalyanpur & Harry, 1999; Kalyanpur, Harry, & Skrtic, 2000) and that the establishment of mutual respect, trust, and understanding between these parents and professionals remains an elusive goal (e.g., Cho & Ganotti, 2005).
Institutional re-tooling should include an expanded understanding of educational involvement patterns in CLD families as well as an expanded definition of “family” (Souto-Manning & Swick, 2006). Unfortunately, over time and as a result of colonialism, the concept of family has become so narrow and un-inclusive that many CLD families must function within a system, in this case an educational system, that often contradicts their own values, creating a form of cognitive dissonance (Sachs, 2011, Souto-Manning, & Swick, 2006). Such is the case when schools and school teachers emphasize the nuclear family model of “parental involvement” where roles are limited as opposed to the more inclusive extended family model that incorporates whole “family involvement” as defined by each individual family (Souto-Manning & Swick, 2006). Whole family involvement might include teachers, support staff, and administrators. These are not just professionals who work for a district but rather important members of each child’s extended family constellation, all engaged in teaching and learning together for the betterment of the community, which ultimately benefits the child. This also ensures that teachers and families, districts and schools, all share equally in the responsibility of increasing cultural capital and leveraging resources in ways that benefit the entire group, the entire classroom, the entire district.
My interview style allowed for some flexibility; it was not so much the questions I asked, but how I asked them; I slightly re-phrased questions and used prompts to suit the less formal relationship we had formed since speaking on the phone. Oakley (1981) elaborates on the importance of the one-to-one relationship between interviewer and interviewee, the personal meanings inherent in each social interaction, and the advantages in terms of rapport of responding to interviewees’ questions within the interview (Opie 2004). By asking for their accounts, listening to their experiences and views, I was able to shed light on the social world of those who live and experience the phenomenon being studied. On some occasions I interviewed parents in their homes as some participants worked from home or preferred to be interviewed after work. This meant that I had to be aware of what was around me that could add value to their subjective descriptions of their lives (for example, books on the shelves and family photos) (Silverman 2006). Some preferred to talk over lunch in a quiet restaurant where the change of environment helped them to relax and talk at their own pace. Those who booked a meeting room at work were more conscious of time.
“In an Asian context, academic stress arising from adolescents’ self-expectations and expectations of others (e.g. parents and teachers) are particularly salient” (Ang & Huan, 2006b, p. 134). Such claim by Ang and Huan in 2006 was parallel with the findings of the study conducted by Goyette and Yu (1997) in the United States of America. The researchers found that “parental expectations play an important role in explaining the Asian-white gap for all ethnic groups and stand out as the only explanatory factor accounting for Southeast Asian students’ relatively high expectations” (p. 16). Also, Asakawa and Csikszentmihalyi (1998) found in their research that “Asian American adolescents’ academic motivation and future goals were strongly affected by their special feelings toward their parent” (p. 141).
In the mid 1990s, the Ministry of Education of Malaysia decided to integrate programmes for students with special needs into the national schools as part of a reform initiative. The Education Minister, Datuk Hishammudin Hussein mentioned in a local newspaper New Straits Times (2004), the needs for students with special needs would be catered for as he declared that education is every citizen’s right and he is determined to ensure everyone is given a fair share of educational prospects. This is also in line with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) which shows the Ministry’s effort to educate the community and inculcate positive attitudes towards people with disabilities thus making social unity possible within the community itself. It is also vital to increase public awareness on the rights of children and youth with disabilities to education at all levels. As such, schools face greater challenges to ensure that every child has an equal opportunity to education regardless of their physical or mental disabilities and meeting the demands of subdivision expectations (Jehl & Kirst, 1993; Hindlin, 2005).
involvement of parents, be investigated. A significant factor contributing to inadequate academic achievement and described in the literature is low student motivation (Eccles & Wigfield, 2000); low student motivation can eventually lead to a student dropping out of school. Some of the most common related issues that plague American high schools are low reading levels, math deficiencies, high dropout rates, and a lack of effective teachers (Fleischman, 2009). The Joint Committee on Performance Evaluation Expenditure Review (2012) which is an entity of the Mississippi state legislature reported that the Legislature appoint the Office of Dropout Prevention to collaborate with Mississippi’s public school districts to improve the graduation rate by 24.2% within fourteen years. This goal was specifically set to boost the graduation rate from 60.8% in 2004-2005 to 85% by 2018-2019. The number of 8th-grade students that gained scores at or above the proficiency level was, however, higher in 2011 than in 2009. The score gap between fourth grade students whose family incomes were high and low widened from 2003 to 2011 in seven states, Mississippi was not included in this score gap. At grade eight, Black-White score gaps decreased from 1998 to 2011 in only one out of thirty-one participating states, Delaware. Similarly, Hispanic-White score gaps decreased from 1998 to 2011 in only two out of twenty-two participating states, California and Oregon.
Participants consisted of students, as well as their teachers and parents, who were recruited from a medium sized school district in a community located in the lower southwestern region of Texas. This school district was selected based on its population of Hispanic students enrolled at each school. Particularly, as indicated from the Texas Education Agency (2011), in the 2010-2011 school year this school district had a total of 23 schools with a student enrollment of 14,731. Of the total number of students an overwhelming amount were Hispanic (97.1%). With regard to ELLs, the district was made up of 34.9% of students who were limited English proficient (LEP), while 32.9% were in bilingual education or English as a second language. In addition, a vast amount of students (86%) were economically disadvantaged. With regard to teachers, the majority of teachers (93.2%) were Hispanic, while 5.9% were White. From this school district, three groups of Hispanic Spanish-speaking ELL students in grades 2, 5, and 8, as well as the students’ parent and teacher, were recruited to participate in this study. These particular grade levels were selected by the researcher in order to account for differences noted at differing time points to determine if certain variables are of greater impact at particular grade levels given that the literature has not investigated this.
Parents of children with visual and physical disabilities are in favour of inclusive schools, as they recognise a positive change in their children’s development after joining the school. However, parents of mentally retarded children, although satisfied with the performance of their children and the attitude of teachers and friends, feel that special schooling would be better for their children. They feel that their children’s pace of learning is not similar to that of other children. According to the president of the School Management Committee, there is still a lot to do to help the implementation of inclusiveeducation. Laws and regulations should ensure that school facilities address the needs of children with disabilities. Teachers have to be given training on the identification of disabilities among children. They also need training in the use of appropriate language and teaching methods for communicating with and evaluating these children.
This school runs from Class 1 to A levels, and follows the curriculum prepared by the Oxford University and Sindh Textbook Board. The curriculum for children with special needs is modified according to the needs of an individual and the type of disability. The classroom teacher, under the guidance of a mentor who is professionally qualified, makes the modifications. These modifications generally relate to the selection and presentation of the content for teaching, and the assessment of the student. Books issued by the Sindh Textbook Board are modified for children with special needs. There is no specific curriculum for these children. The pace of teaching is slower in the inclusive classroom as substantial time and effort are put in for children with special needs. Some parents of children without disabilities complained about the slow pace of instruction but they were informed that the school’s policy on inclusiveeducation could not be compromised. Staff member consider these to be initial problems of inclusiveeducation, and that they are rectified over time. Parents soon realise that all children benefit from the modified learning strategies.
UNICEF's Medium-Term Strategic Plan for 2002-05, in line with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, spells out that a long-term goal of UNICEF is that 'all children have access to and complete an education of good quality'. While the human rights principle of universality means that the well-being of all children is important, applying a rights-based approach to programming must also prioritize the needs of the most disadvantaged children, particularly in countries where there is greatest need. These may include the girl child, those belonging to low castes, children in remote areas, those with disabilities, those who are refugees/internally displaced persons or returnees, children affected by armed conflict, and those who are subjected to abuse and exploitation.
CBR Network is an example of a community-based initiative that undertook to train general teachers in 30 rural government schools in Karnataka in inclusiveeducation. Materials were developed for this training at a 10-day workshop attended by NGOs, special educators, general teachers, education experts, and education department officials. The concepts of the NCERT curriculum were broken down into sub-concepts and learning outcomes to devise a curriculum- based criterion-referenced checklist. The learning outcomes were simplified to ensure that any child could achieve them. The checklist took into account that every child learns at a different pace and, therefore, ensured that targets were achievable by any child. Facilitator cards were developed to describe the activity to be performed to achieve the learning outcome, the materials required for the activity, the place where it should be performed, the steps to be taken to complete the activity, and the levels of success that may be achieved. Multi-sensory materials and child self-learning activity cards were also prepared. An evaluation format that could be understood by all, including parents with limited education, and that only took into cognizance the individual development of the child compared to his/her previous learning was designed. These materials together formed the Joyful Inclusion Pack.
In the opinion of the scientists, higher education of the students with PDA generally develops in two directions. In the first one the student with PDA in college has a position of a usual student, along with all of the positive and negative consequences. Positive sides of such position mostly generate from the fact that, in this case, such students get the same attitude as the rest of the students, which means the true equality and respect towards the human integrity. However, many students with PDA in this situation become excluded from the education process because of the educational space maladjustment to their needs. In the second case the student with PDA in college not only has a position of a usual student, but also a position of a disabled person. This reflects in the planning of educational activity, in teaching methods, the amount of study load, specifics of college timetable and, most importantly, in the services and devices of college educational environment, which provide the student with PDA with the opportunity to obtain learning skills and activities in the appropriate educational environment, to move around campus without obstacles and to have access to special devices and library resources 10 .
Students lacking in critical thinking and creative thinking experience difficulties with various functions of the brain, particularly short-term memory, concentration and planning. Each student has different needs and will require various support mechanisms. Following are some of the Inclusive Teaching Strategies.
Inclusiveeducation values diversity and the unique contributions each student brings to the classroom. In a truly inclusive setting, every child feels safe and has a sense of belonging. Schools provide the context for a child’s first relationship with the world outside their families, enabling the development of social relationships and interactions. Respect and understanding grow when students of diverse abilities and backgrounds play, socialize, and learn together. To develop greater sensitivity, better understanding & more tolerance is the goal. The main problem of the system of inclusiveeducation in India is the lack of specially trained teachers and detailed developed legal framework. It is an endless journey to live an inclusive life. Inclusion isn’t just an educational style, it’s a life philosophy.
The extent to which inclusiveeducation might be co-opted in the decolonisation endeavour will be determined by the ways in which inclusiveeducation is conceptualised. If it is a counter hegemonic, “organic ideology” (Gramsci, 1971/1999, p. 707), then there may be a potential for an alliance. This means that inclusiveeducation must concern itself with resisting coloniality in education and promoting emancipatory and socially just ways of being. BUT (capitals intended), this position is not unassailable. In their article “Decolonization Is Not a Metaphor,” Tuck and Yang (2012) made a strong case for the incommensurability of decolonisation with other social justice projects. They noted that “the language of decolonization has been superficially adopted into education and other social sciences, supplanting prior ways of talking about social justice” (p. 2). These authors were adamant that decolonisation is not a “swappable” term and that parts of the decolonisation project are not “easily absorbed by human rights . . . based approaches to educational equity” (p. 3). Inclusiveeducation could be viewed as one such human rights-based approach to educational equity. Land was the central concern of decolonisation for Tuck and Yang (2012), who wrote in the context of the United States. The only goal of decolonisation for these authors was the elimination of settler property rights (p. 26), and any appropriation of the discourse of decolonisation for other ends was seen by them as a move to “settler innocence.” Their challenge to me, as a white settler scholar in South Africa is expressed as follows:
Mattingly. J et al., (2010) in a guidance note by Department of International Development discussed about perceived barriers (physical, social, financial) to educating children with disabilities and talked about low school budget resulting in lack of appropriate facilities, inadequate teachers training in inclusive methodology, lack of awareness of disability among teachers and many others that acts as a barrier in educating children with special needs. Kaur, (2013), examined access to physical environment as well as access to curriculum and the teaching environment of children with special needs and emphasized on adoption of inclusive approaches in education so that the goal of „Education for all‟ can be achieved. MHRD, Guidelines for InclusiveEducation for CWSN (2014) also discussed about major challenges and Issues in education of CWSN which includes Assessment of CWSN, Lack of Resource teachers, Lack of well equipped sufficient resource rooms, Removal of Architectural Barriers and Quality access to CWSN and so on.
One of the greatest problems the world is facing today is the growing number of persons who are excluded from the meaningful partnership in the economic, social, political and cultural life of their communities. Such a society is neither efficient nor safe. Inclusiveeducation can be seen as a stepping stone for a future inclusive society and it is a process of addressing and responding to the diverse needs of all children, youth and adults through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities and reducing the exclusion within and from education. The growing in public awareness, the achievement in the technological advancement and the improved legislation in some countries have opened the way for better provision of education to children with disabilities. The integration of students with disabilities into the regular educational setting as regular class students has become the concern of educators, governments, and the society at large. But numerous factors continue to affect and regulate the development of inclusiveeducation in India. A limited understanding of the concept disability, negative attitudes towards persons with disabilities and a hardened resistance to change are the major barriers impeding inclusiveeducation. The present paper tries to highlight the scenario of inclusiveeducation in India along with policies, legal framework and the role of teachers in inclusive setting. The study concludes that the implementation of inclusiveeducation requires dedication and willingness on part of all stakeholders especially educators.
20 Lopez and Vazquez (2005) argue that by highlighting multiple types of involvement, particularly involvement practices in households that stand outside traditional or discursive understandings, they hope to challenge a monocular understanding of “parent involvement” while simultaneously critiquing the deficit paradigm which suggests marginalized families are not involved in the educational lives of their children. Their study aimed to highlight how Latina/o families and their extended kin networks were already involved in the lives of children, although they may not be involved in traditionally-sanctioned ways. Lopez and Vazquez aimed to explored alternate conceptualizations of involvement while simultaneously interrogating how the concept of “involvement, “ as it is traditionally defined, limits the recognition of these invisible practices. Preliminary results from their study suggest that Latina/o immigrant parents do get “involved” in traditional ways; however, they perceived routine forms of involvement as being somewhat dispensable and non-obligatory. The study found that Latina/o newcomer parents relied on a vast array of home-based practices, including the use of consejos (advises), dichos (proverbs), and other narrative accounts to communicate the importance of schooling to their children.
Concept analysis is performed to determine material content in the textbook of early childhood inclusiveeducation. The definition study was carried out by defining elements of inclusiveeducation and collecting the pieces of learning material in the elements of inclusiveeducation systematically. Referring to Law of Ministry of National Education Number 70 of 2009 concerning InclusiveEducation for Students Who Have Disabilities and Have Potential Intelligence and / or Special Talents, there are 15 clauses as a reference for the implementation of inclusiveeducation. Based on these clauses, the researcher compiles and develops material to create early childhood inclusiveeducation textbook. The structure of the learning program at teacher education of early childhood education FIP Unimed is adjusted to the Learning Achievements agreed by representatives of 26 Public Universities and 3 Private Universities held by the Indonesian Teacher Education of Early Childhooh Education Association (APG-PAUD Indonesia) in the Workshop of Teacher Education Of Early Childhood Education Learning Achievement.