Participatory Communication

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Sustainable Development through Participatory Communication

Sustainable Development through Participatory Communication

This paper was an attempt to investigate to which extent participatory communication is adopted in communication interventions in Nigeria. Three selected developmental projects in Cross River State were studied. Four objectives and four research questions were raised to guide the study. Participatory Communication Theory (PCT) was adopted as the theoretical underpinning of the work. It also collected data through quantitative and qualitative research methods. The questionnaire was the main data gathering instrument. Data gathered was analysed using simple percentage. One of the findings in the research is that participatory communication should be adopted across every level of development projects as it has been considered as a veritable component that fast-tracks development/community projects. The researcher therefore, concludes that, participatory communication is a salient approach of communication that facilitates development projects. To achieve success, priority should be given to the component of participatory communication when carrying out community projects. Consequently, it has been recommended that, participatory communication should be adopted across every level of development projects as it helps development agents to engage the people to know their pressing needs and to avoid situations where projects that are worth millions of naira are not utilised by the beneficiaries.
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Lessons of Participatory Communication in Writings of Mahatma Gandhi

Lessons of Participatory Communication in Writings of Mahatma Gandhi

This question is answered by the present study that found several conceptual similarities between teachings of Mahatma Gandhi for an ideal Indian village life and the literature on tested theories of Participatory Communication across the world. In several articles and essays written by Gandhi in the decade 1930-1940 he urges his fellow countrymen to change self-defeating attitudes for their own betterment. The above-mentioned traits of traditional Indian society still perpetuate in large sections of our population, particularly in rural areas. Hence the messages of Gandhi’s writings are just as relevant in present times as they were then.
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Analysis of Rice Producers’ Perceptions of Participatory Communication in Use of Integrated Pest Management (Case Study: West of Mazandaran Province)

Analysis of Rice Producers’ Perceptions of Participatory Communication in Use of Integrated Pest Management (Case Study: West of Mazandaran Province)

Design of the study was a descriptive survey that was done between years 2011-2012. Research population was consisted of rice producers in the west of Mazandaran province (N=16126), whose 187 ones were selected by systematic random sampling method and using Cochran’s formula and considering standard deviation of total score of the IPM. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire including two parts. The first part was consisted of 22 questions related to the rice producers’ perceptions of participatory communication (Novak &Sellnow’s questionnaire, 2009) which were measured on a five- point likert scale which ranged from 1(completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree) and witch adapted to the basis of farmers’ status. This part is composed of five sections, which are: information sending (4 items), individual effects (4 items), information receiving (4 items), Agricultural Jihad’s flexibility (5 items) and contextual educational (5 items).The second part was consisted of 19 questions related to IPM in a 5-years period on a four-point likert scale (never, rarely, often, and always). It is presented in table 1.The total score for each respondent were considered as the use of IPM among rice producers. After conducting a pre-test, reliability of the questionnaire was measured by computing Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α ≥ 0/7). Face and content validity of the questionnaire was obtained using a panel of experts after carrying out the necessary reforms. Four categories including (low, relatively low, relatively high and high) was made based on the minimum, mean, standard deviation and maximum using Algebraic Sum of items related to IPM (Sadighi &Mohamadzadeh cited in Razzaghi et al, 2012).
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Participatory communication in poverty reduction in Kenya: A study of Murang’a County

Participatory communication in poverty reduction in Kenya: A study of Murang’a County

This study will inform the efforts of change agents and influence a paradigm shift in the approach taken by both local and national governments to alleviate poverty. Often the vision of the change agents (the outsider) is blurred and they see action starting from where they are (Chambers, 1983). This study sought to change that vision of the outsider, from one distorted by top-down approach to one that is inclusive of the beneficiaries. Therefore, it will inform the key stakeholders in the government (National government and County government), Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), local leaders and local people. The diffusion model and the participatory communication model have stood out over time as the two main approaches of communication for development. The diffusion model aimed at solving problems due to a lack of knowledge and information. Change is thus driven by the change agents and provides little room for the involvement of the beneficiaries. Despite being the dominant paradigm in the 1940s and 1950s, the diffusion of innovation model and the communication model it adopts has since been replaced by the participatory communication model that appreciates horizontal communication as opposed to downward communication for development. This study will be guided by two theories, participatory paradigm and the Social Cognitive Theory. The participatory paradigm of development stems from the dependency theorists who were looking for a new way to development. The model sought to counter earlier beliefs in the diffusion of innovations model developed by Everett Rodgers. It emphasizes the empowerment, cultural reality and multidimensionality in the approaches of development (Servaes, 2008).
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Participatory communication with children, young people and their families

Participatory communication with children, young people and their families

Recent action research projects in Canada have put children and young people at the centre of processes of communal resolution by enabling them to develop local policy in partnership with service providers through processes of dialogue rather than consultation (Cairns 2000). The Streets Ahead on Safety project sought to imitate this approach by adopting a child rights based method to addressing the problem of pedestrian injury that threatens children and young people’s health and well-being. Often the greatest obstacle to participation are the attitudes and working practices of adults and their adherence to processes and practices that are completely alienating for young people (Lyons 2004). It is vital to build learning and accountability into the participatory process by continuing to foster a collaboration based on dialogue, learning and mutual reciprocity between young people and adults (Percy- Smith, 2005). This case study required an engagement with local and national policy, the demonstration of practitioner values, and use of creative practitioner skills to secure the full engagement and meaningful participation of children and young people.
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POVERTY ALLEVIATION, FOOD SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION

POVERTY ALLEVIATION, FOOD SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION

protection and to also enable the future generations to meet their needs. In relation to environmental communication, it implies that communication has a vital role to play in creating awareness about the various poverty alleviation programmes initiated by the government, and thus, bridging the gap between the planner and the beneficiary. Environmental protection, and promotion and population control being the other broad dimensions of sustainable development, various communication channels have a responsible role to play in informing, educating and conscientising the people about various environmental issues and promotional programme, and sustainable use of natural resources, using renewable sources of energy, conservation of biological diversity, waste management, prevention and control of pollution, family planning, etc. Communication in general and various media of communication in particular have a responsible role to play in eradicating poverty. Sustainable development calls for a change in the quality of growth. Biodiversity protection is another important area where participatory communication has a pivotal role to play. Population control and stabilisation is another important concern of sustainable development. While planning for communication strategy for social sustainable development, we need to take into consideration the aspects of diversity. Multimedia approach to communication is the suitable answer. Different forms of media such as traditional media, internet, group communication channels, educational institutions, literature etc. have to be used systematically to disseminate information and to conscientise people on specific aspects of biodiversity and for maintaining sustainable development.
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Participatory Environmental Communication for Sustainable Natural Resource Management in Ethiopia

Participatory Environmental Communication for Sustainable Natural Resource Management in Ethiopia

Lake Tana is the largest lake in Ethiopia which has multifaceted socio-economic function in the country’s development. However, the lake is infested by water hyacinth since 2011 and efforts have been exerted to control the weed. This study is meant to explore the perceptions and practice of ANRS Environment Forest Wildlife Protection and Development Authority development (EFWPDA) communication experts on Participatory environmental communication in eradicating water hyacinth from Lake Tana. The qualitative case study was conducted on the basis of the participatory development communication model which has been assumed to bring about sustainable natural resource management. The data were collected using in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and document analysis. The collected data were organised and analysed in the form of content and thematic analysis. The finding revealed that participatory communication in EFWPDA is equated to a public relation activity of organising campaigns and the local people are urged to participate by providing labour contribution of harvesting and collecting the weed from the lake. The communication approach was found to be a one way top-down approach which does not facilitate a horizontal dialogue among stakeholders.
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Caveat Emptor: A new form of participatory mapping and its ethical implications for Participatory GIS

Caveat Emptor: A new form of participatory mapping and its ethical implications for Participatory GIS

Abstract: Since the 1990s, the consolidation of technological platforms for geographic information has expanded the possibilities of geospatial analysis in conjunction with GIS. Even ordinary people have become capable of interactive web communication with electronic maps thanks to the emergence of smartphones compatible with GeoAPI (application programming interface) and Wi-Fi access. Many studies have described the progress that built a solid foundation of web democracy by embodying people-powered mapping circumstances in the so-called Web 2.0. However, we have yet to acquire geographic information ethics that sufficiently respond to new threats stemming from these circumstances. In the present paper, the author instantiated a user-generated online mapping website named Caveat Emptor (a.k.a. Oshimaland) to investigate the necessity of a geographic information ethics 2.0. By incorporating Suler’s (2004) concept of online disinhibition effects, the author clarified that people can utilise new technologies both in good ways and bad, from behind the safety of a mask. Despite the omnoptic mutual surveillance environment, the associated participants in actual scenes of cyberspace are not always restrained. This explains why it is necessary to update geographic information ethics to be compatible with Web 2.0 circumstances. Four types of ethical challenges were identified that are concerned with (1) the extent to which volunteered geographic information (VGI) should be recruited in constructing collective knowledge, (2) how to build a renewed geographic information ethics in general, (3) how to construct a gradation in geographic information ethics in practice, and (4) what scientific knowledge should be referred to in the contiguous areas of specialisation.
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The rise and promise of participatory foresight

The rise and promise of participatory foresight

books for different educational levels [33]. One of the doyens in WFSF, Eleonora Masini has her own understanding for implementing participatory foresight. She is well-known in the futures research community to have argued the founda- tions of visioning as a specific form of anticipating the future. Visioning is about building constructive images of the future and about detecting the ‘seeds of change’—those weak signals in the present which may help us contemplate or create alter- native, preferable futures [19]. Masini had been advocating for women and children’s participation in foresight practices. She insisted that the process of visioning be open for groups, whose thinking is ‘outside the box’. Within her intellectual strategy, asociality is explored as a generator of valuable images of the future. Thus, participatory foresight is one that welcomes the figure of the outsider, the individual who chal- lenges the boundaries of sociality, to detect the seeds of change for some ‘other tomorrow’. Children, for example, could be very helpful since they are an embodiment of the sociality-to-be and its specific imagination. Some women/ housewives would also be valuable participants since they could contribute from the perspective of their denied public inclusion. This version of participatory foresight aims to over- come dominant discourses on the future, which are part of the reproduction mechanisms of the social system itself, and to compensate the shortcomings of commonsensical future- related narratives.
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On Implementation of Participatory Approach: Yes or NO?

On Implementation of Participatory Approach: Yes or NO?

Central to Dewey’s perspective, it was vital that students’ growth of knowledge and social skills be used outside the classroom, and in the democratic society. Therefore, it emphasized that students have to be active recipients of knowledge by discussing information andanswers in groups, engaging in the learning process together rather than being passive receivers of information (e.g., teacher talking, students listening). Building a good rapport among group members to achieve learning goals successfully paved the way for Lewin’s contribution to cooperative learning. “Positive social interdependence” was also Deutsh’sperspective toward cooperative learning; in other words, the student is responsible for contributing to group knowledge (Sharan, 2010).Since then, an active contribution toward participatory approach theory has been made by David and Roger Johnson. Later on in 1975, it was perceived that rapport, better communication, a good sense of support, along with a growth in thinking strategies throughout the group (Johnson and Johnson, 1975). As regard with advocates of participatory approach, students’ interest in learning increases when students share, debate and discuss ideas actively in their groups. Hence, their critical thinking skills grow through engaging in discussion and taking responsibility for their learning (Totten, Sills, Digby& Russ, 1991). Most studies have shown that students who work in small groups are more willing to take much of the delivered material. They also remember the material longer and seem to be more content with their classes (Beckman, 1990; Chickering & Gamson, 1991; Goodsell, et al, 1992).
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Participatory research and extension in agriculture : Organisation of learning in participatory research and extension approaches

Participatory research and extension in agriculture : Organisation of learning in participatory research and extension approaches

Participatory Rural Appraisal is assuring the participation of the farmers in the design process of the learning event. Through PRA the needs and priorities of the farmer are included in the design and is determining the content part of the design of the intervention. The level of participation of farmers in the design is determined by the objectives of the organisation. Research oriented organisation like NARO will do the design without farmers because the design determines the credibility of the research results and the organisation wants to assure that their research data meet the standards. In development oriented organisations like A2N, ActionAid or VEDCO the farmer will be more involved in the design. The implementation is characterised by the range of activities forming together the PRE approach. Each organisation has its own PRE approach consisting of a selection from study tours to create awareness, training including practical components, trials and demonstrations, and printed support material. The farmer is not involved in the selection of these learning activities. The PRE approach is developed by the organisation as part of the policy of the organisation, based on beliefs within the organisation on the best way to engage farmers in the development process, the available resources and the experiences from the past. This approach is applied uniformly regardless of the simplicity or complexity of the technology being promoted. Depending on the approach the role of the farmer is different. In a training-based approach like PDC or FRC the farmer will be more the receiver of information. In a learning approach like FFS the farmer will be more actively involved through farmer-led, on-farm trials. When a learning event is implemented through CBF’s and includes experimentation then this will see more participation of farmers. On-farm demonstrations are more participatory as a central demonstration plot because more farmers are involved in the demonstrations. The four selected organisations all involve farmers in the evaluation. Johnson et al (2003) recognized five levels of participation: conventional, consultative, collaborative, collegial and farmer experimentation. Table 4.5 shows these levels of participation for the different stages in the research and extension process for the four organisations.
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Towards improved public awareness for climate related disaster risk reduction in South Africa: A Participatory Development Communication perspective

Towards improved public awareness for climate related disaster risk reduction in South Africa: A Participatory Development Communication perspective

The dominant paradigm of development underwent extensive interrogation and criticism of its top-down and paternalistic development and development communication models by scholars and practitioners in the 1970s (Huesca, 2003:209). Alternative pathways to develop- ment were put forward. An important element of these new conceptions of development was the participation of the affected people in development planning and implementation (Snyder, 2003:172). Such participatory approaches stress the importance of the cultural identity of local communities and of democratisation and full participation at all levels of planning, develop- ment and the implementation of development initiatives and development communications. Participatory Development Communication
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Unearthing the potential of participatory, and information and communication technology- led extension and learning approaches in agricultural and environmental education in Uganda: a review

Unearthing the potential of participatory, and information and communication technology- led extension and learning approaches in agricultural and environmental education in Uganda: a review

represent the evolutionary responses to the changing contexts and needs of stakeholders and beneficiaries. Karubanga et al. (2016) report that the agricultural extension system in Uganda has undergone drastic reforms in the past fifty years purposely to transform smallholder farming to be more productive, competitive and rewarding to provide decent living to farmers. It is argued that the reforms have involved shifts from the state controlled and enforcement approaches of the colonial times (Bashaasha et al., 2011) to the balance between regulatory and educational approaches of the post-independence (Anderson, 2007), to intensification approaches such as the training and visit approach of the 1990s (Bashaasha et al., 2011), to the recent neo-liberal approaches based on principles of decentralization and privatization such as the National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) (FAO, 2014), to the current thinking of pluralistic extension delivery approach (MAAIF, 2016). However, Karubanga et al. (2016) report that the intuition is to point out that despite the well intentioned shifts in approaches, their impact on transforming smallholder farmers has been minimal especially with regard to enhancing participation and learning. Thus, merely changing designs of the delivery system without paying particular attention on the potential of participatory, and ICT-led extension approaches and tools for effective service delivery and learning tend to leave the entire extension system dysfunctional.
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Towards an understanding of the participatory library

Towards an understanding of the participatory library

On  the  contrary,  other  scholars  and  practitioners  hold  the  view  that  Library  2.0  is  an  evolution   instead  of  a  revolution.  Brevik  (2006)  affirms  that  “Library  2.0  is  the  natural  evolution  of  library   services  to  a  level  where  the  library  user  is  in  control  of  how  and  when  she  gets  access  to  the   services  she  needs  and  wants”.  He  also  adds  that  “Library  2.0  is  a  reaction  from  librarians  to  the   increasingly  library  relevant  developments  in  information  communication  and  technologies   (Web  2.0  and  social  software)  and  an  environment  that  is  saturated  with  information  available   through  new  and  more  easily  accessible  channels”  (Brevik,  2006).  Furthermore,  Fichter  (2006)   argues  that  books,  other  information  resources,  librarians  and  users  have  existed  as  long  as   library  history.  The  participation  of  participants  and  a  radical  trust  will  create  a  Library  2.0   environment.  The  difference  between  Library  2.0  and  its  previous  version  is  the  involvement  of   participants  who  actively  participate  in  the  creation  and  development  of  Library  2.0  services.   Thus,  the  core  of  Library  2.0  is  the  participation  of  the  community.    
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Introduction: Participatory Requirements and Rights

Introduction: Participatory Requirements and Rights

It should be noted that, along with the defendant as an individual, the defence as a party has faced an increase in expectations of participation. 17 The defence party consists of the defendant as well as his legal representatives. The defence party actively participates when it goes beyond simply putting the prosecution to proof by, for example, providing information about the defence case ahead of trial, raising a positive defence, and adducing evidence in support of that defence at trial. As will be shown, defence representatives can face penalties for non-compliance with participatory requirements, and can be placed in the difficult position of having to choose between their conflicting duties to the defendant and to the court. However, the main focus is the participatory requirements placed on the defendant as an individual, as the existence of the defence party should enable the defendant to take a passive role in the criminal process, without sacrificing the opportunity to test the prosecution’s case.
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Accessing Participatory Research Impact and Legacy: Developing the evidence base for participatory approaches in health research.

Accessing Participatory Research Impact and Legacy: Developing the evidence base for participatory approaches in health research.

developing a more open articulation of participatory dimensions in relation to research. Where possible discussions were in person, but for geographical reasons some were conducted over the telephone (2 out of the 5). These first discussions demonstrated that authors appeared to have few difficulties in describing the nature of participation in their narrative, but our conversations revealed confusion about the difference between research where patients and the public were invited to participate and comment on research, and research where participatory practices were core to all aspects of the research. This was expected, a key purpose of our work being to find out how to support the authors in being critically analytical about the depth of participation, not to produce an exact definition of participation. Naming is a convention, not a definition and it is easy, as Eisner (1998) suggests to "substitute concept for precept, the name of the thing for the thing itself" (p.17). We found that having a set of broad definitions to consider their work against was helping authors consider the nature of participation in a more explicit fashion.
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“Public Participatory Graphic Communications”

“Public Participatory Graphic Communications”

Abstract. Ball State University is a public university in the state of Indiana which has a College of Architecture and Planning; its Community Based Program (CBP) was developed and created in 1969, and is now one of the three oldest continuous community education and service programs in the US. The program’s main objectives are to provide an educational design service to the public sector, to immerse our students in a public participatory urban design environment, and to educate the public sector to become active in the design and planning process of their communities. After my Urban Design Graduate studies at Harvard, I published two urban design booklets (the Urban Design Primer and the Urban Design Dictionary) for public distribution, to be utilized prior to our small-town charrettes. These illustrated booklets were designed to bridge the language and design process gap between the design professional and the public citizen, and to create a more active immersive participatory urban design engagement. Since the introduction and public use of these booklets, I have been involved with over a hundred CBP charrettes. In this paper, I will introduce and present the urban design public booklets, and demonstrate how the urban design graphics and visual communications were utilized effectively through several small-town charrette case studies. The paper will also blend the transition between the analog graphics and the digital imagery.
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Web 2.0 and Participatory Governance

Web 2.0 and Participatory Governance

In order to put decision theory to work on real world problems, prior probabilities play a key role in bridging the gap between the idealized rational agent and ordinary human agents. We can ignore whatever tortuous path led the user to his/her current beliefs, and focus on helping them incorporate new information appropriately. In the case of natural resource management, sometimes we have the more modest goal of simply trying to build a reasonable model of the human component of the system dynamics. However, successful management often requires that local actors also gain a deeper understanding of the workings of the system, and their own impact upon it. Bayesian networks comprise one modeling approach that has proven quite useful in both cases, and there is a rapidly growing literature on their application in participatory resource management scenarios (Cain et al, 1999; Cain et al, 2001; McCann et al, 2006).
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INFORMAL AND PARTICIPATORY CULTURES IN MUSIC EDUCATION. Informal and Participatory Cultures in Music Education: Pitfalls and Possibilities

INFORMAL AND PARTICIPATORY CULTURES IN MUSIC EDUCATION. Informal and Participatory Cultures in Music Education: Pitfalls and Possibilities

In the endeavour of integrating informal learning practices into formalized environments, Green (2007) suggests ways for music educators to strengthen their understanding of how popular musicians learn, such as teachers first attempting to place themselves in the position of their students, and to “try out some informal learning for themselves” by experimenting with “purposive listening” to recorded music (p. 214). Applying an approach such as Green suggests to an existing culture, where youth are learning music through informal practices, has its limitations, as the approach is not a natural progression within the formal classroom and does not fully encompass how youth are experiencing music. To enable a comprehensive understanding of how youth are learning and engaging in music, I propose, in addition to Green’s informal music learning practices, that Jenkins’ (2009) notions of youth participatory culture in media education may be of use in providing a way for music educators to strengthen the connections of music education for youth, both in-and-outside of school.
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Using storyboards in participatory research

Using storyboards in participatory research

Kvale offers two different positions on in-depth interviewing which are useful here – ‘the miner metaphor’ and the ‘traveller metaphor’. The ‘miner metaphor’ assumes the existence of knowledge (or truth) waiting to be uncovered, the interviewer unearths this through the process of interviewing. The ‘traveller’ metaphor draws on constructivist understandings whereby knowledge is ‘created and negotiated’ (cited in Legard et al., 2003:139) and is much more in line with the participatory focus group approach we have outlined here. The researcher is the traveller, interpreting the meanings of the stories they encounter through the process. The researcher and participants travel together on a journey through the process and so the researcher becomes a key player in the production of data. The storyboards themselves are also an important part of the data in this approach. As the saying goes, a picture can speak a thousand words and the images/words that the young women used to represent their journeys and aspirations were very powerful in their own right (please see the two examples provided in Figure 1). The storyboards served as a mechanism for the young women to convey complex personal and emotional journeys in a safer, less threatening way. The young women were able to draw, write or create images that represented experiences or feelings which they might otherwise have found hard to describe. In order to promote a less formal and more relaxed atmosphere the young women could come and go throughout the focus group as they liked. Refreshments were also provided throughout the focus group and the group all ate together as well.
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