Participatory modelling

Top PDF Participatory modelling:

Moving interdisciplinary science forward: integrating participatory modelling with mathematical modelling of zoonotic disease in Africa

Moving interdisciplinary science forward: integrating participatory modelling with mathematical modelling of zoonotic disease in Africa

Many theoretical approaches, e.g. stability analysis, em- phasise equilibrium states. Participatory modelling can as- sist in determining whether or not the system has reached such an equilibrium configuration, identifying the possible causes leading to a disruption of the equilibrium. It can also direct the mathematical approach towards the rele- vant regime, that is, a transient regime rather than equilib- rium. For instance, in recent years cashew nuts have become an important industry in Ghana [58]. According to preliminary outcomes from participatory modelling, the proliferation of large cashew nut plantations is cur- rently affecting the dispersal patterns of fruit bats, a reser- voir of many viruses including Ebola, rabies and Nipah [59]. Related use of pesticides is also increasing with a po- tential effect on the survival of bats. In certain locations, the hunting patterns are also subjected to change, such as in the area around Tano sacred grove, the location of one of the largest roosts in Ghana, where the local chief has granted permission for hunting. All this information, emerging from interaction with the local community, sug- gests that in many cases the ecological system of bats is far from in an equilibrium situation.
Show more

12 Read more

Identifying the Potential of Participatory Modelling and Mobile Data Collection to Enhance Implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management

Identifying the Potential of Participatory Modelling and Mobile Data Collection to Enhance Implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management

require several participatory modelling sessions to be conducted to obtain views and experiences that are fairly representative of those held by the wider community. 2.4.3.5 Mobile Data Collection This is an approach that utilises mobile phones, or similar portable devices, to involve stakeholders in collecting and transmitting data of particular interest. Mobile data collection methods have proved popular in the agricultural and health sectors, especially in developing countries. In the agricultural sector, mobile phones are being used for monitoring and reporting prices of commodities in the market (Asare- Kyei, 2013; Muto and Yamano, 2009). This has encouraged farmers and traders to carry out market surveys and to participate in finding appropriate markets for their produce. As a consequence it has enabled them to get fairer prices for their produce. In the health sector, mobile data collection methods are being used for collecting surveillance and monitoring data for health related issues (Lozano-Fuentes et al., 2012; Tomlinson et al., 2009; WHO, 2013). Participants are recruited to report incidents of disease outbreaks or potential risks in the communities thereby
Show more

235 Read more

Participatory Modelling - What, Why and How? Alexey A. Voinov

Participatory Modelling - What, Why and How? Alexey A. Voinov

Good practice of participatory modeling 1. Identify a clear problem and lead stakeholders 2. Engage stakeholders as early and often as possible 3. Create an appropriately representative working group 4. Gain trust and establish neutrality as a scientist

22 Read more

Integrated participatory modelling of irrigated agriculture: the case study of the reorganisation of a water management system in Italy

Integrated participatory modelling of irrigated agriculture: the case study of the reorganisation of a water management system in Italy

Key words: Water, Agriculture, Economic analysis, Modelling and tools, Participatory process 1. Introduction The 2000/60/EC Directive, known as Water Framework Directive (WFD), defines the basic principles of sustainable water policy in the European Union (EU) and aims at reaching a “good status” for all water by 2015. The Directive requires a planning approach at the river basin scale which economic analysis should inform and support (WATECO, 2002). By 2010, Member States must ensure that water pricing policies provide adequate incentives for users to use water resources efficiently and that the different water uses contribute enough to the recovery of the costs of water services 1 . Policies and actions concerning the regulation of land use, environmental protection and the sustainability of economic and social development are to be pursued by optimising resource management in the respect of the minimum acceptable flow, increasing the availability of surface water for the various uses, safeguarding the quantitative and qualitative equilibrium of the groundwater, planning the demand in order to ensure the future water budget, favouring innovation in production processes and technologies in order to reduce water consumption, water pollution and soil degradation. Such actions should be assessed in terms of cost and benefit and the existence of disproportionate cost checked.
Show more

14 Read more

Participatory modelling platform for groundwater irrigation management with local farmers in Iran (Kashan)

Participatory modelling platform for groundwater irrigation management with local farmers in Iran (Kashan)

based process, participation of stakeholders is essential. Adaptive participatory process can empower local farmers in their decision-making and social learning process (see Chapter 7). Some of the major water policy agendas, for example the European Water Framework Directive (EWFD, 2000) have emphasised the importance of stakeholder engagements through participation. In article 14 of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), a participatory approach to engage stakeholders’ perspective is promoted. Implementation of the WFD presents water managers with considerable challenges. Water systems are complex and the majority of expert knowledge is represented in computer models with many and varied uncertainties (Walters, 1997). The Rio Conference and Agenda 21 (1992), and the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and Johannesburg Plan of Implementation in 2002, emphasized the importance of access to knowledge and public participation of stakeholders in decision-making to achieve justice in environmental management. Because water management is closely linked with many different human activities that potentially have conflicting interests over water, water policies must consider competing values, interests and the perspectives of various stakeholders during the decision-making process (Blomquist and Schlager, 2005; Blackmore et al. 2007). Socio-economic aspects of water related issues are embodied in different expert disciplines and different actors, who have specific interests in water resources. As a result, both physical and socioeconomic knowledge are frequently challenged by stakeholders (Fischer, 2003).
Show more

371 Read more

Knowledge mobilisation for policy development: implementing systems approaches through participatory dynamic simulation modelling

Knowledge mobilisation for policy development: implementing systems approaches through participatory dynamic simulation modelling

Participatory dynamic simulation modelling involves engaging multidisciplinary stakeholders in a delibera- tive group model-building process where participants discuss evidence and share knowledge about the causal mechanism of the issue being modelled and where and how interventions have their effect within the articulated mechanism. Participatory modelling approaches aim to combine diverse perspectives to tackle the social complexity of problems and recognise that different types of knowledge contribute alternative and valuable perspectives to the problem discourse [47, 59]. The involvement of decision-makers as partic- ipants in the model development and validation in- creases their sense of ownership and confidence that the model is valid for their local context; they are therefore more likely to draw on the model ’ s outputs to inform decisions about priority interventions and policies [68, 77, 78].
Show more

12 Read more

Decision makers\u27 experience of participatory dynamic simulation modelling: Methods for public health policy

Decision makers\u27 experience of participatory dynamic simulation modelling: Methods for public health policy

Relationships and collaborations are frequently identified as critical factors in systems approaches [ 41 , 42 ]. Partici- patory dynamic modelling provides a structured process to facilitate inter-disciplinary dialogues and co-production methods involving a range of participants, including end-user decision makers. Participatory modelling ap- proaches aim to combine diverse perspectives to tackle the social complexity of problems and recognise that dif- ferent types of knowledge contribute alternative and valu- able perspectives to the problem discourse [ 18 , 21 , 23 , 43 ]. Participants in the case studies reported in this paper viewed the participatory process as a valuable co-production approach to understand the focus issue from a system perspective, for example, enabling the con- sideration of how decisions made in one part of the health service, or indeed by other government departments, could impact on programs and services in another. The ability to combine the significant knowledge from multiple experts to guide the model development as a decision sup- port tool was viewed as a unique benefit of the participa- tory process.
Show more

16 Read more

Decision makers’ experience of participatory dynamic simulation modelling: methods for public health policy

Decision makers’ experience of participatory dynamic simulation modelling: methods for public health policy

Relationships and collaborations are frequently identified as critical factors in systems approaches [41, 42]. Partici- patory dynamic modelling provides a structured process to facilitate inter-disciplinary dialogues and co-production methods involving a range of participants, including end-user decision makers. Participatory modelling ap- proaches aim to combine diverse perspectives to tackle the social complexity of problems and recognise that dif- ferent types of knowledge contribute alternative and valu- able perspectives to the problem discourse [18, 21, 23, 43]. Participants in the case studies reported in this paper viewed the participatory process as a valuable co-production approach to understand the focus issue from a system perspective, for example, enabling the con- sideration of how decisions made in one part of the health service, or indeed by other government departments, could impact on programs and services in another. The ability to combine the significant knowledge from multiple experts to guide the model development as a decision sup- port tool was viewed as a unique benefit of the participa- tory process.
Show more

14 Read more

Principles of Participatory Research

Principles of Participatory Research

5 participatory fashion. Likewise, project partners can be involved in peer interviewing and facilitating focus groups. For participatory research with children and young people, often methods are employed to draw on skills possessed by the age group. For instance, older children may be involved in methods such as completing diaries and story-writing, whilst younger children may be invited to participate in drawing activities. Accommodating different skill sets is important as young people are a highly differentiated group, and approaches that are appropriate for children may be unsuitable or unacceptable for teenagers, and vice versa. This emphasises the importance of a ‘mosaic approach’ developed by Clark and Moss (2001) to elicit the perspectives of very young children about their day care experiences. This multi-method approach supports the use of both traditional and participatory tools to listen to children’s views (each method or each person’s perspective representing a tile in the mosaic). Multiple methods allow researchers to be as inclusive as possible and “play to” children’s strengths (Clark 2010:118). A further example of this is that, in research with young people, methods are often selected based on the assumption that young people are digital natives. However, there is evidence that young people involved in research do not always prefer the methods that adult researchers assume they will. For instance, in Wilkinson, S.’s (2015) research into young people’s alcohol consumption experiences, the researcher presented young people (aged 15-24) with the option of completing an audio or written diary. She anticipated that the young people would opt for the audio method, believing that they may perceive the written diary as a form of homework. Further, Wilkinson, S. (2015) considered that the audio diary was in line with young people’s typical confidence in using technology. Much to her surprise, all young people opted for the traditional paper-based diary, contending that they ‘don’t like the sound of their own voice’, and described the prospect of using the audio-recording device as ‘scary’, fearing they may accidentally delete something. Having a palette of methods that participants can opt into thus acknowledges that any one research activity or tool will not be accessible or appealing to all children and young people with different skills, cultural backgrounds and personalities.
Show more

33 Read more

Review of Participatory Heritage

Review of Participatory Heritage

The first section, “Participants,” is intended to focus on the range of contributors to participatory heritage projects. It pays particular attention to the motivations of community members, considering why they choose to do the work they do and what they hope to get out of their projects. In many cases, creating a sense of community and connections that are not available through existing institutional structures are foremost in the minds of such participants. The chapters also cover how community members’ goals effect their interactions with institutions or differ from professional standards and best practices.
Show more

5 Read more

Toward a Deeper Appreciation of Participatory Epistemology in Community-based Participatory Research

Toward a Deeper Appreciation of Participatory Epistemology in Community-based Participatory Research

Given that participatory projects have an iterative, non-linear character (McIntrye, 2008), decisions may arise over their course that may not be straightforward. But when efforts are guided by participatory epistemology (Fals Borda, 1988), the questions that pertain to critical issues, such as group membership, community boundaries, and the proper location for an intervention, are simplified. In short, this type of theory can provide valuable answers, particularly for researchers who enter the field or a community for the first time. Aside from some relative experience, this understanding may be all that they have to rely on to carry out a project. When the innovative core of participation is appreciated fully, however, CBPR can promote the freedom of a community to imagine new possibilities, transform old ways of knowing, and pursue original ideas.
Show more

14 Read more

Is there a crisis of participatory planning?

Is there a crisis of participatory planning?

deliberation to within defined parameters, or not available or closed entirely (e.g. as can be the case in techno-managerial governance settings). As such, there is no crisis of participatory planning if the focus shifts to the subjectivity of citizen’s participation. This renders visible the agency that citizen’s possess to participate, albeit often expressed in non-formal settings and as represented through differentiated understandings of voice, citizenship, power and deliberations (Forester, 2013; Innes and Booher, 2010). As Rancière (1992: 60-1) pontificates, participation is not “the permanent involvement of citizen-subjects in every domain” as potentially secured through legislative settings supporting participatory planning nor is it necessarily “counterpower” – citizen’s participation as motivated by an antagonistic lens; to participate in planning materialises through the “continual renewal of the actors and the forms of their actions”. In this wording it suggests that there is a more dialectical political relationship at play that is continually shaping, reproducing and reconstituting what is means to participate. That there may be a crisis in participatory planning only strengthens a narrow conception that participation must be provided by the planning system and made available through the participatory planning technologies available. This renders invisible the multiple ways through which questions of marginalisation and access to decision-making processes (Davidoff, 1965) and the presence of power and structural inequalities (Flyvbjerg, 1998; Porter et al, 2016) have been addressed within planning theory and practice, but which have continued to challenge the ontological foundations of planning and of participatory planning. Rancière (1998: 32) remarks, “nothing is political in itself merely because power relations are at work in it. For a thing to be political, it must give rise to a meeting of policy logic and egalitarian logic that is never set up in advance…It is political when it reconfigures the relationships that determine the workplace in relation to the community”. The political formation of participation is the product of the dialectical and constitutive relationship that exists between participatory planning and the subjectivity of citizen’s participation. By ignoring the political formation of participation and how it shapes planning undermines the progressive potential to reproduce and redefine participatory planning as a situated practice of planning in a western context.
Show more

29 Read more

BRIEF OVERVIEW OF PARTICIPATORY

BRIEF OVERVIEW OF PARTICIPATORY

B RIEF O VERVIEW OF P ARTICIPATORY T RAINING M ETHODS As already discussed in Chapter 2, choosing appropriate training methods to achieve the Training Objectives is an important function of a trainer. In addition, to the lecture method, which has already been dealt with in detail in the preceding chapter, we need to have in view few other training methods, basically of participatory nature. This will address the principles of adult learning. (Discussed in Chapter 3). Let us, therefore, look at some of the training methods (apart from the Lecture) and their main uses, advantages and disadvantages.
Show more

7 Read more

Sustained Participatory Design:

Sustained Participatory Design:

To pursue this aim we extend the iterative PD approach by (1) emphasizing PD experiments that transcend traditional prototyping and evaluate systems during real work; (2) incorporating[r]

19 Read more

The Politics of Participatory Art

The Politics of Participatory Art

In February 2006 the art historian Claire Bishop published 'The Social Turn: Collaboration and its Discontents' in the magazine Artforum, in which she was highly critical of dominant trends in 'participatory art' practice and the discourses surrounding it. She argued that the field was marked by the renunciation of aesthetic judgements in favour of a 'Christian' ethics of collaboration, rendering it incapable of producing interesting art or making disruptive political statements. Among the targets of her critique was fellow art historian Grant Kester, whose 2004 book Conversation Pieces is a key text of this 'social turn'; and he responded with a letter, printed in Artforum's May 2006 issue. In it, he argued that 'Bishop seems determined to enforce a fixed and rigid boundary between "aesthetic" projects ("provocative," "uncomfortable," and "multilayered") and activist works ("predictable," "benevolent," and "ineffectual")', (22) rather than considering alternative understandings of aesthetics that stem from ethically sound social practice in which the artist facilitates the collaborative production of work. The May issue also included Bishop's response to Kester's response, which argued that his 'righteous aversion to authorship can only lead to the end of provocative art and thinking' (22).
Show more

12 Read more

Principles of Participatory Research

Principles of Participatory Research

5 participatory fashion. Likewise, project partners can be involved in peer interviewing and facilitating focus groups. For participatory research with children and young people, often methods are employed to draw on skills possessed by the age group. For instance, older children may be involved in methods such as completing diaries and story-writing, whilst younger children may be invited to participate in drawing activities. Accommodating different skill sets is important as young people are a highly differentiated group, and approaches that are appropriate for children may be unsuitable or unacceptable for teenagers, and vice versa. This emphasises the importance of a ‘mosaic approach’ developed by Clark and Moss (2001) to elicit the perspectives of very young children about their day care experiences. This multi-method approach supports the use of both traditional and participatory tools to listen to children’s views (each method or each person’s perspective representing a tile in the mosaic). Multiple methods allow researchers to be as inclusive as possible and “play to” children’s strengths (Clark 2010:118). A further example of this is that, in research with young people, methods are often selected based on the assumption that young people are digital natives. However, there is evidence that young people involved in research do not always prefer the methods that adult researchers assume they will. For instance, in Wilkinson, S.’s (2015) research into young people’s alcohol consumption experiences, the researcher presented young people (aged 15-24) with the option of completing an audio or written diary. She anticipated that the young people would opt for the audio method, believing that they may perceive the written diary as a form of homework. Further, Wilkinson, S. (2015) considered that the audio diary was in line with young people’s typical confidence in using technology. Much to her surprise, all young people opted for the traditional paper-based diary, contending that they ‘don’t like the sound of their own voice’, and described the prospect of using the audio-recording device as ‘scary’, fearing they may accidentally delete something. Having a palette of methods that participants can opt into thus acknowledges that any one research activity or tool will not be accessible or appealing to all children and young people with different skills, cultural backgrounds and personalities.
Show more

32 Read more

A hauntology of participatory speculation

A hauntology of participatory speculation

Together, we planned two workshops to bring together young people and criminal justice workers to discuss the reporting of hate incidents and to engage in Participatory Design activit[r]

13 Read more

Interactive and participatory worlds

Interactive and participatory worlds

promotion that has come to characterise any number of interactive and participatory worlds in the digital era, too. In the age of convergence culture, the job of continuing to expand the Land of Oz, for example, across media rests most emphatically in the hands of marketing teams and digital agencies. One website called findyourwaytooz.com, created by Disney and UNIT9 and devised as an official promotional website for Oz the Great and Powerful (2013), allowed audiences to walk around the fictional spaces seen throughout the narrative of that film. The website made use of digital convergence by blending 3D animation, video, audio and gameplay to take audiences on an ‘interactive journey through a Kansas circus, which leads you to the Land of Oz after you are swept up by a massive storm’ (UNIT9, 2013).
Show more

19 Read more

PARTICIPATORY INTEGRAL UPGRADING IN LATIN AMERICA: The Importance of Participatory Practices for Urban Upgrading Programmes

PARTICIPATORY INTEGRAL UPGRADING IN LATIN AMERICA: The Importance of Participatory Practices for Urban Upgrading Programmes

The challenge of participatory upgrading is not just to motivate involvement and commitment of different actors throughout the project, but sustain collaboration after the main objectives are achieved. While the participatory process raises expectations of social equality (Watt & Higgins 2000), the lack of a methodology for participation distorts relations between actors. Political candidates and elected leaders use participation to legitimise programmes, justify expenditures and display administrative power by means of visual outputs. The distortion of participation inflicts a resilient stigma on integral upgrading programmes, as consequence participation is seen as a process of manipulation and exploitation of communities in order to achieve unrealistic or unsuitable objectives serving the interests of powerful actors (Soen 1981). The creation of special regulations which modify land uses, construction codes and other urban standards could be accompanied by a special participation procedure in the programme formulation process which could initiate an institutional transformation of decision-making processes. Once the legal framework for multi-sectoral participatory upgrading is established by the municipality, governments should embrace their role as enablers and promoters of participatory practices in urban development by identifying the potential actors to participate in the integral upgrading process, from the formulation of the programme to the execution and maintenance of outputs and social outcomes.
Show more

288 Read more

Participatory budgeting: An evidence review

Participatory budgeting: An evidence review

Participatory budgeting has been growing quite significantly over the past 20 years but the German model is very different from the original Porte Alegre PB as it did not have redistribution and anti-corruption as its main aim. Instead much of the PB exercises in Germany are firstly trying to modernise local government structures through citizen participation and secondly moving towards more responsive government by giving citizens a greater say in decision making (Ruesch and Wagner 2012). Cologne is just one example of PB in Germany but is interesting because it was conducted completely online. There are mixed views as to whether this is a positive or negative methodology and this is discussed more in Appendix B but the information below provides an insight as to how the PB exercise was conduced.
Show more

32 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...