Frustration and concern about the persistence of health inequalities in the United Kingdom (Mackenbach, 2011; Bambra et al, 2012) have stimulated efforts by researchers to increase public awareness of, and engagement with, research in this area, efforts that are being facilitated by the UK’s evolving ‘research impact’ agenda (Greenhalgh, 2014). Yet the purpose, and potential consequences, of this kind of public engagement is not always adequately re ﬂ ected upon. In many cases, it seems, such efforts rest on an elitist model of knowledge production, in which scholars come to know the world in ways that others cannot and then work to translate their ﬁ ndings into more accessible formats for other, less scholarly folk. Innovative examples of efforts to communicate health inequalities and the social determinants of health in accessible ways include, for example, the London tube and Glasgow metro maps of life expectancy (McCartney, 2011; Cheshire, 2012) and Bambra’s (2015) ‘football league table of health inequalities performance ’ . The aim of such research is to draw public attention to the impact of structural and material inequalities on people ’ s health, an aim that appears to be underpinned by an assumption that, if decision makers and the public only knew more about the structural and material inequalities underlying health inequalities, they would do more to address them. Such an assumption belies the small number of in-depth, qualitative studies of public understandings of health inequalities, which demonstrate that many of the communities most negatively affected by health inequalities already have a good understanding of the factors and processes that contribute to their communities poor health (for example, Popay et al, 2003; Davidson et al, 2006) To quote George (1976, p. 289), those living in poverty already ‘ know what is wrong with their lives ’ . The issue, then, is what we, collectively, might do about this. With this in mind, we argue here that what health inequalities research requires instead are forms of participatorypractice that are oriented around overcoming alienation.
In undertaking this research I have also been conscious of my own positions as both an artist and a researcher. Furthermore, my studio research for this PhD also explores the question of how individual and participatorypractice can be read with one practice. My dual position as a practising artist and art researcher during my time in the field gave me a perspective grounded in a familiarity with the challenges and obstacles inherent in this kind of art practice in Indonesia. Thus, the perspective on participatory and individual art presented in this dissertation is grounded in experiences of practice and production as I witnessed them. I have constructed contemporary case studies from observation, participation and conversations with artists, and contextualised them through analysis of the social and historical contexts from which they emerge. The artists addressed in the case studies represent a diverse range of practices that combine participatory and individual approaches. Before the going in to the field I identified a number of senior artists to approach; I selected emerging artists during my field research based on recommendations from curators and other artists. From an initial list of around a dozen artists, I researched the practices of eight, and selected five as case studies for this dissertation. Some of these artists, such as Tisna Sanjaya and Arahmaiani, are well-known internationally, yet their participatory practices are not widely documented or critiqued. I focus particularly on individual artists rather than artist collectives in order to map the different ways artists formulate individual and participatory practices. Furthermore, looking at individual artists who combine both of these practices in Indonesia demands (as it does in the broader literature) a re- evaluation of modernist discourses. It enables a critical deconstruction of the apparent binaries of individual and participatory art without deferring to stereotypes of Eastern communitarianism and Western individualism.
Background: This paper draws on new research exploring community-based, participatory arts practice in Northern England and Mexico City to discuss contextual influences on artists’ practice, and whether a common practice model can be identified. The international comparison is used to interrogate whether such a practice model is transnational, displaying shared characteristics that transcend contextual differences. Methods: The study used multi-site ethnography to investigate the participatorypractice of more than 40 artists. Participant observation and extended individual and group dialogues provided data on practice in a diverse range of art forms and settings, analysed using open coding and grounded theory principles. Results: Findings locate differences in practitioners’ motivations, and perceptions of the work’s function; however, key similarities emerge across both sites, in practitioners’ workshop methodologies and crucially in their creative strategies for catalysing change. A model is presented distilling the key elements of a common practice methodology, found across the study and across art forms. Conclusions: The discussion notes where divergences echo nationalities of contributors, drawing inferences about the level of influence of national context in this work, and concludes with the implications of these findings for potential international collaboration, to face challenges within the community arts and health sector globally.
Contemporary networked media have made collective relationships more fluid (Bauman, 2000; Wellman, 2002). Finding (inventing) a common ground and a network can be an outcome of participatory media. However, with the exception of some documentary makers, media producers have not seen themselves as actively engaged in shaping social practices. To some extent, we can seek guidance from the social sciences, which have had a longer history of participatorypractice. However, is it the job of a media academic to intervene, to build community, and shape social practices? While I suggest that we can borrow insights from the development, education, design, art, or ethnography disciplines, I also believe we need to strategise how these projects relate to educational practice from an apparent media perspective.
Participatorypractice research in German-speaking regions The Anglo-American concepts of action research were not adopted in German-speaking regions before the end of the 1960s, but soon thereafter heavily criticised. The German sociologists Klüver and Krüger [9, p 88] regarded these action research approaches as “social technologies that are extremely subtle since they are directly application-oriented and can be applied arbitrarily”. The German variant of “action research” developed in the 1970s as a result of such critiques, forwarding a system-critical and emancipatory claim under the influence of the “student movement”, the argumentation of the critical theory (in the context of the positivism dispute) as well as the Marxism-inspired critical psychology. In the German-speaking social sciences, the discourse about participatory variants of social research gained considerable significance in the 1970s. In addition to ideologically overloaded approaches  or in view of concepts that make exaggerated claims in terms of philosophy of science and scientific-political claims , publications with a methodo- logical and research-methodological foundation also appeared in the pioneering phase of action research in German-speaking regions [12–16]. However, this unique approach to action research in German-speaking regions only blossomed be- tween the beginning of the 1970s until the mid-1980s. As per Unger/Block/Wright [17, p 19], it was only between 1972 and 1982 that “400 publications on action research in German-speaking regions were released. ” This research ap- proach lost its attraction no later than from the start of the 1990s.
Accordingly, “Model Core Curriculum of Pharmaceutical Education” and “Model Core Curriculum for Pharmacy Practice” were presented in August 2002 and October 2003, respectively . Upon the creation of these model core curriculums, they were analyzed with respect to the global pharmaceutical education standards and the cap- abilities that are required of pharmacists were considered [3, 4, 7–9]. Moreover, it was clarified that education should be directed towards training “the leaders of med- ical service” who are equipped with the professionalism as health professionals, and who have a complete under- standing of pathology and diseases, and can contribute to the rational and effective pharmacotherapy, and patient care in order to meet the social needs [5, 10]. Further- more, radical educational reforms were introduced. For example, a total of 1,446 items of the learning objectives that were categorized into knowledge, skills, and attitude, were presented while recognizing usefulness of the spiral learning of knowledge, skills, and attitudes advocated by Bruner, and a learners-centered education was adopted . Above all, the implementation of the pharmacy prac- tice (the traditional 4-week observational learning was reorganized into the 22-week participatorypractice con- sisting of an 11-week hospital training and an 11-week community pharmacy training program upon the transi- tion to the 6-year education system) was considered the key to the success of the 6-year pharmaceutical education (the key to the training of pharmacists who can contribute to medical service) and many discussions have been held for its introduction by the Committee of Pharmacy Educa- tion Reform of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan and other committees .
The main limitation of this study is the selection of centers by convenience. It would have been desirable to measure the readiness for change of the PHC centers, a necessary condition for quality improvement, and use this information in the selection of participating centers. However, measuring organizational readiness for change is not an easy task . Past performance of the organi- zation, the main selection criteria used in this study, is probably the best predictor of successful improvements , along with leadership and coaching by facilitators [2, 34, 59]. The two companion papers by Sánchez et al. and Martinez et al. [submitted] evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the feasibility/piloting of the implementa- tion strategy (see Fig. 1). In brief, they identify a set of key factors that facilitate or hinder the PVS program imple- mentation, show that it is feasible to improve its uptake in routine clinical practice and that contextual factors conditioned each center’s performance [41, 42].
The nature of the research requires citing substantial numbers of unpublished documents, mostly from the files of CEC. Hence I decided to use the Oxford system of referencing for the purposes of documentation. Whenever possible I have included the full name of the authors when they are first cited. The thesis uses American (US) English, as this is the convention used in the Philippines and in most of the CEC documents. When there are quotations in the local Filipino languages, whether in Tagalog, Bisaya or Hiligaynon these are first quoted in italics and then translated into English. I have tried to be more aware of my use of language in the thesis, given that gender sensitivity in language and practice continues to be something with which I struggle. However, I have decided not to change (for example see Table 2.1) or call attention (by inserting sic) to non-gender neutral language in quotations included in the text. To assist in situating areas mentioned in the thesis, a map of the Philippines including the relevant cities or provinces is provided as Map 1.1. More detailed maps are provided in each chapter whenever needed. The first numeral before the decimal point of each maps table, figure or appendix indicates the chapter in which they are first referred to. Hence Map 6.2 is the second map in chapter 6. I decided to use this convention, instead of sequential numbering, to facilitate finding these maps, tables, figures, or appendix when they are referred to later in the text.
As shown in the case studies in this book, participatory governance can result in improved public policies, better public services, and, as a result, enhanced development outcomes. Participatory governance can improve the quality and quantity of information fed into public decision making by producing information that comes from an important but neglected perspective, or that is more accurate and more representative, and by gen- erating better awareness of citizens needs, particularly of poorer, under- privileged groups. This, in turn, can lead to improved implementation through more effectively targeted programs and the need for fewer subse- quent adjustments. Citizen monitoring can ensure the rational use of resources and provide a safeguard against leakages, while citizen evalua- tion can provide feedback on problems or shortcomings in service deliv- ery and, ideally, propose collective solutions. In Kenya, Tajikistan, and Tanzania, for example, local level participatory governance initiatives supported by the Aga Khan Foundation have led to concrete improve- ments in priority sectors, such as education, health, water, and sanitation (Chapter 4). Participatory budgeting initiatives have resulted in improved roads and market infrastructure in Zimbabwe (Chapter 9), and decreased crime rates in Uganda and Canada (Chapters 7 and 10), while, in the Philippines, local government units, using social contracts, have realized millions of pesos in savings (Chapter 8).
This is the place in an article where we would say something like “Visual methods are increasingly popular in social science research” and then we would re-work some of the overview of the field, historical description paragraphs that we’ve included in some of our other work (for example, Wall et al 2013; 2012). However, in a book like this that’s a complete waste of everyone’s time: you’re likely to be reading this having already encountered many of the key texts (e.g. Prosser, 1998; Banks, 2001; Pink, 2007; Thomson, 2008; Margolis and Pauwels, 2011; Karlsson, 2012; Rose, 2007/2012) and if not, this by no means exhaustive list is presented as a separate section in the references. The motive for undertaking this chapter was to challenge, both in public discourse and in our own thinking, the casual and increasingly frequent elision of ‘visual’ and ‘participatory’ in discussions of research design. To illustrate this point, we originally intended to take a cross-section of recent papers in visual research, to perform a qualitative hermeneutic enquiry into how the place of the visual in relation to the participatory has been presented. This posed a number of problems for us, most crucially that when we looked at our own writing on visual methods and other methodological and research design issues we noticed that we have always concluded that what should be privileged is the researcher’s intent (Baumfield, et al, 2013; Lofthouse and Hall, 2014; Wall, et al 2013; Woolner et al, 2010). In trying to construct explanatory frameworks through what would essentially be a tertiary analysis, we might be able to demonstrate that the discourse around these ideas is ambiguous and problematic but we would have little if any warrant for saying anything about intent. Chastened, we realised that this chapter instead needed to be more reflexive, so we have opted to challenge the assumptions we carried into our own empirical work using visual
The irruption of agonistic practices is seen as a demo- cratic threat. Parkinson argues the use of mini-publics for adjudication by randomly selected citizens is a threat to deliberative democratic norms since it excludes active citizens from processes of reflective preference trans- formation. An agonist might share Parkinson’s concern about this exclusion of active citizens, though for a dif- ferent reason. The randomly-selected citizens of a citi- zens jury usually also play the roles of prosecution and defence, expected to quiz expert witnesses from differ- ent angles of the debate. There is a risk that, given these citizens are specifically selected because they are not ac- tive in the agonistic confrontation, this process abstracts too far from the conflict, and thus the jury will make proposals that are unacceptable to both sides. It is no- table that this tension is manifest in the practice of Beau- vais and Warren’s case: local partisans who had been instrumental in opposing the rejected neighbourhood plan forced the organisers to compromise on random se- lection for the citizens’ assembly to draft the new plan. Again, the authors view this as a threat to democratic norms of inclusion. These examples indicate two poten- tial benefits of a greater attention to an agonistic per- spective. It would provide the conceptual tools to ap- preciate when participatory processes take on an ago- nistic dimension and situate such practices in competing democratic norms, rather than viewing them simply as a democratic threat. In addition, it can assist the design of more appropriate institutional innovations, so that mini- publics are not used for rendering popular judgement de- spite question marks over their suitability for this task from deliberative and agonistic perspectives.
Zimmerman et al. (2010) discussed the formalization of methods in research through design by undertaking interviews with experienced researchers in the HCI domain. They suggested that researchers in HCI attempt to distinguish research through design from design practice in that the research allowed the designer to ignore commercial concerns in order to focus on new understanding of technology. This split between “theoretical” research and commercial practice may not always be true especially in the medical field. Karel Van der Waarde, who did his PhD on drug packaging design, including user engagement in design process, successfully commercialized his design approach because pharmaceutical companies needed the “scientific” validation that his research could provide (Rust 2012)3.
et al., 2006; Kindon et al., 2008). In the 1990s, more participatory research was conducted and textbooks that include PAR became more common (Selener, 1997; McIntyre, 2008). It has been reported that in the 21 st century, PAR is increasingly being used in healthcare research (MacDonald, 2012). Participation has been central to improving health since the WHO Health for All Strategy set importance on health promotion strategies (Baum et al., 2006); PAR was mainly used in low income countries for needs assessment, planning and evaluating health services (Selener, 1997). In the HCI discipline, the closest methodology to PAR is Participatory Design (PD). PD was introduced in the 1990s, inspired by “cooperative design”, the user centred design (UCD) approach in the Scandinavian countries (Jensen, 2013). PD is a set of theories, practices and studies related to end users as field participants in activities that lead to software and hardware computer products (Muller, 2003). Within the HCI discipline, PD is normally used to encompass two different groups of technology: developer and end user (Muller & Kuhn, 1993; Muller, 2002). According to Muller (2003), both researchers and practitioners are brought together within the context of technology design and development or other experiences in life. However, PAR is not limited to the design of solutions. Furthermore, Action Research (AR) investigates a phenomenon through intervention in a problematic situation (Bilandzic& Venable, 2011). It aims at solving practical problems and generating new knowledge in a collaborative way between researchers and participants in order to take action and make changes (MacDonald, 2012).The concepts of participation and action should be more than just identifying problems. They involve an action to instil positive change with the involvement of the “community of interest” (Walter, 2009). However, it is noted that PAR is more than a method. It is a methodology or a research design that comprises several methods of research and data analysis techniques combined to form PAR.The participatory approach is useful in investigating how industry practitioners, who create interactive technologies, develop their goal and motivation in order to cope with rapidly changing technologies and knowledge constraints. Participatory design is useful in assessing the practitioners‟ non-process and non-reported practices of their work in order to embed HCD and/or UXD principles.
Engineering consultancy company Sweco Nederland encourages the realization of a strong commitment to society. The company tries to offer solutions and ideas that benefit their stakeholders and the society. In this way, they hope to create support for a project. This is also the reason that Sweco wants to carry out citizen participation in the best possible way. Based on three cases, the citizen participatory process of Sweco will be analysed. The goal of this research is to develop the base for a citizen participation strategy. This will be done based on the evaluation and explanation of three planning processes. Thus, Sweco will gain better insight into their current method of citizen participation, to be able to organise their future approach more strategically. This will contribute to the creation of a greater support in the environment for a feature project and reduces the chance of disruptions or even cancellation of projects in the planning phase. This research uses scientific literature from civil engineering and public administration. For this literature, this research will be an addition to the little-researched link between problem context and the participatory process method. Besides, the previously not researched link between problem context and the participatory method will be examined (Hurlbert & Gupta, 2015).
the advancement of large-scale water mains systems making piped water, treated to drinking standards, available for all water-use purposes. This, in combination with the proliferation of high-intensity showering technologies, has fed into heightened societal expectations of washing frequency and cleanliness (Hand et al. 2005). Therefore, when considering how everyday household activities may be made more sustainable, increasing attention to how ‘ordinary’ consumption practices evolve through time is necessary (Shove 2010; Warde 2005). Key shapers of daily practices identified in this literature include; systems of provision, regulatory structures, material objects, practical knowledge and bodily actions along with related socio-cultural meanings. While this social practice-focused research has typically been rooted in analysing present configurations of living, an increasingly influential body of future-oriented research seeks to promote long-term transitions towards more sustainable socio-technical systems relating to water, energy or transport (Geels and Schot 2007; Rip and Kemp 1998). Techniques of visioning, backcasting and scenario planning, which are central to these endeavours, offer a means to create and explore alternative, normative future realities. Whilst often expert-led, such research does not exclude possibilities for higher levels of public engagement or even the creation of new civic spaces for discussion about alternative ways of meeting our everyday needs. It was from this perspective of exploring the possibilities for wider civic engagement through interactive science- art collaborations that WaterWise was formed.
Performance theorist Andrew Quick discusses the manner in which play destabilizes meaning, provokes transformations, generates something other than reality and challenges the limits of everyday. It is something we experience in order to reveal a world that is constructed out of “constant reinvention, constant flux” (Quick, 2004, p.144). “Play destructures,” (Quick, 2004, p. 160) and “interrupts those thought processes that normalize experience” (Quick, 2004, p.146) through role playing, chasing, turning ourselves and our worlds upside down. Play is the mode of work that allows artists to think laterally and follow unusual paths in practice and it is a fundamental element that stretches across this entire research project – as play goes hand in hand with experimentation, with trial and error. In developing these dance writing projects it was necessary to play with dance processes, different materials, collaborators, modes of editing and of folding pages together. This chapter engages most directly with formalized structures of play, in particular with card games and the rules that make up structures of interaction between players. Discussion of structures of interaction between players leads to a consideration of artist book as game and to the ways in which game rules both limit and create potential for movement to emerge within particular conceptual fields. The Insomnia Poems project presents dance writing as a form of game, ready to be played by multiple dancers simultaneously in the studio. Whereas the four other projects that make up the library of moving words experiment with various book forms (standard, accordion, altered, map), the Insomnia Poems instead take a non-bound form in order to allow a group of dancers to work independently, yet in different spaces, with ‘pages’ from the same series, in order to generate improvisational or choreographic structures. The mobility inherent in the cards is central to their design concept.
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a participatory eye care (PEC) program by comparing eye care knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP), as well as eye strain symptoms in staff computer users at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University, Thailand. Methods: A participatory approach was held by organizing a meeting of 26 stakeholders to get opinions for developing the PEC program. The developed PEC program consisted of 3-hour training course on eye strain, rest breaks for 30 seconds every 30 minutes of computer use, and 15-minute rest break (in the morning and the afternoon) with integrated eye–neck exercises. Then, a quasi-experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the PEC program. A total of 35 staff computer users enrolled in each of intervention and control groups for 8 weeks. Chi-square test and repeated measures analysis of variance were used for comparison of eye strain symptoms and the KAP scores.
Participatory management approach has become part and parcel of management in modern organization and its relevance in Moi University cannot be gainsaid. This study sought to: identify the types of participative mechanisms used at Moi University and investigate the views of employees toward participatory management system. A survey design was adopted as a framework to guide the study. The study targeted 2536 employees but a sample of 507 drawn proportionately across the entire organizational hierarchy, was selected using Stratified random sampling procedure to participate in the study. Participatory management was found to be beneficial to the organization in many ways such as boosting the employee morale, improving quality of decisions and trust between management and employees. However, its implementation in public institution must be done within the limits set in the statutes that created the organization. It was concluded that participatory management has not been very effective in Moi University because of management’s reluctance to share power, non-liberal information sharing, and crisis of confidence and lack of preparedness on the part of workers representations. It was recommended that university management should try to introduce changes that would reduce the current bureaucratic procedures that are in place in order to expand the space for employee participation.
In the atmosphere of accountability with its convention of audit, the arts were required to prove social benefit. In the context of state-led performance criteria, most research on the impact of participatory arts thus focused on measurement of isolated individual factors such as confidence and transferable skills (e.g. Williams 1997, Matarasso 1998, Jermyn 2001, Foster-Fishman et al 2005). Many video organisations became accredited to provide NVQs (National Vocational Qualifications) and video financing agencies such as First Light (a UK Film council youth initiative) make assessments on skill levels. In an outcome-focused climate, there is an argument for providing qualifications for those served badly by traditional routes. However, this focus is ethically questionable. With exceptions, many participants, such as those in prisons or with learning disabilities, are unlikely to find future work as video makers. It is clearly unfair to set up unrealistic expectations of unlikely future possibilities. Funding bodies can more easily rationalise projects within such parameters, and professionals are distracted by managing impressions and ticking boxes (Mayo, Hoggett and Miller 2007) to demonstrate outputs geared to government targets. The notion of individual success, based on competition with others less adept, perpetuates social division. In comparison, it is working together, to achieve common goals, which may bring people most actual satisfaction through feelings of belonging (Douthwaite 1996:362). To counter the social fragmentation resulting from global capitalism, there is a need to forge a more humane world beyond market values. In this sense the failure to value the potential of new media to bring people together, to collaborate across difference on their own terms, may miss what could be its most important contemporary contribution. I think shared cultural activity, such as Real Time’s group based video processes, can if conditions are favourable increase the capacity for collective action (Matarasso 2007). My interest is thus primarily on how participatory video can shift dynamics beyond individualism to social focus. To this end, it is important to realise that video can hinder rather than help.
Results: POD implementation and delivery was fully accomplished in four wards. On these wards, implementation strategies informed by Normalization Process Theory operated synergistically and cumulatively. An interactive staff training programme on delirium and practices that might prevent it among those at risk, facilitated purposeful POD engagement. Observation of practice juxtaposed to action on delirium preventive interventions created tension for change, legitimating new ways of organising work around it. Establishing systems, processes and documentation to make POD workable in the ward setting, enhanced staff ownership. ‘ Negotiated experimentation ’ to involve staff in creating, appraising and modifying systems and practices, helped integrate the POD care system in ward routines. Activating these change mechanisms required a particular form of leadership: pro-active ‘ steer ’ , and senior ward ‘ facilitator ’ to extend ‘ reach ’ to the staff group. Organisational discontinuity (i.e. ward re-location and re-modelling) disrupted and extended POD implementation; staff shortages adversely affected staff capacity to invest in POD. Findings resulted in the development of ‘ site readiness ’ criteria without which implementation of this complex intervention was unlikely to occur.