The study was conducted at Andhra Mahila Sabha hospital located at Adayar which is a semi-urban area of Chennai. The hospital is 200 bedded which has Labour room with four Labour table and equipments like Cardiotocography machine, warmer and life saving drugs and equipments for Obstetric and Medical Emergencies. On an average 90 – 120 parturient mothers undergo normal vaginal delivery every month. The hospital also has postnatal ward, post operative ward, NICU, operation theatre, laboratory and other diagnostic facilities like scanning. They also provide Immunization and conduct teaching programmes for the staff and the patients and do referral to government agencies in need.
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The study was conducted at Andhra Mahila Sabha hospital located at Adayar which is a semi-urban area of Chennai. The hospital is 200 bedded which has Labour room with four Labour table and equipments like Cardiotocography machine, warmer and life saving drugs and equipments for Obstetric and Medical Emergencies. On an average 100 – 200 parturient mothers undergo normal vaginal delivery every month. The hospital also has postnatal ward, post operative ward, NICU, operation theatre, laboratory and other diagnostic facilities like scanning. They also provide Immunization and conduct teaching programmes for the staff and the patients and do referral to government agencies in need.
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A study on reduction of pain in child birth at 2005 revealed that 69% of birthing mothers used atleast one non pharmacologic method to relieve pain and increase comfort during their labour. Most frequently used were breathing techniques, position changes, movement followed by relaxation and visualization or hypnosis. As many as one in five parturient mothers used hands on technique such as massage and labour acupressure. These two hands on technique were rated very helpful by vast majority which is 91% of the mothers. The popularity of these pain relieving methods is based on the simplicity and easiness to use them anywhere without any special and expensive tools. This is an addition to highly satisfactory level of relief from labour pain.
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Majority of the parturient mothers in both the group were housewives (76.6%), where the mother can take adequate rest during her pregnancy and can free from psychological stress, which is an important factor in promoting maternal and fetal wellbeing. Most of the mothers were in joint families. Joint families are like microorganism of entire world. They are the first training grounds where people learn interpersonal skills. People in joint families learn lessons of patient tolerance, cooperation and adjustment and collective responsibility. It’s also help to pregnant mothers gain parenting process from support the grandparents and other relatives.
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The present study results showed that there was a significant difference found in the perineal trauma and perineal pain of parturient mothers between the study Group I and study Group II at p=0.000 level. The parturient mothers in study Group I (hands-off technique) had less perineal trauma and perineal pain than study Group II (hands-on technique). Vaginal births are often associated with some form of trauma to the genital tract, which can sometimes be associated with the significant short- and long-term problems for the woman. Different perineal techniques and interventions such as hands-on technique, hands-off technique, perineal massage, and warm compresses can be widely used by midwives and birth attendants to prevent perineal trauma.
CA process was carried out by a single experienced anesthesiologist at the hospital. At first, parturient mother’s vital signs were monitored and in order to prevent hypotension, 500 mL Ringer was infused. Pregnant women were in sitting position and their lumbar skin was disinfected using povidone iodine. For epidural analgesia, 18-gauge or 17-gauge Tuohy needle was inserted into the space between the vertebrae L4, L3 to be placed at the epidural space. Then, a thin needle was inserted into the spinal subarachnoid space through the lumen of the epidural needle injecting anesthetic solution containing 1.7 mL sofental and 2 mg marcaine. Afterward, spinal needle was removed and a catheter was passed into the epidural space through the lumen of the epidural needle. After removing the needle and fixing the catheter, anesthetic solution (3 mL of lidocaine 1.5% along with epinephrine) was infused. After 3-5 minutes, anesthetic solution containing 17 mg of marcaine was infused within 1 to 3 minutes.
Once the women progressed to the second stage of labour, she was selected based on the criteria and the investigator developed rapport with the mother, met all the basic needs and provided comfortable bed and the demographic data were collected from the mother. Case record was checked and per vaginal examination was done. The investigator gave explanation to the mother regarding draining the umbilical cord during the third stage after separating the baby and got verbal consent from her. According to the purposive sampling technique thirty mothers were assigned to control group and thirty to experimental group.
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Anita Dimaan: Pain and its relief for women in labour has been subject of interest since the dawn of mankind. The women experience upto 57 del of pain during childbirth. This is similar to 20 bones getting fractured at a time. Severe pain makes stress response with harmful effects on both mother, and her fetus. The World Health Organization (WHO) (2009) has recommended that a parturient woman be allowed to have a birth companion she trusts and with whom she feels at ease. However, these recommendations do not tend to be followed
The conceptual framework of this study was based on modified Weiden Bach‟s helping art theory of clinical nursing model (1964). This model describes a desired situation and the way to attain it. It has three components which include indentifying the need for help, ministering the need for help, validating the need for help. First component of this model involves the need for help, which was made by assessing the level of pain perception among primi parturient mothers. Second component involves ministering the needed help, which was met by administering the nursing interventions such as Holding hands, Talking to the women, Helps in proper positioning, Inform mother about labour process, wipes the sweat ,Rubs the thigh, back, legs, Present with the mother in the labour room, Encourage the mother to take deep breath Third component involves validating the needed help, which was met by evaluation of post assessment level of pain perception.
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chemical profile was normal. Echocardiography indicated a sinus tachycardia. Cardiac ultraso- nography revealed no abnormalities in left ven- tricular function. Unfortunately, the fetal dis- tress forced urgent cesarean section with uncontrolled hyperthyroidism. Antithyroid drugs propylthiouracil (150 mg) and propranolol (20 mg) were given orally 1 hour before surgery. Postoperative intensive care unit (PICU) admis- sion was also anticipated. A signed written informed consent of using dexmedetomidine was obtained from the parturient before surgery.
According to previous registered informa- tion in admission office of labor room in Hos- pital of 29 Bahmanin Tabriz (the study envi- ronment), 100 parturient women who had in- clusion criteria admitted monthly in labor room and because the researcher considered three months for sampling process, from among 300 women who were supposed to be admitted during the next three months, two sets of 50 random numbers were selected ac- cording to the number list of admission in ma- ternity ward. The first set randomly (drawing) was dedicated to routine care group and the second set to the continuous care group. In the labor room, 4 or 5 midwives were present and took care of clients. For example, labor and clo- sure of episiotomy incision were done by dif- ferent midwifes. Thus, the number of total ca- regivers during labor was 5-6 people. Mean- while, in the experimental group, the total number of caregivers hardly reached 3 people and on the other hand, the caring midwife con- tinuously was present at her bedside.
Cows stressed by recumbency (groups PP and R) had significantly higher levels of cortisol and glucose. Ele- vated plasma cortisol during spontaneous hypocalcaemia in ruminants has also been shown previously by Horst and Jörgensen . A relationship between milk fever and DA in cows has been described by van Dorp et al , and experimentally induced hyperglycaemia is reported to significantly reduce the rate of outflow of abomasal fluid in dairy cows . The plasma glucose lev- els used in that experiment were similar to the ones observed in the PP and R in our study. If the hyperglycae- mia at parturition seen in cows with parturient paresis is high enough to influence the abomasal emptying rate later in early lactation is hard to say. We have no further information about DA from the cows in our PP or R groups.
However, due to education, culture, beliefs and cosmetic purposes, various other practices exist among community dwellers. 7 Although colostrum is very important to the newborn as it contains protein that is three times the quantity present in mature milk and rich in ten amino acids, some tribes in Nigeria, dissuade use of colostrum, (the first milk from the breast). 7 Furthermore, despite being rich in antibiotics, some Nigerian tribes still regard colostrum as stale milk that should be discarded to prevent morbidity to new born. 7 The misconceptions about breast milk also made some nursing mothers to express and discard their breast milk if they stay stayed away from their infant for four to six hours. Such mothers believe that the milk is sour, hot and contaminated since the baby did not have access to the milk for more than four hours. Furthermore, breast milk has been proposed by unorthodox practitioners as medications, and treatment of conjunctivitis, other eye problems and ear conditions. Some communities practice wet nursing where a neighbour or a relative breast-feeds a baby where the mother is not available. There might be risk of HIV transmission if the wet nurse is HIV positive. It is therefore pertinent to note most Nigerians are unaware of their HIV status. Despite the usefulness of breast milk, a study carried out in a semi-urban town in South-Eastern Nigeria, still showed only 35% of the 400 respondents practiced exclusive breast feeding. 8 The main reasons for not practicing EBF reported in the study were that EBF was very stressful, mother's refusal, and the feeling that EBF was not necessary. Thirty five (13.7%) of the women were constrained by time while the husband's refusal accounted for 1.5% of the reasons for non-practice of exclusive breastfeeding. 8 Another study conducted in Turkey revealed that nearly half of the women (45.4%) fed their babies with water containing sugar just after the birth. 9
The current report on the prevalence of gestational, pla- cental and congenital malaria in parturient women from a highly malaria endemic region of Colombia, further defines the epidemiology of this infection in the country. A major limitation of the study is the absence of follow- up at the antenatal clinic and the recruitment in a passive fashion. This resulted in the inclusion of a popu- lation which might not precisely reflect the dimension of the malaria problem during pregnancy. Nevertheless, the fact that all studied subjects were asymptomatic for mal- aria, suggests that the figures herein published under- estimate the actual frequency of gestational malaria. Current ongoing studies, overcome this limitation by including recruitment at the antenatal clinics and follow-up until delivery.
Twelve mothers with SMA type III and IV were followed during their pregnancy, labor, and delivery, out of which three required a cesarean delivery. The mothers’ ages ranged from 18–32 years, and they gave birth to a total of 17 babies. Premature labor, prolonged labor, and delayed postpartum recovery were observed in 10 cases. Increased muscle weakness in the second trimester was observed in eight women and persisted postpartum in five women; three cases recovered postpartum. No details of the anesthetic management of these cases were given, and no SMA type II case was in the series.
Abstract: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic. It is associated with increased comorbidities and increased maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications. The risk of cesarean delivery is also increased in obese parturients. Anesthetic management of the obese parturient is challenging and requires adequate planning. Therefore, those patients should be referred to antenatal anes- thetic consultation. Anesthesia-related complications and maternal mortality are increased in this patient population. The risk of difficult intubation is increased in obese patients. Neuraxial techniques are the preferred anesthetic techniques for cesarean delivery in obese parturients but can be technically challenging. An existing labor epidural catheter can be topped up for cesarean delivery. In patients who do not have a well-functioning labor epidural, a combined spinal epidural technique might be preferred over a single-shot spinal technique since it is technically easier in obese parturients and allows for extending the duration of the block as required. A continuous spinal technique can also be considered. Studies suggest that there is no need to reduce the dose of spinal bupivacaine in the obese parturient, but there is little data about spinal dosing in super obese parturients. Intraoperatively, patients should be placed in a ramped position, with close monitoring of ventilation and hemodynamic status. Adequate postoperative analgesia is crucial to allow for early mobilization. This can be achieved using a multimodal regimen incorporating neuraxial morphine (with appropriate observations) with scheduled nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen. Thromboprophylaxis is also important in this patient population due to the increased risk of thromboembolic complica- tions. These patients should be monitored carefully in the postoperative period, since there is increased risk of postoperative complications in the morbidly obese parturients.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between several health disorders: milk fever (MF; hypocalcaemia and parturient paresis), retained placenta (RP; retained foetal membranes), metritis (ME; endometritis and pyometra), ovarian cysts (OC; follicular and luteal cysts), clinical mastitis (CM), and lameness (LS; foot and leg problems) as affecting the reproductive performance of dairy cows. The dataset of 1 432 Holstein cows calving between January 2000 and April 2004 from 4 commercial dairy herds was analyzed by the linear regression model which included the effects of herd-year-season of calving, parity, FCM yield level, incidences of studied fertility and health disorders, and regression on the first calving age within parity. It was proved that ferti- lity disorders relating to parturition, such as RP and ME, had a significant influence (P < 0.01 to P < 0.0001) on the evaluated reproduction parameters, i.e. days from calving to the first AI service (DAI), open days (OD), and the number of inseminations needed for conception (NAI). A significant effect (P < 0.0001) of OC on all reproduction parameters was also found. Mastitis and lameness occurring during lactation had significant effects on OD and NAI (P < 0.05 to P < 0.0001). The milk fever occurrence was related significantly only to a longer period to the 1 st AI (P < 0.01). In general, cows with health disorders are inseminated later and they conceived later after their
The fear and misconceptions of receiving epidural labour analgesia among mothers in developing countries with poor resources have been a major concern to many obstetricians. In comparing the APGAR scores of neonates from both study groups, in order to determine their state of conditions after delivery, this study showed the APGAR score at the first minute of life outside the uterus, yielding no significance difference (P-value = 0.55). A similar report was made by Soncini et al.  and Mousa et al. (2012). However, neonatal compromises did occur when there was a prolonged second stage of labour. Epidural analgesia has been cited to be associated with lower respiratory APGAR scores among neonates . Whenever maternal hypotension occurred and was not resolved quickly enough it led to fetal or neonatal asphyxia. At the fifth minute, there was no significant difference in APGAR scores after neonatal assessment in both groups (P-value = 0.34), which was an observation which Nakamura et al.  also submitted in. When the neonates were assessed at the tenth minute, the APGAR scores recorded showed no statistical significance (P-value = 0.58). At this level, the neonate might have received enough resuscitation to be able to thrive and adjust well to life. This may potentially supports the assertion that with proper maternal and fetal monitoring epidural analgesia has the possibility of being safe with no significant effect on the neonatal outcome, but would require further research with a larger population sample.
Results: There were 703 (78.90%) Caesareans in emergency and 188 (21.09%) programmed Caesareans. The obesity which has been recovered at 286 partu- rient is 32.10%. The obese parturient also required more frequently several lumbar punctures (p < 0.001) at the time of the spinal anesthesia and more of conversion of the spinal anesthesia into a general anesthesia (p = 0.008). The postoperative complications: laryngeal pain, back pain and suppuration of the wound were more frequent at the obese parturient. Conclusion: Many changes led by pregnancy are added to those of the obesity to drive to func- tional changes, a reduction of the physiological reserve and finally to an in- How to cite this paper: Hode, A.K., Zou-
0.82-0.83. This suggests on lower Mg/Ca ratio in food/fodder .Provincial data for Hypomagnesemia (Hypomagnesemia and “Laidunhalvaus” together) and Parturient hypocalcaemia (HCa), “Poikimahalvaus” are from monthly reports of veterinary surgeons to Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry , containing ca 15 labels of treatments for cows. This source includes data from Decembers 1979, 1981, 1983, 1985, 1989, 1991, 1992 and 1993 and annual data from 1994, 1995 and 1996(Table 3). HMg cells from 1979- 1993 include 7 empty cells and value of 8 cells was only 1. Data on Parturient hypocalcaemia are from the same source  (Table 4).
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