Generally, past behaviour can be referred to as an action or reaction of a person in response to any stimuli in the past. Aarts, Verplanken, and Knippenberg (1998) argued that “because of frequent performance in similar situations in the past, these mental representations and the resulting action can be automatically activated by environmental cues” (p. 1359). An individual maintains his/her behaviour in a unique way and this can lead to behavioural biases. Many types of behavioural biases exist and they can be applied for investigating behaviour. Cognitive biases which are referred to as the tendencies to think and act in particular ways is one example of behavioural biases. Cognitive biases can lead to systematic deviations from a good judgement thereby, resulting in irrational decisions. Literature (Fiedler, 2016; Meiser & Hewstone, 2006) has revealed that cognitive biases lead to illusionary correlations which allow people to overestimate the extent of the correlation between two distinct variables. In addition, cognitive biases may also be related to the individual’s tendency to allow a typical past behaviour to exert biased decisions on future behaviours (Morewedge & Todorov, 2012). In this study, past behavioural biases are examined in the form of cognitive biases. These are represented by anchoring, representativeness and availability biases. Anchoring occurs when a person experiences something and makes it as a referral point (anchor) to make a subsequent decision. Representativeness is a cognitive bias where an individual categorises situations on the basis of the patterns of past experiences, under the condition of uncertainty. Finally, the availability bias is termed as a cognitive error in decision making when a person relies on the readily available information in his/her mind rather than examining the whole circumstances. Based on the arguments, this study hypothesises that:
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After providing consent, participants were randomised to complete questionnaires on either F & V or unhealthy snack con- sumption. Subsequently, participants read either the UK govern- ment's guidelines to eat 5 portions of F & V per day or to limit unhealthy snacking. An ‘ unhealthy snack ’ was de ﬁ ned as all foods consumed between the three main meals (i.e., breakfast, lunch, and dinner) containing high levels of fat, sugar and/or salt, and low levels of micronutrients (Verhoeven, Adriaanse, de Vet, Fennis, & de Ridder, 2014). Example portion sizes were given for each behaviour. Participants then reported their beliefs regarding the likelihood, timing, and valence of potential outcomes of eating F & V/unhealthy snacks before completing measures of their intention to eat F & V/ unhealthy snacks, self-control, habit strength, past behaviour, and perceived cues in the environment. Finally, participants reported demographic details. One week later participants were emailed a link to the follow-up questionnaire which assessed their con- sumption of F & V or unhealthy snacks over the previous week.
In the context of my earlier research, the behaviour/attitude discrepancies of those chaotic heroin addicts were manifestly in the public domain. Relatives and neighbours were well aware of the addicts’ behaviour and would often voice critical comments. Reflecting at the conclusion of that earlier study on the possibilities for further research, my initial suggestions centred around changes to the cultural context and hence researching behaviour/attitude dissonance amongst addicts in the UK. However, the research question which has now emerged for this current work is based on a different variant, namely changing the domain in which the discrepancies are manifest from public to private. Thus the question is now asked, ‘how do people ‘of good standing within their local church’ maintain moral equilibrium when there are discrepancies between the ideals to which they aspire and their awareness of how they have behaved?’ In this new situation, contrary to that of the Pakistani heroin addicts, immoral behaviour will be remembered, if at all, only by the individual, and will not be the subject of any popular gossip or communal discourse. In this new situation, the community affirms a positive public image of the ‘person of good standing’, who may have to deal with, internally and in private, behaviour from the past which would be contrary to that positive public presentation. Rather than the focus still being on any discrepancy between current behaviour and social norms as examined in my previous research, the discrepancy is now between past behaviour and aspirational ideals. So, for example, the Pakistani heroin addict would have been condemned for not
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Abstract: This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour, The Stages of Change Model, Self-Determination Theory and Temporal Self-Regulation Theory. The evidence for interventions which are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of available evidence varies by the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change. The theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour change. The theories make explicit factors which influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making
Third, the present study added to the literature by exploring the moderating effects of self- identity. Specifically, the current findings showed that, in line with Charng and colleagues’ research (1988), past behaviour became significantly stronger predictors of intention and behaviours as self- identity became stronger. This result supports the assumptions of identity theory, suggesting that the self-concept drives intentions and behaviour for repeated behaviours. Moreover, similar to the findings of Terry et al. (1999), the present work found that the predictive role of PBC on intentions was reduced as self-identity increased. This outcome is contrary to the Cheng and Chiu (2014) findings, which showed that higher self-identity was associated with stronger intentions (to enrol in business ethics courses) when PBC was stronger. It might be that the perception of personal control in engaging pro-environmental behaviour was more relevant for Italian householders who did not define themselves as strongly pro-environmentalist; and vice-versa, those who affirmed their pro- environmental identity with appropriate behaviour, accorded less importance to the eventual factors that might facilitate or impede planned pro-environmental behaviours. Similar to Gardner et al. (2012), we found no evidence that self-identity moderated the intention-behaviour relationship.
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Attitudes have the strongest effect on PT information use: the more positive, the stronger the intention is to consult PT information. Subjective norms and past behaviour also affect information use. Respondents who say they would be encouraged by important others to look up PT information indicate more often that they intend to do so. This finding implies that social context influences how people reach their travel decisions. Indeed, it has been found that word-of-mouth recommendations to use a certain bus service affects the intention to do so (Taniguchi and Fuji, 2006). Having looked up PT information for a similar journey in the past positively affects the desire to consult information for a comparable trip in the future. The researched social-psychological factors are interdependent. Past behaviour positively affects attitudes: if respondents consulted PT information previously, they tend to have a more favourable opinion of looking up information. These outcomes show the importance of a positive past experience with consulting PT information and the potential of word-of-mouth marketing initiatives for the use of PT information services.
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Here we basically analyze the users search history based on recommender system. Recommender systems are based on information about a user's past patterns and consumption patterns in general and recommend new items to the user. Also the analysis is done with the help of personalized search whereas this search refers to the search experiences that are tailored specifically to an individual's interests by incorporating information about the individual beyond specific query provided. After performing both the search we apply a Dempster–Shafer theory (DST) rule. This rule derives shared belief between multiple sources and ignores non-shared/conflicting belief through a normalization factor.
and Scheinkman (2002) show that social multiplier e¤ects exist for example in the context of demographics and crime or among Dartmouth college roommates. We theoretically analyse two mechanisms how reciprocal customers cause social multiplier e¤ects in customer markets when customers have heterogeneous motivations. The …rst multiplier e¤ect results from a positive externality that reciprocal customers generate in the market by providing incentives for fully self- interested non-reciprocal customers (who would choose to leave the market if left on their own) to also enter the market. Reciprocal customers “crowd-in” non- reciprocal customers. The second multiplier e¤ect results from social ties among customers. We show that if reciprocal customers have social relations among each other, …rms have an additional incentive to provide good quality because doing so may attract reciprocal customers from competing …rms. This, in turn, provides additional incentives for non-reciprocal customers to enter the market. In other words, social ties tend to crowd-in reciprocal customers from competing …rms which, in turn, tends to crowd-in non-reciprocal customers. We show that the existence of reciprocal customers is key to this result since social ties per se—in the absence of reciprocal customers—do not improve market performance. To demonstrate these social multiplier e¤ects in the most parsimonious way, we use a …nitely repeated trust game (see James 2002 for a survey) as the basic building block of our model. Our model is “behavioural” in that it integrates insights from experimental economics into a standard game-theoretic analysis. Our model takes into account the general …nding from experimental economics that agents are heterogeneous with respect to their motivations (see Camerer 2003). In particular, we model three types of customers: sophisticated types who are perfectly self-interested and forward-looking, reciprocal types who make their shopping decisions contingent on past …rm behaviour, and loyal types who buy from one …rm regardless of their experience. The focus of our model is on the (indirect) e¤ects of reciprocal customers because mounting evidence from experimental studies suggests that reciprocity is a basic and common motivational drive (see Fehr and Gächter 2000 for a survey).
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stressors e.g. job loss, as well as, to those stressors unique to the minority status e.g. job discrimination 4 . Given the cisnormative, heterosexist structure of North American society, in which people are assumed to be cissexual (i.e. not transsexual), and heterosexual, distal minority stress processes or prejudice events will inevitably occur 4,14,15,28 . Stressors are then perceived and appraised by the individual, and proximal minority stress processes may occur. Appraisal processes are those in which meaning is ascribed to the occurrence of some stressor, e.g., according to Brooks 9 (p75) “the stress of not getting a job promotion for which one is fully qualified might produce a moderate amount of stress for any individual. If, however, the person not receiving the promotion is a woman and the person receiving the promotion is a man, the meaning of the event to the woman may be affected by its structural implications. If she has experienced previous incidents of denied opportunities in her career on the basis of sex, the current denial of opportunity may have a different meaning for her than for an individual who had not previously experienced sex-based job discrimination”. The stress processes that then occur may include expectations of rejection, concealment of one’s minority identity (if possible), internalized homophobia in the case of lesbian, bisexual, and gay persons 4 and, I will add, internalized transphobia in the case of trans individuals; or often some combination of all these. In some instances, the minority identity may become a resource that provides to the individual opportunities for positive affiliation, social support and coping that can lessen the effects of stress 4 . Thus, where one individual crumbles under the pressure of minority stress, another may find a strength in his minority affiliations that enhances his self-esteem and his ability to cope with not just minority stress but other types of stress as well. Minority stress may thus have opposite effects in different individuals; increasing maladaptive behaviour by some, and adaptive behaviour by others.
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= (-(p^3)*cos(p*L)-(p^3)*cosh(p*L)-(k/(E*I))*sin(p*L)+(k/(E*I))*sinh(p*L))); ------- (iv) To obtain an approximate solution, the value of the stiffness was not taken into account for the elastic end- constraint at the free end. Using high computing facilities and numerical methods, the solution can be reached. After having obtained the wave number, the natural frequency of the cantilever beam can be calculated. And, from the elementary strength of materials, the natural frequency due to the presence of the additional mass can be evaluated. The two natural frequencies can be used in equation (iii), to obtain the natural frequency of the entire system. In the past, many researchers have analysed the dynamic behaviour of a cantilever beam, under the action of moving loads, using techniques like double Laplace transform, Green’s function, influence coefficients method, modal superposition method and so on. But, in this paper, a subtle approach leads us to analyse the effects of the moving mass on the system natural frequency. In real-life situations, a lot of problems similar to one analysed here appears and there is a need of designing the structural members. Such a simple approach can lead us to satisfactory results.
"inner logic" of that intellectual development, and should be sought in its interplay with external factors. By external factors I am specifically referring to those historical circumstances that had generated a strong sense of national crisis among Chinese intellectuals as a result of foreign encroachment, such as the Manchu conquest of China in the 17th century. This event compelled Chinese scholars to raise questions about the value of the metaphysical study of classics, "li-hsiieh", that had dominated Chinese philosophical thought since the 11th century. This provoked an opposition which centred its attention to the study of "history" vis-ä-vis "the classics" by Ku Yen-wu, Wang Fu-chih, and Huang Tsung-hsi whose works, not surprisingly, remained a source of inspiration in the field of modem Chinese nationalistic historiography. Subsequent hostile foreign intrusions, from the Opium War to the first Japanese invasion, caused Chinese scholars to raise questions about the reason for China’s successive defeats and the competence of Chinese military technology, industry, bureaucracy, institutions, science and national ethos - in short, about Chinese culture as a whole. These questions are ultimately historical questions (when need for reform or revolution were often justified by the interpretation of the nation’s past). By extension, the question of the value and relevance of classical learning and its lesser counterpart, historiography, was again raised, particularly in the light of accumulated
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Despite the substantial variance in responses at the interviewer level, interviewers ’ gender was associated with relatively few variables. There were substantive (i.e., more than 10 percentage points), if non-significant, differences by gender-of-interviewer for several variables and signifi- cant differences for two question topics: SES and sex-work related violence. We were unable to determine in this analysis whether the gender-of-interviewer differ- ences seen reflect social distance or social desirability, since there was no variation in respondent gender. How- ever, our finding that the largest gender-of-interviewer effects exist for topics which have substantial gender com- ponents (i.e., SES and IPV) provides support for social role theory. Specifically, FSWs reported having lower SES and more recent sex-work related IPV to female interviewers. This was in contrast to almost no reporting difference for questions such as age, marital status, pregnancy history and perceived risk of being HIV-positive. These findings highlight that, while matching interviewers and respon- dents on key characteristics may not be feasible, the influ- ence of interviewer-respondent dyad characteristics should evaluated for analysis on topics with strong social role expectations, such as gender-based violence and economic behaviour.
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A similar situation was to be found in accounts of non-human primate social behaviour (Hrdy 1981, 1986; Schiebinger 1999; Strum and Fedigan 1999, 2000). Early studies happened to devote more observational and theoretical attention to the activities of male primates. Individuals were categorizes as dominant males, peripheral males, and females / young, so to the extent that the social role of female primates was investigated, it often boiled down to reproduction and rearing offspring. Indeed, even if the scope of research is not overall social behaviour but more specifically sexual behaviour, female sexuality cannot be restricted to reproductive sex, as philosopher Elizabeth Lloyd (1993, 2005) has argued. She points to studies who run afoul of this by observing male-female sex only or more explicitly considering female behaviour as sexual only if it is reproductive, 15 even though it is known that in many primate species females engage in sexual activities outside the estrus (and thus independently of reproduction) and in bonobos among others there are widespread female-female sexual interactions.
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effect is likely to be minimised if behavioural difficulties are fully accounted for in behaviour assessments for sustainable food products, particularly employing actual behaviour data. There is an ample ground to suggest that attitude-behaviour gap has become popular in sustainable purchase behaviour research as a result of relying on claimed/reported behaviour data that is susceptible to social desirability effects. Taken the veil off by using actual behaviour data demystifies attitude-behaviour gap, which has been used as a musk that confides behaviour difficulty order factors such as price, past purchase, product availability and variety to the fringes of sustainable food purchase behaviour research. Drawing on Campbell’s paradigm ensures that a more realistic consumer behaviour for sustainable food products will be observed and utilised to explain why the market shares of sustainable products remain relatively small (Luchs et al., 2010). The findings of this study based on actual behavioural data shows there are fundamental challenges confronting sustainable product customers and the managers tasked with promotion of sustainable purchase. We suggest that the conundrum arising out of the remarkable progress made by the sustainable food industry in terms of public awareness as compared to the persistent small market share is a creation of the lack of studies that have used objective measures to assess sustainable food product purchase behaviour.
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An explanation for this a priori paradoxical behaviour of the LGM jet stream is found in the latitude-height structure of the temperature anomaly field. In the RCP case, the up- per tropospheric meridional temperature gradient strength- ens due to both an upper-tropospheric tropical warming and a polar stratospheric cooling. This behaviour is also found in the evolution from LGM to PI, but an additional factor comes into play: from LGM to PI, the three models which simulate an equatorward shift of the westerlies are those who simulate a strong warming in the lower troposphere over and around Antarctica. This could be due to the decreased altitude of the Antarctic ice sheet, even though this decrease is strong only over West Antarctica, and to possible sea ice cover changes between the LGM and PI states.
preceded continental ice thinning, and/or that grounding-line retreat proceeded westward from the WRS towards the coast. Dynamic ERS ice-stream behaviour has been hypothe- sised, including pre-LGM retreat and subsequent readvance (Bart and Owolana, 2012). ERS marine radiocarbon ages suggest very early retreat from the continental shelf break during or before the LGM (Licht and Andrews, 2002; Mosola and Anderson, 2006; Bart and Cone, 2012; Anderson et al., 2014), although methods for obtaining these dates remain highly problematic due to possible reworking of old carbon (Licht and Andrews, 2002) and uncertainties of appropriate marine reservoir corrections (Hall et al., 2010). Conversely, terrestrial studies of ice-sheet thinning and measurements of post-glacial rebound in Marie Byrd Land indicate that ERS deglaciation occurred throughout the Holocene (Stone et al., 2003; Bevis et al., 2009). A comprehensive review of Ross Sea deglaciation is provided by Anderson et al. (2014), re- viewing the extensive work that has been done in this region. Outstanding challenges in the Ross Sea include integrating and improving marine and terrestrial chronologies, as well as constraining the contributions of the EAIS and WAIS to ice flow in the Ross Sea, their respective behaviour, and their sensitivity to various forcings. Here we use the entire Ross Sea glacial geomorphological record to reconstruct the re- gional pattern of deglaciation and provide a spatial frame- work for interpreting point sources of information such as cores and ages.
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assignments, which could result in a higher grade. However, skipping class may also have the expected risk of missing information that is required for the exam, which could result in a lower grade. Fromme and her colleagues found that the expectation of possible positive consequences was positively and reliably associated with the participants’ involvement in risky activities. For this reason, the CARE measurement includes three scales, which are (1) Expected Risk, (2) Expected Benefit, and (3) Expected Involvement. Each of these three scales is subdivided into risk domains, resulting in six Expected Risk subscales, six Expected Benefit subscales, and six Expected Involvement subscales. In the current study, only the subscales that assess risk perception and behaviour in the domains of drug use, alcohol use, risky sexual behaviour, and risky academic behaviours were of interest, so the subscales assessing aggressive / illegal behaviours and high-risk sports were removed prior to testing.
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The questionnaire was drafted in English with the help of two Laotian social scientists, translated into Lao Language and back translated to English to ensure accuracy and val- idity. For this study, the questionnaire consisted of three parts: I general information about the interview, interviewer and interviewee; II socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, sex, religion and marital status; and III health seek- ing behaviour . Socio-economic variables were designed after reviewing the past studies from various regions within Laos [28, 29, 34], Vietnam , Cambodia , Thai-Myanmar border  and The Gambia [37, 38]. In addition, questions on socio-economic status have been re- cently used in sub-studies from the TME villages in Laos [9, 12]. Questions on health seeking behaviour for febrile illness were constructed after reviewing the past studies, conducted in Laos [28, 29], Cambodia , Uganda  and Ghana  and further adapted to suit the local cul- tural context.
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With more and more information available on the internet, the task of making personalized recommendations to assist the user’s navigation has become increasingly important. Web usage mining requires to model user web navigation behaviour. Markov models are very useful to model this scenario. Some of the algorithms proposed uses clustering approach. A dynamic clustering based method can be used to increase accuracy of Markov Models . In clustering based methods, classic distance based clustering evaluation method determines distance between an object and cluster centroid are not suitable in the model based clustering domain . Yang Liu, Xiangji , proposed a model to capture user access sequences as stochastic process, using mixture of Markov models for defining relationship in user accesses. The prediction accuracy of these Markov models can be increased with higher order Markov models. Current frameworks are not suitable hence fails . Apart from these Markov based models; some new models are exists for prediction of pages such as WebPUM . In this approach navigation patterns are clustered for online prediction.
24 are seldom very different genetically but they are often quite different culturally (Bell et al. 2009). A number of properties of cultural evolution make it easier to generate and preserve cultural variation at the level of tribes and other large groups (Richerson and Boyd 2005: 203-6). For example, social institutions usually include a system of rewards that favour those who conform to the institution and punishments for those who don’t, damping down individual-level variation within groups (Bowles and Gintis 2011). Immigrants, particularly child immigrants, tend to adopt the culture of their hosts and lose the culture of their ancestors even as they interbreed and pass their genes into their host group. Prosocial emotions would have acted as biases favouring institutions that better satisfied these emotions, and many of the most powerful societies throughout history, including China, Rome, and the modern West have grown by selective immigration (Boyd and Richerson 2009). The “design space” for social institutions is very large, in part because a system of rewards and punishments can stabilize almost any pattern of behaviour (e.g. Aoki 2001). Human competition is very often between organizations: a simplified example would be that, in most modern economies, anti-competitive behaviour between firms is outlawed so that consumers can enjoy the benefits of business firms having to compete to produce better and less expensive products.
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