The process of transforming plain text to an unreadable format using a cipher is called encryption. Data Encryption is used to encrypt the confidentialdata to prevent any unauthorized access. Data Encryption is carried out before embedding of data into the signal to provide additional security. Various encryption techniques are available to encrypt the data but not all are possible to implement inside a smartphone due to computational limitations. The processors used on mobile devices are less capable than the ones used on a desktop system. Only few devices have the computational prowess to implement high-end encryption techniques. In this section we discuss different encryption techniques that can be used for encryption inside cell phones.
Qualitative and quantitative research conducted on patient attitudes has consistently found individuals to be broadly supportive of health records being used for research pur- poses. At the same time people also frequently express a preference for being asked before PCD is disclosed by health professionals for purposes beyond direct care. d When pressed to choose between alternative consent models, for example between opt in or opt out, the picture reported has been fragmented. Opinion has been broadly divided across a range of possible consent models. However, within that broad spectrum of views there has been consistent support by some for disclosure only with explicit consent. A study by the Department of Health found that “about half of the general public (53%) and patients (46%) thought that identifiable data should never be used without consent ” e and a meta- study of different published papers concluded that
However, steganography techniques alone will not solve the authentication problem and cannot give the patients the required ability to control who can access their personal information as stated by HIPAA. In this paper, a new security technique is proposed to guarantee secure transmission of patientconfidential information combined with patient physiological readings from body sensors. The proposed technique is a hybrid between the two preceding categories. Firstly, it is based on using steganography techniques to hide patientconfidential information inside patient biomedical signal. Moreover, the proposed technique uses encryption based model to allow only the authorized persons to extract the hidden data. In this paper, the patient ECG signal is used as the host signal that will carry the patient secret information as well as other readings from other sensors such as temperature, glucose, position, and blood pressure. The ElectroCardioGram (ECG)
Data and processing have to be distributed across locations. The platform's mixture of back-ends would benefit from a single centralised data store containing records of all incidents of gun-crime from across the EU. Such a store would simplify the tracking of weapons or patterns of usage; but as noted above, the use and sharing of crime data is subject to many restrictions, some defined at European level, others set by national Governments. These regulations tend to emphasise the protection of the individual's right to privacy and generally mean that any data that might identify an individual cannot, as a matter of routine, be shared between member states. In developing software and systems for law enforcement this is usually taken to mean that data are always held locally but that individual records may be shared for specific purpose. This presents a difficulty for Odyssey that uses data mining to discover patterns within crime data. To be compliant with European regulations the platform can centralise ballistic data (guns, bullets, etc.) and some data about incidents but nothing that might be used to identify victims, witnesses or perpetrators.
Confidential enquiries into maternal deaths are one type of maternal death surveillance and response, which intend to go beyond counting numbers of deaths for statistical purposes, and try to provide insight into pos- sible factors that may be addressed to reduce future deaths. Confidential enquiry allows for analysis of what could be done in practical terms at facility, community and state levels . The earliest reference to a maternal death surveillance system was in Sweden in 1660 which eventually led to presentation of the first national statis- tics on maternal mortality in 1751 . The first modern- day formal reporting of a confidential enquiry covered England and Wales for the years 1952–1954, although the system on which it was based had been established as early as 1928 .
We have also developed incentives for researchers to document their metadata. Although the metadata are initially prepared together with the producer, the major focus has been to provide an appropriate environment for the researchers to transform the metadata into dynamic knowledge that continues to evolve over time. This is done in a number of ways. One way is to create positive incentives, similar to what has proven successful with the Social Science Research Network and other researcher communities. Researchers’ contributions to metadata, whether it be final code, data edits, or any other related metadata documentation, will be indexed and attributed to the researcher, through standard citation. These contributions will be listed by author on the enclave website, and the researcher will be provided a monthly count of how many times the metadata are used (when applicable). Other researchers who use the metadata will be asked to cite the contribution in their published research. All
Abstract- the patient's confidentialdata should be safe and secure these is Act by Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). At the same time, there is a significantly growth in population. Numbers of patient care centers are used usually around the world in a Point - Of - care (PoC) applications. The Security systems are implemented to provide data integrity, privacy, and accessibility. Therefore, ECG signal of the patients and other physiological data of the patient’s like body temperature, glucose level, blood pressure, position, etc., are collected by Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) at home. After that it will transmitted over network and then stored at hospital server. In this paper, it used the steganography method which is depending on discrete wavelet transform to accomplish HIPAA act. DWT technique is applied on the ECG signal to hide confidential information of the patient which provides privacy to confidential information. High degree privacy is provided to patient, also Stego ECG remains diagnosable. In this paper the steganography technique is used to provide the three tire securities to patient’s data. Our system also ensures safety, scalability, and effectiveness.
Ag-positive school children from the school-based survey lived in four (14.3%) of the 28 vil- lages included in the community-based survey and attended school in three villages (10.7%). A total of six villages (21.4%) were identified as communities where Ag-positive children lived and/or attended school. Three (33.3%) and two (22.2%) Ag-positive children identified in the school-based survey, respectively, lived in and attended school in villages that were not selected for this survey; these data were therefore not included in the analysis of sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. Table 5 shows the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for using Ag-positive children as indicators of villages with adjusted CFA prevalence of greater than 1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, and 20%. These findings suggest that follow-up of Ag-positive school children would have identified areas of transmission with high specificity (>73% for all scenarios), but low sensitivity (<24% for all scenarios), even if we considered villages where Ag-positive lived and/or attended school. Ag-positive children were a poor indicator of villages with higher prevalence (10 or 20%), with PPV of 25% or less for any of the scenarios tested.
However, recent developments in technology, particularly for Windows™ computers, have caused thin-client computing to be re-evaluated. For RDCs in particular, there are significant advantages. First, the security of thin-client systems is far more easily controlled: for example, the VML has been using strong encryption for all data traffic since its inception, something which has only become a wider requirement for government IT systems in the last year. Second, thin-client systems means that data can be managed centrally, a great advantage when data are being linked and updated regularly. Third, thin clients mean that the user no longer needs to be physically close to the data store; researchers can access the VML from any ONS site without loss of performance.
generation market more clearly. This requires both expertise and resources, which may not be available within the department. A common solution is to commission outside experts (in academia or consultancy) to provide the analysis. This use of outside expertise as and when necessary can be very cost-effective, but once again it creates a barrier between the data controller and the data user. In short, government management of data assets can often be characterised as providing a service which provides a risk to the data controller without necessarily providing a clear benefit. This is the model of ‘specific cost’ (to the data controller) and ‘diffuse benefit’ (to society as a whole) which public sector governance studies have argued leads to under provision of key services (Ritchie, 2014).
Clearly, the major RCUK funders are funding these researchers, yet the awareness amongst researchers of their requirements for data sharing is low. It is unclear whether this lack of awareness is due to the relatively recent changes in policy, although BBSRC for example, have had a data sharing policy in place since 2007. Another answer could be that these policies have simply not been communicated to the researchers – either via the funding bodies themselves or via the University. A brief analysis of awareness based upon Faculty and role type, revealed that the MHS and Science Faculties had the highest awareness. “Research Fellows” and the “Lecturer/Researcher” roles showed highest awareness across all role types, suggesting that PIs from the Physical and Medical Health Sciences are again taking the lead.
Health consultants should also be familiar with certain legal information, ranging from the legal requirements of universal precautions (See e.g. 29 CFR Section 1910.1030) to issues of confidential- ity and consent (see below) and any laws which may require reporting, such as child abuse laws (California Penal Code Section 11165 and follow- ing) or reportable disease laws (17 California Code of Regulations Section 2500). Because these laws set out specific requirements, they in effect spell out very clearly the proper standard of care. Failure to meet these requirements could result in what the law calls negligence per se— an automatic finding of negligence because of fail- ure to comply with a law intended to prevent the harm that occurred.
Conversations may be easily overheard in many settings. For example, a receptionist may schedule appointments or provide results over the telephone. This requires taking and verifying the name of the caller, as well as discussion of medical information, e.g., the reason for the appointment or the results of the tests. If patients and others are sitting in the waiting room, they may hear this exchange of confidential information, and this could represent an unauthorized disclosure of patient information. The same is true of conversations between staff members in the hallway and if a professional takes a call from a patient in the presence of another patient, e.g., in an exam room or if a professional dictates notes to a recording device. (Providers must use their best professional judgment to reduce the risk of such information being shared, but do not have to guarantee it can never occur.)
Abstract: Cloud computing, as a promising computing model, enables users to remotely store their data into a cloud so as to enjoy scalable services on-demand. However, allowing Cloud Service Providers (CSPs), which are not in the same trusted domains as enterprise users, to take care of confidentialdata, may raise potential security and privacy issues. To keep the sensitive user dataconfidential against entrusted CSPs, a usual way is to apply cryptographic approaches, by disclosing decryption keys only to authorized users. However, when enterprise users outsource confidentialdata for sharing on cloud servers, the adopted encryption system should not only support fine-grained access control, but also provide high performance, full delegation, and scalability, so as to best serve the needs of accessing data anytime and anywhere, delegating within enterprises, and achieving a dynamic set of users. In this paper, we propose a scheme to help enterprises to efficiently share confidentialdata on cloud servers. We achieve this goal by first combining the Hierarchical Identity- Based Encryption (HIBE) system and the ciphertext- policy Attribute-Based Encryption (CP-ABE) system.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - This paper explores automated iris recognition as a biometrically based technology for personal identification and verification. Because of the Fast growing mobile technology, when it comes to sensitive transactions, such as financial or payment applications, it is required to follow the security in all kinds of transactions made through mobile devices. Image based biometric authentication creates good impact on security. In the Existing System We develop a deep feature fusion network that exploits the complementary information presented in iris and periocular regions. The proposed method initially applies maxout units into the convolution neural networks (CNNs) to produce a compact description for each modality, and then combines the discriminative features of two modalities through a weighted concatenation. In the proposed system a deep neural network based classification algorithm is used, edge detection with adaptive contour segmentation is used to segment the iris from the given image. The quality of the image is enhanced through color equalization etc. The proposed system authenticates for a particular website access and which can be implemented in MATLAB software.
ABSTRACT: An algorithm for anonymous sharing of confidentialdata among parties is developed. This technique is used iteratively to assign these nodes key numbers ranging from 1 to N. This assignment is anonymous in that the identities received are unknown to the other members of the group. Resistance to collusion among other members is verified in an information theoretic sense when confidential communication channels are used. This assignment of serial numbers allows more complex data to be shared and has applications to other problems in confidentialdata mining, collision avoidance in communications and distributed database access. The required computations are distributed without using a trusted central authority.
PatientAccess Pre-Registration enables prospective patients to record some of their registration details online, before they attend your organisation to register. These registration details are then held in EMIS Web until the patient attends to register in person, at which point they are used as the basis for the patient’s full registration. As much information as possible is transferred from PatientAccess to EMIS Web Registration, saving time at the reception desk. You can then add the rest of the registration information manually in the usual way.
In this project we have taken the any file as the secret message and the cover object can be audio file(music file or any audio file) or image file. Both the files should be converted into bit stream. The bit stream of the voice to be sent secretly should be encoded using XOR operations and then the audio or image steganography is performed. The file is then passed over the internet. Even the presence of the hidden message is invisible. For receiver the “invisible” message of steganographic methods will not be suspicious to anyone. steganography prevents an unintended receiver from suspecting that the data is present. And the security of classical steganography system stays on secrecy of the data encoding system.
DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2018.63010 131 Journal of Computer and Communications potentially record conversations which might give them company confidential information. Updated host-based security software (recommended later) should be installed on workstations. Patches should be pushed by the company network regularly, or as and when a vulnerability is discovered. The patch application process should be such that the workstations get updated within a deadline of one day and employees are informed through pop-ups if reboot is required. Be- sides this, the growing trend is to support laptops as workstations due to their ease of mobility. Hence these devices must also be protected from getting stolen . Laptops may be a soft target for stealing confidentialdata. Hence data en- cryption should be enabled for all the data residing in the hard-disks of laptops. When the laptop boots it should ask for a PIN which only the owner employee is aware of. This way even if the laptop is stolen, confidentialdata can be protected.
In the Steganography is secret writing or hiding fact that communication taking place, by hiding secret information inside image. The scope of project is implementation of steganography tools for information includes any type of information file and image file and path where user want to retrieve the information file. For hiding information in image, their exist large variety of steganographic techniques some are more complex than others and all of them have respective strong and weak points. In this paper reduce the text in R, G and B planes in separately and data embedded in random manner. This proposed system uses different keys used for embedding and extraction of the secret data, where key used for embedding message and used for extraction of data. This method shows good high capacity, security, Robustness. Image steganography is a technique that provides a safe way to the secret embedded data to the target user. To hide the secret data in the images various techniques are proposed by the researchers, some are complex and other produce good results.