performance (Khan et al. 2012). Enzyme supplementa- tion might have also contributed to the improved per- formance recorded in this study by eliminating or reducing the antinutrient effects and improving the availability of nutrients necessary for growth (Kiarie et al. 2013). The improved performance recorded in this study also agreed with earlier reports that exogenous enzymes are included in rabbit diets to improve nutri- ent digestibility (Falcao-e-Cuhna et al. 2007), reduce ileal flow and mortality (Gutiérrez, Espinosa, García, Carabaño, and De Blas, 2002a, 2002b), and improve feed conversion ratio (Eiben, Gippert, Godor-Surmann, Podmaniczky, and Kustos, 2008). The performance of the experimental rabbits as being positively affected by the PLM and m-E supplementation in this study agreed with Ayodele, Oloruntola, and Agbede (2016) who re- ported better FCR in rabbits due to dietary alchornea leaf meal plus multi-enzyme supplementation. The en- hanced CP and starch digestibility recorded in this study is likely to be associated with the activity of the components of the multi-enzyme used in this study. For instance, the phytase, one of the components of the multi-enzyme used in this study could have improved phosphorus utilization (Gutiérrez et al. 2002b) and breakdown the phytate molecule that binds phos- phorus and some mineral element in the rabbits ’ diets (Fuller, 2004). In addition, the multi-enzyme could Table 5 Effect of the enzyme (E) and dietary pawpaw leaf meal (PLM) on the carcass of rabbits of 91days of age
Absorption spectra provide necessary information on the absorption transition between the dye ground state and excited states and the solar energy range absorbed by the dye. Figures 3 and 4 show the absorption spectra of Flame tree flower and Pawpaw leaf dye extracts respec- tively as against N719 dye. The absorption range of N719 dye was from 400 - 600 nm with an absorption peak at 475 nm. The flame tree flower dye extract had an absorption in the frequency range 350 - 500 nm with an absorption peak at 415 nm. The chlorophyll dye extract from the pawpaw leaf had an absorption peak at 430 nm characteristic of chlorophyll pigment and an absorption range from 350 - 550 nm. Chlorophyll absorbs most strongly in the blue and red regions of the absorption spectra.
Parts of various plants that are of medicinal import- ance had been used as supplements and or ingredient in the production of livestock to achieve various purposes of performance and health importance (Oloruntola et al. 2016c; Oloruntola and Ayodele 2017; Oloruntola 2018; Wenk 2003). Seeds and leaves of pawpaw were reported to neutraceutical and antioxidant properties (Kadiri et al. 2016). Pawpaw contains a high content of vitamin A, B, and C; papain; and chymopapain. The leaves and seeds of papaya contain 2,2-diphenyl-1-piccrlhydrazyhydrate (7.8 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml), phenol (424.89 mg GAE/ 100 g dry weight and 30.32 mg GAE/100 g dry weight), and flavonoid (333.14 mg GAE/100 g dry weight and 59.54 mg GAE/100 g dry weight), respectively (Maisarah et al. 2014). There could be interactions of the bioactive compounds in these two phytogens (pawpaw leaves and seeds), which needs to be examined (Oloruntola et al. 2018c). It was reported that medicinal plants could serve as anti-fertility agents (Nurcahyani et al. 2018). In par- ticular, extract of papaya seeds was reported to cause various pathological changes in the reproductive organs of the animals, such as the shrunken of testis tubules, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, and abnormalities of germ cells among others (Lohiya et al. 2002). The hepatotoxic property that is dose and duration/time dependant was also reported for pawpaw by Amazu et al. (2014). Although, positive results have been reported when pawpaw plant parts are used as supplements or ingredi- ents in animal feed (Hassan et al. 2014; Oloruntola et al. 2018a, c), pathological investigations on effects of the use of pawpaw leaves and seeds as dietary supplements or ingredients on broiler chickens are very few. There- fore, this study intended to investigate the effect of pawpaw leaf and seed meal composite mix dietary
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The order of increase in the number of germination was 5g annona seed powder, 5g pawpaw leaf powder (0.33a) and 5g actellic dust, 10g annona seed powder, 5g citrus peel powder, 10g citrus peel powder and 10g pawpa leaf powder product and synthetic treatment were compared and evaluated days after treatment aoppliation, the lowest number of germination was obtained in 5g citrus peel powder (0.00a) , followed by 10g citrus peel powder (2.00b), 5g annona seed powder, 5g actellic dust (5.00b)= 5g pawpaw leaf powder (5.00b), and 10g annona seed powder (5.33b) = 10g pawpaw leaf powder (5.33b). The statistical data obtained at 3 days after application of treatment, showed that, lowest number of germination were obtained in 5g citrul peel powder (2.00b) followed by 10g citrus peel powder (2.33b), 5g annona seed powder (6.33c), 10g annona seed powder (6.33b), 5g pawpaw leaf powder (7.0bc) and 5g actellic dust (7.00c). At 4 days showed that 5g actellic dust gave the highest percentage germination (10.00a) followed by 10g annona seed powder (9.00c), followed by 5g annona seed powder (8.00c) = 5g while the lowest percentage germination were 10g citrus peel powder and 5g citrus peel powder (2.33b) and (2.00b) respectively. The result showed that seed viability of treated and control grains were all significantly influenced by the duration of storage and the concentration of the plant products treatment. The result agrees with the findings of Bamaiyi et al., (2009) who reported that the effectiveness of the plant powders was observed to be directly proportional to their concentration. Equally, the study confirms with the result of Emmanuel et al., (2006) who showed that a large difference can be observed between germination percentage of the control and the treated and infested seed of cowpea grains.
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The measurement and analysis of the absorption spectra for natural dyes extracted from the paw- paw leaf, flame tree flower, mixed dye at 1:2 and 1:4 are carried out. The results show that the dye extracted from the flame tree flower has similar absorption spectrum to the dye extracts for the pawpaw leaf and their mixed dyes which has ab- sorption wave band at 300–550 nm. The DSSC using the flame tree flower dye extracts has the best photo electric conversion efficiency of 0.80 % and has the maximum power of about 13.6704 mW.
A total of 300 fourteen day old arbor acre broilers were randomly divided into 4 treatments and replicated 5 times under completely randomized design to make 75 birds per treatment and 15 birds per replicate. Neem leaf meal (NLM) and pawpaw leaf meal (PLM) were prepared by air drying for 10 days. The birds were assigned to different treatment diets supplemented with the leaf meals and prepared as follows; T 1 (0% NLM+PLM), T 2 (0.5% NLM+PLM), T 3 (1% NLM+PLM) and T 4 (2%
Although Coppens fish feed contained the highest crude protein among the three experimental diets, the final mean weight, mean weight gained, percentage weight gained, and SGR were significantly lower than those of duckweed and pawpaw leaf. This was due to the lower intake of the feed resulting in high FCR as compared to the other two diets. The lower growth performance could also be attributed to the ineffective absorbance and utilization of the protein in the feed on account of the long, coiled intestine and herb- ivorous feeding of the tadpoles. The size, pellet form, float- ing time, odor, and high crude protein content of the
maximum weight increase was obtained in snail fed with the diet I while minimum weight increase recorded for snails on diet IV. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) ranged from 1.45 to 2.21, with snails on diet II recording the highest FCR. The feed intake and shell length gain of the snail on diet II are significantly higher than those on other diets. The highest shell width increase was recorded in snails that consumed diet VII. The meat of snails which fed on diet I have the highest protein value. Snails which fed on diet IV gave maximum ash content, while those fed on diet III have the least value. The result of the present study showed that highest growth performance and feed utilisation for A. marginata snail was favored by diet I. The compounded diets consisting of PLM and PDM as protein sources were efficiently utilised by A. marginata snail more than the control diet (fresh pawpaw leaf).
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The odor of Mentha leaves is a characteristic of each genotype due to the presence of unique bioactive compounds, polyphenols (caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, ferrulic acid, eugenol etc.) and essential oil present in them. Consequently, nine special aroma was smelled even in the 17 samples i.e., mint gum, strong camphoraceous, mint like, spicy, lemon, pungent, musky, rotten egg and acrid. Mentha species are characterized by different aroma due to the presence of bioactive compounds and essential oils evident from the literature (Zviniene et al., 1996). Moreover, shape of leaf also exemplify great variation with diverse patterns including leaf blade (> 5
Leaf nutrient concentrations (nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon) increased significantly along an elevational gra- dient (Fig. 3c, d, e). Leaf C/N ratio decreased with eleva- tion (Fig. 3f ). The results of the present study are consistent with other studies. It has been reported that plants at higher elevations have lower growth rates and higher leaf nutrient content per unit area (Pfennigwerth et al. 2017). In some area, nitrogen deposition increased with elevation, which caused high plant nitrogen con- centrations (Fowler et al. 1988). In Morecroft and Woodward (1996), increases in leaf nitrogen and phos- phorus concentrations along elevation were observed, and the results were associated with decreases in leaf biomass (mainly carbon). In the present study, carbon concentration increased with elevation but leaf C/N ratio decreased, which may suggest the partial support for the hypothesis in Morecroft and Woodward (1996). It is to note that there are also studies showing the decrease in leaf nitrogen and phosphorus (Soethe et al. 2008; Zhao et al. 2016). The acquisition of nitrogen and phosphorus in plants is known to be influenced by climate, soil con- ditions, phylogeny, and different physiological growth strategies among species, and the pattern of nitrogen and phosphorus in leaf may reflect variation in climate, soil nutrient, and plant growth form along elevation (Zhao et al. 2016).
different yeast concentrations. From these results, it is observed that ethanol can be produced from the pawpaw waste even at its initial pH 4.3 and that there was no significant difference (pâ%¥0.05) even when the pH was adjusted to 4.5. Also, the yield was increased when the concentration of the yeast was increased.The results recorded from the determination of the optimum condition for the production of maximum ethanol from these results. It was observed that the optimum pH for alcohol production using pawpaw waste 4.5. The result in this study agrees with what was reported by Ekumankama et al. (1997). This pH recorded is within the earlier reported value of 4.5-5.5 (Adams and Flynn,1982; Morris and Sarad,1990). In the region outside the optimum pH, the cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are less tolerant to the environment and hence less active and less efficient in substrate utilisation (Ekumankama et al., 1997). Generally, irrespective of their pH, optimum fermentation period was 72 hours. It was also observed that there was increase in percentage alcohol yield with increase in yeast concentration up to the 10% (10 g/100g). This observation agrees with the report of Adams and Flynn (1982) that the yeast concentration in the fermentation should be between 5-10% of the total volume of the substrate.It is interesting to note that when some nutrient supplements were used, the ethanol yield was generally improved. It is equally observed that significant increase can only be achieved when these nutrient supplements are combined (combined a ). Meanwhile, the yields recorded were
Natural plant products and their analogues have been founds as important sources of agricultural bio-pesticide which serve as antimicrobial properties of plant extracts (Cardelina, 1995 and Okigbo, 2009). Previous reports (Akpomedaye and Ejechi, 1998; Ejechi and Ilondu, 1999; Ejechi et al. 1999; Ijato et al. 2010 and Ebele, 2011) showed that spices, herbs and other plant materials possess antifungal activity. Akinsoye and Oladunmoye (2000) have reported the antifungal efficacy of stem and leaf extract of Mirabilis jalapa in reducing mycelial growth of four different strains of fungi. Amienyo et al. (2007) reported the use of indigenous plant extracts for the protection of mechanically injured sweet potato. The legendary medicinal qualities of neem
The most limiting factor that influences the economic values of papaya and mango fruits is the relatively short shelf life caused by spoilage. Therefore, it is paramount that spoilage of fruits in general be reduced especially in regions with no or limited storage facilities, which is the case in most rural areas where most of the fruits are grown before being transported to urban markets. Proper and adequate handling practices of these produce would help minimize wastes due to deterioration. In view of the health hazards associated with the consumption of spoilt fruits containing these microorganisms, pawpaw and mango fruits must be adequately handled and processed hygienically. Also, routine inspection of fruits and vegetables by food regulatory agencies is highly recommended.
Leaves are the vital plant organs performing photosynthesis and transpiration (Lambers et al., 2008). Through natural selection, diverse leaf shapes have emerged in different plants to maximize the utilization of light and enhance plant adaptation to ambient environments (Li et al., 2017a; Nicotra et al., 2011; Smith et al., 1997). Despite the differences in leaf shape among plants, the scaling relationships of leaf surface area with other leaf measures such as leaf biomass (both leaf fresh mass and dry mass), leaf length, leaf width, leaf perimeter, and leaf thickness have been demonstrated to be similar, following a power law in the form y ¼ b x a where b is a scaling constant and a the scaling exponent (Huang et al., 2019a,b; Li et al., 2008; Lin et al., 2018; Niklas et al., 2007; Yu et al., 2019a). Previous studies have shown that the estimated scaling exponents of lamina dry mass vs. lamina surface area for many broad-leaved plants usually fall into a range from 1 to 4/3 (Huang et al., 2019a,b; Milla and Reich, 2007; Niklas et al., 2007). In fact, when leaf fresh mass is proportional to leaf dry mass, the scaling exponents of the leaf fresh mass vs. leaf area and leaf dry mass vs. leaf area are equal (Huang et al., 2019b). Lin et al. (2018) found that the scaling exponent of leaf fresh mass vs. area for the pooled data of 11 bamboo species is approximately equal to 9/8, which is exactly the reported mean scaling exponent calculated for a large number of plant groups in Milla and Reich (2007). Given that dy/dx ¼ ba ∙ x a 1 , the sign of a 1 determines whether dy/dx is an increasing function of x ( a 1 > 0) or a decreasing function of x ( a 1 < 0) or whether x and y are proportional ( a ¼ 1). Niklas et al. (2007) collected 1943 species to test the existence of “ diminishing returns ” in leaf scaling, depicting the phenomenon that the increase in leaf area does not keep pace with that of leaf dry mass, implying that for a > 1 the increase in leaf area
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4 etc. so that the oldest leaf on the plant was experimental leaf number 1. Leaf death rate was determined by calculating the number of leaves that died per day on each plant. My observation indicated that leaf lifespan changed with leaf ontogeny such that leaves produced later in development persisted longer than leaves produced earlier. I quantified this ontogenetic shift by calculating the slope of the relationship between leaf lifespan and date of leaf emergence.
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The six common trees amongst the farmlands were mangoes ( Mangifera in- dica ), pawpaw ( Carica papaya ), Mukengeta ( Senna siamea ), Muaa ( Acacia torti- lis ), Mukau ( Melia volkensii ) and Mwaluvaini ( Azadirachta indica ). On average each household has 41 Mangifera indica trees, 16 trees of Carica papaya and Senna siamea types, 78 trees of Acacia tortilis , 13 trees of Melia volkensii and 4 trees of Azadirachta indica . Figure 3 shows the total sum of trees.
Glycosides are a group of organic compounds that are present in plants, which possess the capacity to contract cardiac muscle, and are probable disruptors of the different roles performed by the heart. However, most of the classes of this grou p have been known to be very poisonous . Most of the negative uses of glycosides are in coating of arrows, destructive and desperate taken of personal live, rodent poisons, tonic for heart diseases, diuretics and emetics. Positive applications included its use in management of heart failure and congestion and cardiac arrhythmia . The presence of phenolic compounds is an indication that the plant can be used due to its antioxidants characteristics that can be responsible in the prevention of cells from destruction or damage. Terpenoids, though only present in the peels of the pawpaw in the methanolic extract has curative or preventive potentials against some microbes and fungi and also have anti-hyperglycemic, antispasmodic and anti-allergic properties in the inhibition of numerous ailments .
successfully using eco-friendly method with the Carica papaya leaf extract as a reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopy confirmed the formation of silver nano- particles with an absorption peak at 435nm for the entire nanoparticle. The me- tronidazole nanoparticles showed extended release profiles. The kinetics of release was predominantly zero-order which is ideal for controlling release. The silver nanoparticles synthesized from Carica papaya can serve as effective drug delivery systems.
In Africa, papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit production has become an integral part of daily life as a source of food, vitamins and minerals.  It serves as a means of trade and barter, food security and employment, in Nigeria, pawpaw is one of the most popular, cheapest, economically important fruit tree grown and consumed for its nutritional content.  It is usually grown as compound fruit crop or semi-wild fruit crop from discarded seeds.  The fruit consists of water, vitamins A and C, protein and ash.  The fruit can be freshly eaten or cooked and can be used in the preparation of jellies, juice and jams.  Papaya has a mild laxatives axtion and the seeds are used medicinally against worms and ulcer.  The green leaves, fruits and flowers may be used as cooked vegetables. 
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Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is one of the most important and popular vitamins, and is contained in most fruits and vegetables; the problem with vitamin C is its easy degradation during storage. In this study, the degradation kinetics of vitamin C was determined in tomato and pawpaw, and the market storage methods considered were: open air (ambient) storage and sack (jute bag) storage for six days. Iodometric method of analysis was employed in analyzing the concentration of vitamin C in fruit samples. The vitamin C content of the fruit samples during storage were determined daily for the duration of 6days. The rate constants were calculated for both fruits under the two storage methods using the integrated law method; half-life was also calculated. Loss of asco