Even through studies have demonstrated the protective effects that nuts and peanuts have against cardiovascular disease risk factors, there is minimal research on the direct effect of peanuts on atherosclerosis. This study also examined the effects of peanuts, peanut oil and fat free peanut flour on aortic cholesteryl ester, one of the primary metabolic compounds of atherosclerosis. Results indicate that whole peanuts, peanut oil and fat free peanut flour included in the diet slow the build-up of cholesteryl ester in the aortas of hamsters fed a high cholesterol diet. The data indicate that both the lipid and non-lipid portion of the peanut are cardiovascular protective but the protective effects do not appear to be additive because the diet containing whole peanuts (lipid and non-lipid components) did not produce significantly different results. Future work should be conducted to determine which specific components in peanuts provide beneficial affects. The preponderance of bioactive compounds in whole peanuts, peanut oil, and fat free peanut flour suggest that the results obtained in this study result from the several different compounds and thus involve several different mechanisms. Additional peanut components including peanut skins should be evaluated for cardiovascular health. Peanut skins may also produce cardiovascular protective properties when consumed in a high fat diet because they are high in fiber and bioactive constituents such as resveratrol, flavonoids, phytosterols, tocotrienols and saponins.
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Protein contents of soluble fractions varied significantly (p < 0.05) with pH, which was adjusted according to optimal conditions for different proteases. DH varied significantly (p < 0.05) across all proteases and generally increased (p < 0.05) with increasing hydrolysis times, ultimately ranging from 14.9 to 37.4%. Alcalase hydrolysis showed the greatest capacity to release ACE inhibitory peptides from peanut flour, indicating the potential use of Alcalase hydrolysates as the starting material for further purification of ACE inhibitory peptides. SDS-PAGE was used to understand protein degradation by the various proteases. Hydrolysis by all tested proteases resulted in substantial degradation of the major peanut allergens (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3/4) and the accumulation of novel bands in the 0-28 kDa molecular weight range. Western blotting experiments revealed these novel peptides retained some residual IgE binding reactivity, with the relative capacity to degrade known peanut allergens being: Alcalase > Flavourzyme > pepsin. Additional Western blotting experiments using specific anti-Ara h 1 and anti-Ara h 2 rabbit sera confirmed that these novel IgE reactive peptides were primarily Ara h 2 fragments regardless of protease tested.
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bulk density than germinated and roasted peanut flour. The dispensability increased significantly from 38.28 per cent in raw to 40.21 per cent in germinated peanut flours, while there was significant decrease in dispensability of roasted (37.32) peanut flour. On the other hand swelling capacity of raw peanut flour was 0.36 per cent which decreased in germinated and roasted peanut flour. The bulk density values of the raw flours were higher than processed flours which may be due the fact that germination there is break down of starch into simple sugars due to the activity of amylase enzyme, which was produced by the activity of microorganisms. Hansen et al. (1989) also reported that the energy density increased two to three times by germination which also involved a considerable reduction in viscosity. The reduction in bulk density by fermentation has been documented by Elkhahalifa et al. (2004) in sorghum flour and reduction in bulk density in germination and fermentation in African locust bean has been reported by Ijarotimi and Keshinro (2012a). The swelling capacity of raw corn flour was higher than germinated and fermented flour. Higher protein content in flour may cause the starch granules to be embedded within a stiff protein matrix, which subsequently limits the access of the starch to water and restricts the swelling power. Flours lower in protein and higher in total starch content have a higher swelling ability (Aprianita et al., 2009). The results are in conformity with findings of Adebowale and Maliki, (2011) and Gernah et al. (2011) who reported that in germinated and fermented flours starch is been dextrinized and thus could not swell as much. Dispensability is a measure of reconstitution of flour or flour blends in water, the higher the dispensability the better the flour reconstitutes in water (Kulkarni et al., 1991). The dispensability was highest in fermented corn flour. The result was in conformity with the previous findings of Shittu and Lawal (2007) who observed that longer steeping time produced fermented cocoyam flour with better dispensability value which indicates better reconstitution ability of the fermented flour.
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A recent pilot study examined the use of anti-IgE (omalizumab) as an adjuvant in peanut oral immuno- therapy, with the aim to reduce the number of adverse reactions and minimise in-hospital time and number of visits for participants. 13 peanut allergic children with high peanut specific IgE (median 229 kUA/L) were pre- treated with omalizumab, all of whom tolerated the initial rush desensitisation phase (1st day) with minimal or no rescue therapy. As soon as the maximum maintenance dose was reached (2 g peanut protein, successfully reached by 12/13 subjects), omalizumab was discontinued, but participants continued receiving peanut OIT for a further 12 weeks. A DBPCFC at the end of the 12 weeks showed all subjects tolerating 4 g of peanut protein (8 g peanut flour). During the study, 6 subjects experienced mild or no allergic reactions, 5 subjects had grade 2 reactions (WAO classification) and 2 subjects had grade 3 reactions. It appears that omalizumab may facilitate rapid oral desensitisation in peanut allergic patients with high peanut specific IgE levels at baseline .
significantly increase. Hamsters that consumed the CON diet had an average liver weight of 15.12 g at 24 wk which was significantly higher than the PF diet group at 11.8 g and both were significantly higher than the WP diet group at 9.8 g. The peanut flour used in this study was fat-free, less than 0.5% oil. The experimental diets were balanced by metabolizable energy from macronutrients. Therefore, the CON diet and PF diet had similar amounts of saturated fat which was greater than the WP diet. The WP diet had the highest amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids are related to development of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis; however, the metabolic effects of all saturated fats are not equal 53,54 . Studies have indicated that stearic acid has a neutral effect on plasma cholesterol concentrations compared to other saturated fatty acids, such as; lauric, myristic, and palmitic 53–56 . Unsaturated fatty acids have been reported to prevent atherosclerotic development by improving lipoprotein composition, reducing expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules, and increasing antioxidant
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In recent years much research has been devoted to the utilization of oilseed proteins as an edible source of pro- tein for human as well as animal consumption . In most of the countries it has been seen that peanuts are usually processed for oil and the residual meal is used either as animal feed or as fertilizers. Although the meal obtained after oil extraction also possess a rich amount of protein which could be utilized for value addition of var- ious food products. On the other hand most of the devel- oping countries are facing a problem of various forms of protein energy malnutrition . Hence peanuts as a cheap source of protein has aroused recently in tradi- tional foods as well as other foods such as peanut butter etc. . The crude protein content of whole seed peanuts ranges between 22% - 30% . Peanuts have a distinct nutty flavor and desirable texture that places it above all other legumes and oilseeds . Study has shown that, peanut flour which is most commonly used for fortifica- tion contains protein ranging in between 47% - 55% i.e. a good amount of protein . Peanuts are used as a rich source of protein in the manufacture of products like cookies , breads , chapattis  etc. Biscuits are prepared from wheat flour with moderate levels of fat and sugar . Biscuit dough is less extensible compared to bread dough as it contains comparatively less water
In the third study, light roast-12% fat peanut flour (PF), a high protein ingredient prepared after partial extraction of oil from roasted peanut seed, was polymerized by TGase resulting in modification of functional properties such as viscosity, gelation, solubility, and water holding capacity. These experiments were conducted with either TGase treated or untreated 20% w/w PF dispersions containing 0.5% or 1.0% w/w amidated pectin (AP). Gelation occurred at higher temperatures (~78°C) using PF dispersions treated with TGase compared to dispersions devoid of enzyme (~68°C). The addition of 0.5% AP to PF dispersions minimized shifts in gel point temperature and increased the apparent viscosity of all samples, especially those treated with TGase. High molecular weight polymers were formed in TGase treated PF dispersions both in the presence and absence of AP; however, polymer formation was more rapid in PF dispersions without AP. OPA data indicated ~40% protein coupling in PF dispersions treated with TGase compared to ~20% in those containing both AP and TGase.
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Jogloy S, A Patanothai, S Toomsan and TG Isleib, 1996. Breeding peanut to fit into Thai cropping systems. Proc. of the Peanut Collaborative Research Support Program-International Research Symposium and Workshop, Two Jima Quality Inn, Arlington, Virginia, 15: 353-362.
1) According to previous studies on peanut peroxidase, there are 27 proteins derived from the cultured peanut cells after 14 day culture, which means that it has other enzymes in addition to peroxidase. One of the 27 peptides is beta galactosidase (Wan et al., 1994a), so there may be other glycosidases in the spent medium. Since my aim is to look into the sugar released in spent medium by glycosidase action, I will confirm the time limit of glycosidase reaction with glycan chains linked to any peptides left in a limited volume of spent medium during an incubation time.
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proportion of barley and chickpea flour along with Dill leaves powder. The calculated value of F is greater than the tabulated value of F at 5% probability level. Therefore, it can be concluded that there was significant difference between treatments regarding the body and texture of herbal bread. Similarly in case of taste and flavour of herbal bread, the average sensory scores of T 2 (7.76) had the highest score followed by T 3 (7.44), T 1 (7.40) and T 0
Niba et al., (2001) described water absorption capacity as an important processing parameter that has implications for viscosity. Furthermore, water absorption capacity is important in bulking and consistency of products as well as baking applications. Similarly, the reverse was the case for oil absorption capacity. The oil absorption capacity obtained for the seed flour samples in this study ranged from 1.5g/ml to 3.0g/ml with RJFSF having the lowest value and Control having the highest. This was slightly higher than that obtained by (19) Odoemelam, (2005) with a value of 2.8g/ml, while (5) Rajarajeshwari and Jamuma, (1999), reported a value of 1.8g/ml for jackfruit seed flour. However, Singh et al; (1991) reported a value of 0.90g/ml and (20) Tulyathan et al., (2002) reported a value of 0.92g/ml for whole jackfruit seeds without brown spermoderms. Oil absorption is an important property in food product development because it impacts flavor and mouth feel to foods .There were significant differences (P≤0.05) in the samples for each method used
114 of storage, the OSI for PP samples were 8.75, 7.18 and 6.68, respectively and for PB samples the OSI had significantly (P<0.05) decreased to 5.22, 5.02 and 4.89, respectively (Figure 3 and 4). These data indicate that increased addition of PS resulted in a sequential decrease in oxidative stability which suggests decreased shelf life. In a study where almond skins were added to soybean oil at levels ranging from 2 to 10%, oil stability did not increase (Johnson 2007). The authors suggested oil in the skins from the almonds may have been oxidized, causing no improvement in stability with the addition of almond skins. Johnson (2007) did not discuss the limited extraction of water soluble phenolic compounds in an oil matrix product. A high proportion of phenolic compounds in peanut skins (and almond skins) are water-soluble, and were not extracted into the oil matrix. Thus, they did not participate in prevention of oxidation of the oil matrix in the products. The data indicate that added skins reduced oxidative stability of the oil from the products which suggest that compounds in the skins contributed to the reduction of oil oxidative stability. Skin compounds or components contributing to reduction of oil stability would be oil soluble.
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The foaming capacity of the blends revealed significance differences (p<0.05) between all the samples. The result ranged from 11.77 – 23.77 ml/g with 80% Bambara nut and 20% cassava flour having the least foaming capacity. Foam is produced in a liquid when air is introduced resulting in formation of bubbles. The differences in the foaming capacity of the flours may be attributed to the different composition and nature of the protein fractions. It may also be explained on the basis of presence of globular proteins which makes denaturing of the surface difficult. 37 This is similar to
the agronomic, nutritional, and processing points of view (Williams & Brenner 1995; Bavec & Bavec 2006a). Grain amaranth has nutritional properties that are superior to those of almost all common cereals. Among the notable nutritional attributes of amaranth grain is its high protein con- tent (130–206 g/kg) with a better balance of amino acids and a particularly high lysine (49–61 g/kg protein) and sulphur containing amino acids (41 to 45 g/kg protein) contents. These characteristics, as well as its relatively high fat content (30–80 g/kg), unsaturation (76%), a significant squalene con- tent in oil (22–69 g/kg), ash (25–44 g/kg) and iron (72–174 mg/kg) contents of high bio- availability, and water insoluble β-glucan content (26 g 100/g dry matter) make amaranth suitable as a component of composite flours for breadmaking (Becker et al. 1981; Singhal & Kulkarni 1988; Prakash & Pal 1992; Becker 1994; Bressani 1994; Williams & Brenner 1995; Bejosano & Corke 1998; Leon-Camacho et al. 2001; Písaříková et al. 2005; Bavec & Bavec 2006a; Hozová et al. 2007; Bodroža-Solarov 2008). The main problem with the use of amaranth in blends is the inferior baking quality due to its not containing gluten (Thompson 2001), and thus the addition to leavened products is limited. However, the reports on amaranth com- posite flours for breadmaking are all based on wheat flour, and virtually no research has been reported on spelt-amaranth composite flours. Spelt (Triticum spelta L.) is an old wheat species whose produc- tion greatly decreased in the 20 th century, but the
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utilizes a product specific scale, whereas the Spectrum ® method utilizes a universal scale. For either type of panel, a lexicon must be developed in order to evaluate the product. Established peanut lexicon was developed by Johnsen and others and is still used as the current terminology for roasted peanut flavor (Johnsen and others 1988). DSA provides information about how the product rates on a set scale using defined lexicon. DSA will not give information about consumer preference or quantification of specific volatile compounds in the product. In order to identify and quantify specific volatile compounds found in a sample, instrumental analysis must be used. Gas chromatography (GC), GC- mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and GC-olfactometry (GC-O) have been utilized to identity volatile aromatic compounds of peanuts (Adams and De Kimpe 2009, Baker and others 2003, Buckholz and others 1980, Liu and others 2011, Schirack and others 2006). Information collected from these analytical methods can then be correlated with DSA to determine which volatile compounds are responsible for flavor.
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Organoleptic qualities analysis for the biscuits prepared from sprouted sorghum-soybean and finger millet flour was done after 12 weeks of storage period by the panel of 30 semi-trained judges. The panel evaluated colour, texture, taste, flavour and overall acceptability. A seven-point hedonic scale was used for this purpose. Sensory characters of biscuits stored at ambient temperature were changed slightly than freshly made biscuits. Because Maillard reaction, lipid oxidization, reduction in total sugar content, moisture uptake and other chemical reaction may change the sensory qualities of the biscuits during the storage period. Berger (1970) reported that moisture uptake and gas exchange were cause of off odour development in biscuits. Maillard reaction has impact on sensory qualities (Fennema, 1996).
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It can be seen that elemental concentration is highest in the bran samples and lowest in the semolina (white flour) samples.The concentrations of elements in bran samples in this work generally agree with Iskander and Morad work  as shown in table 4. Except for Na where a big difference exists which could be caused by the salty ground water used in the wheat irrigation in Saudi Arabia.
WG samples, compared to RF, are attributed to the lower content of damaged starch caused by the mill- ing process (Table 1). Among the WG, the SC-SRC was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the variation in particle size, increasing from 77.30% to 88.02%, as the particle size was reduced. The increase in SC- SRC was positively correlated with the damaged starch content (r = 0.98), indicating a higher interaction of sodium carbonate with damaged starch components. LA-SRC refers to the resistance of gluten. The low- est values found for the WG samples, relative to RF, were confirmed by a trend of reduction in the gluten aggregation values (Table 1) and stability found in the Mixolab (Table 2). SUC-SRC provides an indication of the content of arabinoxylans in the flour (Gaines 2000). Arabinoxylans are highly hydrophilic structural carbohydrates that absorb 10–18 times the weight of water (Sanz Penella 2008). With the presence of the outer layers in the composition of WG samples, flours with a higher concentration of arabinoxylans were produced, resulting in higher SUC-SRC indexes, as compared to RF.
Anticancer properties: Resveratrol is a stilbene- typearomatic phytoalexin found in peanuts reported to exhibit several physiological activities including anti-cancer activities in vitro and in experimental animal models, aswell as in humans. Anticancer activity of this compound is mainly due to induction of apoptosis via several pathways, as well as alteration of gene expressions, all leading to a decrease in tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. A protective role of phytosterols (PS) especially beta-sitosterol, from colon, prostate, and breast cancer. Roasted peanuts contain 61-114 mg PS/100 g depending on the peanut variety, 78-83% of which is in the form of beta-sitosterol. The data suggest that peanuts and its products, such as peanut oil, peanut butter, and peanut flour, are good sources of PS 15 .
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Food allergy is a growing problem globally carrying a huge socioeconomic burden for patients, families and the community. Although fatalities are fortunately rare, the fear of death is very real for each patient. Currently, there is no cure for any food allergy available, with management strategies focusing on complete avoidance and utilization of adrenaline as the emergency antidote for anaphylaxis. There is a very strong imperative for safe and effective specific therapeutics for food allergy and one sh·ategy based on T-cell epitopes for peanut allergy is detailed in Chapter 12.
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