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A comparison of satellite remote sensing data fusion methods to map peat swamp forest loss in Sumatra, Indonesia

A comparison of satellite remote sensing data fusion methods to map peat swamp forest loss in Sumatra, Indonesia

This study applies data fusion and machine learning techniques to map peat swamp forest loss, and as such continues the work towards automated regional level mapping in Southeast Asia (Miettinen et al. 2017). The main barrier to scaling up the methods described in this paper is the technique used to create the composite opti- cal scene, as the cloud probability raster in the Sentinel-2 Level 2A products was not good enough to be used as a cloud mask. Multi-temporal approaches to cloud detec- tion are being developed to mask cloud (Hagolle et al. 2010; Mateo-Garc ıa et al. 2018) and more work needs to be done to test their functionality in areas with very high cloud cover, adapt them for use with Sentinel-2 data and make the algorithms more accessible to a wider commu- nity of users. Traditionally, low computational power has limited those working in smaller institutions and NGOs, making it hard to map large areas and work with meth- ods that rely on time-series analysis. However, this has changed thanks to the availability of services such as the cloud-based platform Google Earth Engine (Gorelick et al. 2017) and the free virtual machines provided by the European Space Agency’s Research and User Support Ser- vice (RUS 2018). There is currently a growing interest in the potential of big data (Liu et al. 2018), which in a remote sensing context refers to the recent increase in the volume and variety of remote sensing data available, as well as the increase in processing velocity (Chi et al.

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Peat Swamp Forest; Management and Development of Indigenous Species to Support Economic Local People at Periphery Forest (Case Study in Central Borneo, Indonesia)

Peat Swamp Forest; Management and Development of Indigenous Species to Support Economic Local People at Periphery Forest (Case Study in Central Borneo, Indonesia)

Jelutong Kapur and Sanaman are indigenous species at peat swamp forest. These plants have a great economic value. Besides the benefits from wood and sap, leaves can be used for medicinal purposes. The study aimed at obtaining the information related to the potential, distribution and increment diameter. This information was ex- pected to be taken into consideration in the management and development of Jelutong. The study was conducted for 12 months in 12 observation plots, each plot measuring 100x100 m. The data were analyzed descriptively, while the growth patterns were shown graphically. The results showed that there were 100 Jelutong Kapur trees with a range 0–17 trees/plot, an average 8 trees/hectare. It was higher than Jelutong Sanaman, where there were 65 trees with a range of 0–13 trees/plot, an average 5 trees/hectare. However, jelutong Kapur had a diameter range 10.58–35.08 cm, the average increment diameter is 0.69 cm/year, the highest in the diameter class 10–15.9 cm and 22–26.9 cm which is 0.68 cm/year. It is lower than Jelutong Sanaman the diameter of which ranges within 12.61–37.13 cm, the average increment diameter is 0.77 cm/year, the highest increment in the class diameter of 10–15.9 cm is 0.85 cm/year. The highest and lowest number of trees is the same both in the diameter class 16–21.9 cm and 10–15.9 cm. The base area of Jelutong Kapur was 0.41789 m 2 /hectare, while in the case of

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A comparison of satellite remote sensing data fusion methods to map peat swamp forest loss in Sumatra, Indonesia

A comparison of satellite remote sensing data fusion methods to map peat swamp forest loss in Sumatra, Indonesia

The loss of huge areas of peat swamp forest in Southeast Asia and the resulting negative environmental effects, both local and global, have led to an increasing interest in peat restoration in the region. Satellite remote sensing offers the potential to provide up-to-date information on peat swamp forest loss across large areas, and support spatially explicit conservation and restoration planning. Fusion of optical and radar remote sensing data may be particularly valuable in this context, as most peat swamp forests are in areas with high cloud cover, which limits the use of optical data. Radar data can “see through” cloud, but experience so far has shown that it doesn’t discriminate well between certain types of land cover. Various approaches to fusion exist, but there is little information on how they compare. To assess this untapped potential, we compare three different classification methods with Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 images to map the remnant distribution of peat swamp forest in the area surrounding Sungai Buluh Protection Forest, Sumatra, Indonesia. Results show that data fusion increases overall accuracy in one of the three methods, compared to the use of optical data only. When data fusion was used with the pixel-based classification using the original pixel values, overall accuracy increased by a small, but statistically significant amount. Data fusion was not beneficial in the case of object-based classification or pixel- based classification using principal components. This indicates optical data are still the main source of information for land cover mapping in the region. Based on our findings, we provide methodological recommendations to help those involved in peatland restoration capitalise on the potential of big data.

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Identification and antimicrobial activity of Micromonospora strains from Thai peat swamp forest soils

Identification and antimicrobial activity of Micromonospora strains from Thai peat swamp forest soils

The identification and antimicrobial activity of thirteen actinomycete strains isolated from peat swamp forest soils collected from Narathiwat, Patthaloong and Yala provinces, the southern part of Thailand were carried out. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, all isolates were belonged to genus Micromonospora. They were separated into six groups based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis and were identified as M. narathiwatensis (Group 1, 5 isolates), M. humi (Group 4, 3 isolates), M. aurantiaca (Group 5, 2 isolates), one of each isolate as M. chalcea (Group 2) and M. maritima (Group 6). The isolate LK6-12 (Group 3) showed low similarity (99.16%) with the type strains of Micromonospora siamensis that will be the novel species of the genus Micromonospora. Meso-diaminopimelic acid (cell wall type II), xylose and arabinose (pattern D) were detected in their whole-cell hydrolysates. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine (type II). The predominant cellular fatty acids were C 17:0 , C 17:1 ω8c, iso-C 16:0 , iso-C 15:0 , iso-C 17:0 , anteiso-C 15:0 , and anteiso-C 17:0 . The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H 4 ), MK-9(H 6 ), or MK-10(H 4 ). The DNA G+C contents of the isolates ranged from 71.6- 72.6 mol%. On the primary screening, 2 isolates exhibited the antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341.

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Biomass and Carbon Stock Assessment of Peat Swamp Forest Ecosystem; A Case Study in Permanent Forest Reserve Pekan Pahang, Malaysia

Biomass and Carbon Stock Assessment of Peat Swamp Forest Ecosystem; A Case Study in Permanent Forest Reserve Pekan Pahang, Malaysia

Prominent species observed in Compt .75 are Gonystylus bancanus (Ramin melawis), Calophyllum ferrugineum (Bintangor gambut), Shorea platycarpa (Meranti paya), Tetramerista glabra (Punah) and Durio carinatus (Durian paya), Koompassia malaccensis (Kempas). Stand characteristics of tree communities of Ramin-Bintangor forest subtype in Southeast Pahang peat swamp forest (SEP PSF) are rich with commercial timber species [30](Table 5)

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Households Preferences and Willingness to Pay for Watershed Services Attributes in North Selangor Peat Swamp Forest Malaysia

Households Preferences and Willingness to Pay for Watershed Services Attributes in North Selangor Peat Swamp Forest Malaysia

incentives payments to land owners or stewards for investing in new land use practice that lead to conservation or production of specific environmental service (Engel et al., 2008).Therefore, the aim of this study is to estimate the economic benefit of forest watershed services and Households' Preferences and Willingness to Pay for Watershed Services Attributes. This research was conducted at the North Selangor Peat Swamp Forest (NSPSF) comprises of Sungai Karang Forest and Raja Musa Forest Reserves. This is largest remaining peat swamp forest on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, and is critical for biodiversity conservation, water resource management and carbon storage (Parlan, 2001).

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Overcoming limitations with Landsat imagery for mapping of peat swamp forests in Sundaland

Overcoming limitations with Landsat imagery for mapping of peat swamp forests in Sundaland

Subsequent to classification, we used a two-step method in ArcMap (Version 9.3) to composite images for 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010 (Figure 4). First, the land-cover classes in the classified images were assigned the following numerical values, in descending order of disturbance level: 4: primary peat swamp forest, 3: plantation/re-growth, 2: agriculture mosaic, 1: bare earth/urban areas/burn scars, 0: water/cloud shadows/clouds and missing data. For a given scene in 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010 separately, resultant images were then composited into a single image whereby a given pixel adopted the highest numerical value (and thus corresponding land-cover class) of all coincident pixels. In this way, data gaps in one image due to cloud cover or the SLC-Off errors were filled with data from other cotemporaneous images, where present. As our compositing method uses a ‘maximum’ mosaic operator (i.e., output cell value of the overlapping areas will be the maximum value of the overlapping cells), it prioritizes a ‘forest’ classification over all potential land cover. It therefore partially overlooks the deforestation that occurred between the earliest and latest acquisition dates of the images of a given scene for a given mosaic year, and similarly conservatively estimates forest loss between mosaic years.

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Water use dynamics of a peat swamp forest and a dune forest in Maputaland, South Africa

Water use dynamics of a peat swamp forest and a dune forest in Maputaland, South Africa

the establishment of a permanent link between the Umfolozi River and the lake to supply fresh water and reduce salin- ity levels. The healthy functioning of the estuary is clearly in the balance due to anthropogenic influences that have severely affected the water balance of the system. A wa- ter management strategy is therefore critical to the future health of the estuary. In addition, of the indigenous forests in KwaZulu-Natal, Eeley et al. (1999) particularly include swamp and dune forests as being those most at risk due to climate change. Even more so, peat swamp forests are at risk of invasion or succession by upland species in response to lowering of the water table, the drying out of peat and the in- creased potential for peat fires. It was during the course of a recent research project (Water Research Commission Project K5/1704) to address the water management of the Eastern Shores area and the implications of climate change to the area that it was necessary to determine the water balance. However, it was apparent that there is little or no informa- tion on the actual water use from the natural vegetation types of the area. Total evaporation (ET), which includes transpi- ration and soil water evaporation, is a dominant component of the water balance in South Africa (Linacre, 1976; Everson et al., 2001, 2011). It was therefore determined that there is a need to measure the tree transpiration, which dominates in forests (Bosch and Hewlett, 1982), to better understand the dynamics of these two important forest types found within the area.

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Assessment of the Influence of Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Tropical Peat Swamp Soils Using Microbial Diversity and Activity Analysis

Assessment of the Influence of Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Tropical Peat Swamp Soils Using Microbial Diversity and Activity Analysis

Microorganisms catalyze biogeochemical shifts through changes in enzyme production [46]. In terms of enzyme activity, the activities in soils of peat swamp forest and those converted to agricultural land were found to vary considerably (0.13 - 4.96 µmol p-NP g −1 ·h −1 ) (Figure 1). Comparing the data from the current study with other reported soil enzyme activities in other environments, the values reported here were lower in terms of β-gluco- sidase, but higher for acid phosphatase [47]. Generally, for mineral soil, enzyme activities in arable soil are higher than enzyme activities of forest soils; however, Kanokratana et al. [48] reported that metagenomicanaly- sis showed that for peat swamp forest soils, the number of genes encoding polysaccharide degrading enzymes was significantly higher than that found in sludge and farm soil. This study shows that apart from chitinase ac- tivities, conversion of peatland for agricultural use resulted in a reduction of β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase and acid phosphatase activities. The relatively high chitinase activity suggests a high metabolic demand for N released during chitin turnover [49]. Although not significantly different, the slightly higher acid phosphatase activity in NF and RP soils may have be driven by microbial C demand, considering the relatively large P-availability [50]. Currently there is comparatively limited information available on enzyme activities in peat- lands and the impact of conversion to agricultural use. Bowles, Acosta-Martínez [15] stated that variation in en- zyme activities could not be explained simply by soil type due to the narrow range of soil textures in peatland soil. The nutrient requirements of soil microbiota are dependent not only on the microbial community but also on the physical and chemical environment surrounding their habitats. Studies such as this are therefore impor- tant in generating baseline information on enzyme activities in converted tropical peatlands in addition to as- sessing the effects of peatland conversion.

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Extending periodic eddy covariance latent heat fluxes through tree sap flow measurements to estimate long term total evaporation in a peat swamp forest

Extending periodic eddy covariance latent heat fluxes through tree sap flow measurements to estimate long term total evaporation in a peat swamp forest

Severe water scarcity in parts of South Africa has threatened the health of internationally recognised environmental areas such as the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO world heritage site. To optimise the management of the water bal- ance and understand the functioning of the area, there has been a need to quantify the water-use of the dominant vege- tation types of the Park such as the endangered Peat Swamp Forests (Grundling et al., 1998; Clulow et al., 2012), a domi- nant plant type of the Mfabeni Mire. However, little is known about the water-use characteristics of the species-diverse Peat Swamp Forests (PSFs) both locally and internationally in terms of model parametrisation. Despite significant im- provements to measurement techniques over vegetated sur- faces (Savage et al., 1997), these have not been of benefit for PSFs due to their remote and inaccessible nature. In addi- tion, well-documented extreme events (such as the Demoina floods in 1987) pose a real threat in the area. Sophisticated instruments are unfortunately vulnerable to damage and mal- function in such environments and PSFs are therefore not good locations for long-term deployment of sensitive equip- ment, a challenge facing researchers internationally and par- ticularly in developing countries.

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Habitat evolution of a peat swamp forest and belowground carbon sequestration during the Holocene along the coastal lowland in Central Sumatra, Indonesia

Habitat evolution of a peat swamp forest and belowground carbon sequestration during the Holocene along the coastal lowland in Central Sumatra, Indonesia

Habitat evolution of a peat swamp forest and belowground carbon storage was examined in a coastal lowland along the eastern coast of Central Sumatra, Indonesia. Boring surveys using a hand-operated peat sampler for 32 sites and radiocarbon dating for 29 samples revealed that the peat swamp forest had begun formation by 6500 cal BP and expanded rapidly between 6500 and 5000 cal BP and between 4000 and 2000 cal BP to nearly the present distribution area. The thickness of the peat layer formed under the peat swamp forest reached approximately 4 m, even in the margin of the peat dome, and more than 9 m in the center. Stored carbon per unit volume of the peat layer was estimated to be between 30 and 44 kg C m − 3 in the margin of the peat dome and approximately 26 kg C m − 3 in the center, which was less than the general carbon values of the mangrove peat. The relatively higher amount of stored carbon per unit volume in the margin was possibly caused by an inflow of allochthonous carbon from flood deposits. Belowground carbon burial rate of the peat layer was calculated as between 31 and 105 g C m − 2 years − 1 in the peat dome margin and between 27 and 76 g C m − 2 years − 1 in the center, which were identical to mangrove peat. These data suggest that peat swamp forests have played a significant role as places for carbon sequestration belowground as well as mangrove forest with mangrove peat.

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Fishes of a Conserved Peat Swamp Forest in an Oil Palm Plantation

Fishes of a Conserved Peat Swamp Forest in an Oil Palm Plantation

Peat swamps are known to be important habitats for fish fauna that have narrow niches and restricted range. As peatland is being utilised for agriculture, biodiversity conservation plays an essential role as one of the criteria for defining sustainable agriculture. In an oil palm production landscape which is located at Tinbarap Estate in Miri, Sarawak, a total of 210.63 ha of peat swamp forest have been set aside as the Tinbarap Conservation Area (TCA) for conservation efforts. This study documents the fish fauna of Sungai Kulak which flows through the conservation area. Sampling was conducted in April 2016 and November 2016, from which a total of 106 fishes representing 13 species and seven families were recorded. In terms of the number of individuals caught, 78.30% were from the family Cyprinidae, 8.49% from Siluridae, 4.72% from Channidae, 3.77% from Osphronemidae, 1.89% from Anabantidae, 1.89% from Bagridae and 0.94% from the family Helostomatidae. The dominant species was Desmopuntius johorensis which accounted for 47.17% of the total fishes recorded. The dominance of Cyprinidae in TCA was similar to that in other peat swamp habitats. The results of our present study provide useful information on the diversity of fishes in Sungai Kulak which in the future could be valuable in conservation planning of the aquatic environment in TCA of Tinbarap Estate.

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The prospect of micropropagating Gonystylus bancanus (Miq.) Kurz, a tropical peat swamp forest timber species through tissue culture technique – Review

The prospect of micropropagating Gonystylus bancanus (Miq.) Kurz, a tropical peat swamp forest timber species through tissue culture technique – Review

Micropropagation of forest tree species especially those with commercial timber values via tissue cul- ture was said to be a viable method for producing plants for reforestation, conventional breeding and mass propagation (Ortiz et al. 2000). If compared with the rapid progress of the breeding programmes for two popular exotic genera such as Acacia Miller and Eucalyptus L’Héritier de Brutelle, breeding via tissue culture of indigenous tropical timber species in particular the peat swamp forest species such as G. bancanus is well behind. This is partly due to the fact that there is no plantation area of the indigenous species as yet, in contrast to the exotic species, which have been planted on over millions of hectares and it is by far mainly for enrichment planting and forest rehabilitations purposes.

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Recycling of phenolic compounds in Borneo’s tropical peat swamp forests

Recycling of phenolic compounds in Borneo’s tropical peat swamp forests

Production of phenolic compounds in plants in response to stress such as herbivory or pathogen attack is typically considered to be a trade-off at the expense of plant growth and reproduction [5]. This is predicted by resource-based allocation theory whereby alloca- tion of carbon for secondary metabolism (defense) is at the expense of primary metabolism (growth and repro- duction) [26, 27]. In the nutrient limited TPSF, the abil- ity of plants to reabsorb and thus to recycle phenolic compounds and to synthesize high molecular weight compounds within the leaves for defense against her- bivory and pathogen attack would thus be an adaptation to survive which would be enhanced by the acid, water- logged conditions. This explains our earlier results [6, 9] where we showed that the concentration of phenolic compounds was higher in various ferns, gingers and trees found in TPSF compared with the same species growing on dry land mineral soils. For those plants that possess the required adaptations to survive waterlogging, the conditions of TPSF may not be stressful after all, but may facilitate the uptake and synthesis of protective phenolic compounds which are key to peat swamp development and maintenance.

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Biomass and Carbon Stock Assessment of Peat Swamp Forest Ecosystem; A Case Study in Permanent Forest Reserve Pekan Pahang, Malaysia

Biomass and Carbon Stock Assessment of Peat Swamp Forest Ecosystem; A Case Study in Permanent Forest Reserve Pekan Pahang, Malaysia

Prominent species observed in Compt .75 are Gonystylus bancanus (Ramin melawis), Calophyllum ferrugineum (Bintangor gambut), Shorea platycarpa (Meranti paya), Tetramerista glabra (Punah) and Durio carinatus (Durian paya), Koompassia malaccensis (Kempas). Stand characteristics of tree communities of Ramin-Bintangor forest subtype in Southeast Pahang peat swamp forest (SEP PSF) are rich with commercial timber species [30](Table 5)

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Stomata characteristics and chlorophyll content in two plant species
regenerating with sprout and seeds after burning at Peat Swamp Forest in
Batang Alin Indonesia

Stomata characteristics and chlorophyll content in two plant species regenerating with sprout and seeds after burning at Peat Swamp Forest in Batang Alin Indonesia

Regeneration capability of plants with sprouting and seeding are two important characters in forest recovery after burning. Characteristics of stomata and chlorophyill contents of Anthocephalus cadamba Miq and Mallotus leucodermis Hook regenerating with sprout and seeds after burning at peat swamp forest in Batang Alin were studied and compared with the same unburned plant species. The two plant species studied with different regeneration mechanisms, sprouting and seeding, showed different response on environmental changes after burning. In Anthocephalus cadamba Miq., characteristics of stomata and chlorophyll content were not factors determining adaptation capability of seeding regeneration in burned location, while adaptation capability of sprouting regeneration was determined by characteristics of stomata. In Mallotus leucodermis Hook f., characteristics of stomata and chlorophyll content determined adaptation capability on seeding regeneration, meanwhile on sprouting regeneration it was determined by characteristics of stomata only.

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Impacts of conversion of tropical peat swamp forest to oil palm plantation on peat organic chemistry, physical properties and carbon stocks

Impacts of conversion of tropical peat swamp forest to oil palm plantation on peat organic chemistry, physical properties and carbon stocks

porosity; and (d) bulk density (dry weight basis) between secondary peat swamp forests, drained peat swamp forests, cleared peat swamp forests, and mature oil palm plantations at three different depths within the peat profiles: surface peat (black bar); below the water table (dark grey bar); and deep peat (light grey bar). Average values for land conversion classes and standard error bars are shown.

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Revitalization of organic and peat soils

Revitalization of organic and peat soils

der Heijden et al., 1994). Forests formed on these peat soils are called peat swamp forests. Huat, 2004; Edil, 2003; Den Haan, 1997; Jarret, 1995; Landva, 1980 have all reported that the behaviour of the peat found in different geographical areas differ from one another because of the type and origin of the organic matter, emphasising the need for careful geotechnical characterisation. They possess unique vegetation assemblages adapting to the high degree of water logging, low pH and low available nutrient conditions such that the properties of peat can change greatly across a deposit, and even within short distances particularly in fibrous peat (Frank, 2006; Mamit, 2009). In a tropical country, such as Malaysia, most peat lands belong to basin peats. It forms “peat domes”, up to 10-15 m high and are usually found in the lower stretches of major river courses, and mangroves along coastal areas.

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Does Typha spp  Contribute to Wetland Waterloss and Health Risk: A Case Study of Hadejia Nguru Wetlands (HNW) System NE Nigeria

Does Typha spp Contribute to Wetland Waterloss and Health Risk: A Case Study of Hadejia Nguru Wetlands (HNW) System NE Nigeria

Data collected through field experiment were evapotranspiration water loss, mosquito larva load (number per 100 ml), the larvae collected were heat killed (tepid, not boiling) preserved in 80% ethyl alcohol and examined under a microscope of 60× magnification [14]. Other field work include determination of the size of fish ground and farm land under Typha infestation (ha). Questionnaire was designed to capture data on exposure to mosquito bite and malaria reported cases. Field investigation was conducted to determine and compare rate of water loss in Wetland due to Typha infestation as against open water. Wachakal (Figure 1) was selected as our temporary weather station and site for evapotranspiration assessments for the period of investigation. In the selected village, (1) Typha infested site of 1 m 2 was laid at random called Site A, also, 1 site of open water at 1 m 2 was equally laid called site B [7] [15]. Maximum and minimum thermometer were installed at the Typha Swamp in Site A to take the average daily temperature for months of January, March and June 2013. A Piche evaporimeter was in- stalled at the bank of the open water in Site B to measure daily evaporation for the same period [15]. From the record obtained in Site A, an average monthly temperature was extracted and Blaney-Criddle method was ap- plied to determine the potential evapotranspirative water loss [16]-[18] due to Typha invasion. Also the record obtained in Site B was used to determine average monthly evaporation for the period under investigation.

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Peat Bog Ecosystems: Commercial peat extraction

Peat Bog Ecosystems: Commercial peat extraction

Research on milled peat surfaces in Canada and more recently in Germany has therefore concentrated on re-establishment of Sphagnum species more typical of ridges and hummocks where possible, with minimal re-shaping of the peat surface. The methods involve blocking the milling-field drains to raise the water table beneath the milled surface (paludifying it), creation of low peat bunds only where essential to retain moist surface conditions, then spreading macerated ridge or hummock Sphagnum species across the bare peat surface, generally with a protective layer of straw. Results have been remarkably rapid and successful in re- establishing a rich sward of peat- forming Sphagnum species, thereby establishing at least the initial characteristics of a functional acrotelm. It is essential to reiterate, however, that even if the full microtopography and species diversity can in time be restored (and there is no evidence as yet to show that this is possible, particularly for rarer and more vulnerable species), the peat archive which had developed over thousands of years can never be restored. Consequently successful restoration cannot be used to justify new extraction.

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