The research question guiding the analysis is: What do we learn when we learn through educational technologies such as MOOCs? Drawing from concepts of Critical Pedagogy and Philosophy of Technology, the structure of learning through MOOCs is analyzed. The theoretical frameworks of Paulo Freire serve to problematize educational models that equate learning with transferring of information. The aim of education is not just to equip students with the skills and competences to function in a world that treat them as labour force. Education can serve as a vehicle for developing a critical consciousness and social awareness of the active role that people have in transforming their reality. This is what Freire conceptualized as a process of humanization. Education makes us human. However, there are structures in educational models that frame students as objects rather than active subjects. The approach of “banking model education” describes the dynamics of oppressive structures in classrooms. On examining the educational models in MOOCs through a Freirean analysis, oppressive structures are revealed. Therefore, in this thesis it is argued that educational technologies can become new forms of oppression that often are not acknowledged as such, perhaps because they are obscured by technological enthusiasm and innovation narratives discussed in the media
A review of studies in Taiwan and abroad on media literacy education and of discussions on media literacy theories and teaching methods reveals that program designs usually entail disrupting the traditional lecture format and incorporating the experiences of teachers and students (Bazalgette, 1997; Brown, 1991, 1998; Buckingham, 1990; Consdiine & Haley, 1999; Livingstone, 2004; Kubey, 1998; Masterman, 1980, 1985, 1997). Moreover, some literature and discussion on critical literacy (Young, 1980; Meyers, 1986; Stice, 1987; Kitchener, 1986) support participation in public service media as an alternative forum to the mainstream media as this provides an opportunity for the oppressed to challenge their oppressors and speak on their own terms. The teaching methods encourage students’ participation and their transformation from being media consumers into active citizen ‘narrators’ as subjects of themselves (Livingstone, 2003). However, few studies combine critical pedagogy/media literacy with a discussion of citizen actions, and the issues of course design and teaching efficacy receive even less attention. On the other hand, the teaching strategies of critical pedagogy have been widely discussed (Freire, 2003; Giroux, 1988; Livingstone, 2004; Shor, 2012; Hooks, 1994), and we shall analyze their relevance for media literacy education.
Lankshear and Knobel synthesize the philosophy of The New London Group when they state that “literacy is not simply knowing how to read and write a particular script but applying this knowledge for specific contexts of use” (65). In New Literacies: Everyday Practices and Classroom Learning, Lankshear and Knobel (2006) argue that educators should avoid “focusing exclusively on the technology of a writing system and its reputed consequences”, and “approach literacy as a set of socially organized practices which make use of a symbol system and a technology for producing and disseminating it”. I assert that if information literacy curriculum were to be informed by such a socio- cultural mandate in lieu of a merely technical one, the possibility for a more liberatory pedagogy would exist. By invoking a DIY mindset in our techno-cultural present, information literacy as liberatory pedagogy gets framed as an essential skill in a new axis of class conflict in which there exists a new concept of labor known as “immaterial” labor. This new labor is flexible, mobile, often precarious and does not respect a division between work and leisure (Wark, 2006, 169), which effectively means that immaterial labor leaks into virtually any space of everyday life just as learning and play leak into formalized spaces of education. This new labor, new creativity rather, is irreverent toward historical institutional definitions and practices that insist on “knowing” and “being” certain ways in this world, just as the Protestant work ethic prescribed duty in servitude to a higher god as one toiled for an industrial boss and just as historical definitions of literacy insisted on narrowly defined technical skills of reading,
Feiman-Nemser (2001) also identified preservice teachers as needing to build a “basic repertoire” (p. 1018) for teaching—a variety of strategies with the focus on pedagogy, which helps teachers identify the “when, where, how, and why to use particular approaches” (p. 1019). Ward et al. (2013) supported this claim and stated that teacher education needs to provide a “solid foundation in pedagogy and subject matter” (p. 73 emphasis added). However, McCormack, Gore, and Thomas (2006) found that new teachers whose teacher education programs focused highly on new pedagogies, struggled during their induction phase in schools where new or ambitious pedagogies were discouraged in favour of more traditional or safe approaches. Nonetheless, a pedagogy of multiliteracies is an apt framework for new teachers who are developing their pedagogy and teaching repertoire within initial teacher education, because it offers teachers the opportunity to become purposeful designers of rich learning opportunities for students that are immersed in student experience and framed critically for students to interrogate and examine the world they live in.
1.1 The Doctoral Experience: A Search for a Dissertation Topic I am currently an instructor in higher education at a Canadian university. I chose to pursue a doctorate in education, an area of study quite different from my prior professional expertise, because I wanted to use the doctoral experience to expand my understanding of pedagogy or pedagogical practices, an aspect of professional life I value highly. My investigation of doctoral programs identified several excellent institutions in North America and abroad. I chose the University of Southern Queensland (USQ), because some of the faculty shared my interest in pedagogy and contemporary postindustrial times. As well, at USQ, I could study in a distance learning, or dispersed environment—allowing me to keep my job while pursing a doctorate. I saw distance learning as a potential means for continued research and as a mode of providing a course offering in the future.
Resilience refers to the positive ways in which people respond to adversity and stressful life events. Much of the research and writing in resilience has focussed on how children respond to adversity. Community resilience, however, represents an extension of this focus. Often oppressed communities are represented as lacking in resilience and competence. Models that characterize group responses to intergroup and intercultural contact often simplify the responses of communities. Drawing on these concepts it is argued that oppressed groups do not always capitulate or assimilate to oppressive systems, but in alternative forums and settings these groups find ways to resist oppression and experience a sense of community. In settings such as church groups, sporting clubs, extended family networks and other organizations groups find ways to protect and propagate what is valued and central for their survival. This has implications for how we interpret and understand the ways in which groups adapt to oppressive and changed contexts and alerts us to the dangers in under-emphasising and overlooking the positive functions of alternative settings.
40 Gay marriage and single parenting are tied inextricably to the downfall of society, brought down by their weight on the conservative taxpayer. According to conservative evangelicals, single parents are simply a drain on society. For example, James Daly of Focus on the Family plainly states, “the obvious solution of building a culture where moms and dads are encouraged to stay together has been ignored by many of the men and women seeking a solution to poverty.” 107 Poverty and society would be fixed if single mothers were no longer a problem to be fixed. This judgment of single women (along with homosexuals and divorcees) alienates entire categories of people. 108 There is little concern for the widow or the oppressed expressed in these views. Elizabeth M. Bounds, Pamela Brubaker, and Mary E. Hobgood, feminist theologians note in their book Welfare Policy: Feminist Critiques, that conservative evangelicals see “women’s work to care for children while single as a moral failing rather than an accomplishment.” 109 There is no concern for the difficult job that single parents do nor their children. The only concern is to promote the sort of family that they have deemed the “biblical” ideal.
What I failed to appreciate for some 25 years was that what I’d considered to be an outmoded pedagogic process was in fact a very traditional Torres Strait Islander pedagogy, which had worked very effectively for those small and settled communities, for many generations. During the collection of data for recording the log of the voyage, YUME Pedagogy: Pedagogy with Cultural Integrity for the Torres Strait, there is evidence of this same traditional and very effective teaching practice in process today. It is characterised by demonstration and observation, interlaced with questioning for clarification. Story (yarning) is a significant element, where the teacher illustrates their knowledge with real life stories and legends. Learners observe, practice and attempt to reproduce what they have observed. Skills refinement is important and the teacher takes great pains to repeat those processes that the learner is finding difficult – all the time relating appropriate stories to illustrate the significance or the application of the particular skill/s. It is interesting to note that whilst classrooms in contemporary Torres Strait Island schools tend to be active and noisy places, the groups of learners gathered to inherit the wisdom of their elders were consistently calm, quiet and focussed. I witnessed this same experience in an activity undertaken by a much younger Torres Strait Islander teacher aide in 2003. The young teacher aide conducted an art activity – lino printing, with two groups of Year 7 students. The same process of
Handbook (Gibbs et al. 2007), a product of the Socrates Grundtvig Programme, a European Union initiative that has had a significant bearing on the nature of subsequent access and widening participation initiatives within the museum and gallery domain. Aligned with the principles of constructivist pedagogy, the approaches endorsed within these guidelines validate the role of the learner in the processes of knowledge construction and the identification of meaning in the course of engagement with environments and subject matter. Within the museum and gallery domain, constructivism has been advocated most influentially by George Hein (1991, 1995, 1998, 2004). Hein accounts for the rationale underpinning constructivism in terms of the freedom if affords to gallery visitors (or learners in general) to “make meaning,” and “construct concepts” by “convert[ing] sensory input (what we see, hear, feel, and so on) into meaning” (Hein 2004: n.p). Hein’s prefacing of this emphasis on meaning making with the avowal that learning is an ‘active process’ (ibid) reaffirms the significance of the fact that almost three quarters of the individuals with visual impairment who partook in simulation-based access activities briefly outlined above reported to have felt more actively involved in the process of art engagement, and that almost all of these regarded this as a positive development. The move away from traditional notions of art education that involved the transmission of knowledge, and the cultivation of ‘good’ taste by an art expert is reflected in Hein’s further caveat that the meaning that is made within constructivist pedagogy, and the interpretations of experience that it generates, are valid even in cases where they are at direct odds with the prevailing thrust of professional consensus. Although contemporary art
norbert Kraker (Kraker, 2005) has pointed out that the ‘circle of engineering pedago- gy’ is a quintet of five disciplines which help to develop engineering educators’ competencies. The five components of the circle are applied sciences (e.g. mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, software engineering, etc), social sciences (pedagogical psychology, pedagogi- cal sociology), subject-related didactics (didactics of teaching theoretical subjects, didactics of teaching in the laboratory, didactics of blended learning), supervised teaching practice (in the different learning environments) as well as additional courses (communication skills, a foreign language as a medium of instruction, administration, quality management, project work). pre- sented ‘circle of engineering pedagogy’ has served as the basis of the proposed curriculum.
Freire understands that pedagogy as a project of conscientização or “educational practice is a necessary dimension of social practice” (1999: 83). As such, he emphasizes that the educational practice of conscientização must include “popular participation” and the ability to engage “the dialectic unity between theory and practice” (Freire 1999: 89). Giroux points out that “pedagogy works to produce, circulate, and confirm particular forms of knowledge” (1999: 110). This reminds us that no educational project or pedagogy is neutral. The act of learning and the act of teaching to publics became the educational practice of the students by creating spaces to question the historical and current forms of inequalities of a place. This manifest itself through students who made comments about never having realized the differences in race and class in the city of Carlisle and who did not realize that poverty presented itself clearly to a conscious observer.
at making something better out of it and curing some of its evils by attacking them. One of those evils is the already mentioned mistreatment of women by their male partners and, more than that, the fact that women allow it to the point that they seem to be masochistic. While interpreting “El Calcetín” (“The Sock”) at UCLA, Hadad seemed to get into an authentic trance while flagellating herself with a fake whip (which at least from far away looked more like a feather duster). The song talks about how a woman is treated as a sock by her lover in the sense that she is stepped on all the time and that once she is ripped off, it is not worth it to “sew” her again. The inability of women to see their own value is what often causes those situations of domestic violence. Hadad expresses the suffering that those women undergo in an exaggerated whipping, where the movements of the whip, her long black hair and her whole body continue until the audience can no longer stand it. With a cathartic relief, the song ends but nobody misses the message. As shaman figures, these women show an interest in active change towards “egalitarian social relations” (Sandoval 376). Because of that, this can be distinguished as Sandoval's technology of “democratics,” the fourth one enumerated in hands of the oppressed.
refined framework for pedagogy for contemporary postindustrial change that emerge from the field research? 224 5.8.1 Reflections-- Refinements and the Use of a Series of Steps 224 5.8.2 Reflections-- Refining the CIM Participant Information