Perceptions of Organizational Justice

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Perceptions of organizational justice in incentive contracts and their effect on congruence between personal and organizational goals

Perceptions of organizational justice in incentive contracts and their effect on congruence between personal and organizational goals

are expected to get involved in protectionist behaviors, such as data manipulation (Eccles, 1991), organizational respite (Merchant, 1989), or directing their efforts to convince their supervisors that the low performance is due to uncontrollable factors (Merchant, 1989). So, there is a link between the controllability principle and organizational justice. Neutralizing the impact of uncontrollable factors reduces the risk of the performance achieved not being consistent with the effort applied, so the controllability principle would be positively linked to distributive justice (Giraud, Langevin, & Mendoza, 2008). The controllability principle also influences the perceptions of procedural justice. Evidence suggests that perceptions of justice in performance evaluations are also based on the procedures adopted, despite the evaluations received (Greenberg & Folger, 1983). Resentment can be maximized when trustees believe they could have been better evaluated, if their bosses had made use of other procedures (Cropanzano & Folger, 1989). So, the following research hypotheses are put forward:
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Organizational Justice  In Higher Education: Perceptions Of Taiwanese Professors And Staffs

Organizational Justice In Higher Education: Perceptions Of Taiwanese Professors And Staffs

This research constructed a questionnaire to assess the sense and perceptions of organizational justice in higher education institutions for staff and faculty members in Taiwan based on a review of the literature and expert opinions. This research divided organizational justice into distributive justice, procedure justice, interpersonal justice, and information justice. The 24 items on the questionnaire represent these four factors. This research administered questionnaires to 250 staffs and professors at national and private universities in the southern region of Taiwan. Ultimately, 180 valid questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Four background variables—gender, age, position, and institutional type—showed statistical correlations with organizational justice in Taiwan’s higher education institutions. Staffs and professors at Taiwanese universities tended to perceive a higher sense of justice for interpersonal justice but the lowest sense of justice for distributive justice. Staffs and professors at Taiwanese universities tended to perceive a higher sense of equality related to ethnicity, economic background, gender, and appearance but a lower sense of justice when their colleagues had social connections or social capital. Professors and staffs also perceived a lower sense of justice related to hours of work and rewards from work.
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Examining the Impact of Leader Member Exchange on Perceptions of Organizational Justice: The Mediating Role of Perceptions of Organizational Politics

Examining the Impact of Leader Member Exchange on Perceptions of Organizational Justice: The Mediating Role of Perceptions of Organizational Politics

DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.811150 2313 Theoretical Economics Letters tional justice. The scrutiny of above literature revealed that the quality of lead- er-member exchange and perceptions of organizational politics had a negative relationship [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [50]. Furthermore, high perceptions of or- ganizational politics lead to lower levels of perceptions of organizational justice among the employees [33] [34] [35] [36] [37]. Therefore, in the present study researcher examines the mediating role of perceptions of organizational politics on the relationship between leader-member exchange and perceptions of orga- nizational justice as there are very few studies which examines the mediating role of perceptions of organizational politics [30] [42] [61]. In line with results of the study by Valle, M. & Perrewé, P. L. [42], the present study also try to find out what are the factors that affects the employee’s perceptions of organizational politics and what are its consequences. Valle, M. & Perrewé, P. L. [42] examined the antecedents and consequences of perceptions of organizational politics. Re- sults of the multiple regression and moderated regression analysis revealed that defensive/reactive behavior by the employees aggravate the negative effects of perceptions of organizational politics on different outcomes such as job satisfac- tion, job stress and turnover intensions. Furthermore, results of the study de- picted that work/job environmental factors (job autonomy, skill variety, feed- back, supervisor/co-worker influence) explained more variance in perceptions of employees pertaining to organizational politics rather than organizational influ- ence (centralization, formalization, hierarchical level and span of control) or per- sonal factors (need for power or locus of control). An interesting finding of the study was significant negative relationship between internal locus of control and perceptions of organizational politics, such that employees who have internal locus of control will have high levels of perceptions of organizational politics. Finally, results of the study demonstrated that perceptions of organizational politics me- diate the relationship between all the proposed antecedents and consequences.
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An Analysis of Organizational Justice and Organizational Identification Relation Based on Teachers' Perceptions

An Analysis of Organizational Justice and Organizational Identification Relation Based on Teachers' Perceptions

Abstract This study intends to analyze the relation between organizational justice and organizational identification based on teachers’ perceptions. The study group consists of 1223 teachers working at secondary and high-schools during the 2015-2016 academic year in 14 county towns of Balikesir in Turkey. The data was collected by Organizational Justice Scale and Organizational Identification Scale. The findings of the study showed that secondary and high school teachers have positive opinions concerning organizational justice and identification. Teachers’ perceptions of organizational justice differ significantly according to their seniority and workplaces. All sub-dimensions of organizational justice were found to be a significant predictor of organizational identification, yet the sub-dimension of procedural justice was found to be the most significant one. Another strong predictor of organizational identification appeared to be interactional justice. Lastly, it was found that distributive justice has little effect on organizational identification.
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The Effects of  Organizational Justice Perceptions Associated with the use of Electronic Monitoring on Employees' Organizational Citizenship and Withdrawal Behaviours: A Social Exchange Perspective

The Effects of Organizational Justice Perceptions Associated with the use of Electronic Monitoring on Employees' Organizational Citizenship and Withdrawal Behaviours: A Social Exchange Perspective

considered a perceived benefit by the employee and that employees will feel obligated or motivated to reciprocate this fair treatment by engaging in organizational citizenship behaviours. Another possible avenue for future research and possible explanation for why affective commitment failed to predict individual initiative, interpersonal helping and personal industry is that employees did not feel obligated to reciprocate the fair treatment they had received and act upon this felt obligation by engaging in behaviours that benefit the organization. Eisenberger and colleagues (2001) have found that the relationship between perceived organizational support and affective commitment and a measure of organizational spontaneity (a composite of behaviours representing personal industry and individual initiative) was fully mediated by a measure of felt obligation. Further research on how felt obligation relates to other variables considered part of the social exchange process (e.g., organizational trust) would be beneficial to further our understanding of how perceptions of organizational justice relates to organizational citizenship behaviours. Future research could explore how perceptions of fairness associated with the use of electronic monitoring and the relationships observed in the present study vary
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The Effect of Employees' Perceptions of Organizational Justice on Organizational Citizenship Behavior: An Applicationin Turkish Public Hospital

The Effect of Employees' Perceptions of Organizational Justice on Organizational Citizenship Behavior: An Applicationin Turkish Public Hospital

Greenberg and Baron (2000: 372) defined the organizational justice as the action of an employee who performs more than the obligations of formal organizations. Organizational justice describes the individual’s perception of fairness in organizations, his behavioral reaction to such perceptions and to show how these perceptions affect organizational outcomes such as organizational citizenship behavior (OBC), commitment and job satisfaction (Noruzyet al., 2011). Unfair treatment or injustice not only decreases job performance but also decreases quality of work and degree of cooperation among workers (Fatimah, Amiraa & Halim, 2011). There are three dimensions of organizational justice which are named as distributive, procedural and interactional justice (Ruolian& Vivien, 2002).Distributive justice is described as the fairness of distribution of resources (e.g., performance ratings, pay, promotions) or about results orientations (Alvi & Abbasi, 2012). Procedural justice refers to the perceived fairness and the transparency in the decision making procedures followed in resource allocation or disputes resolution (Khan & Habib, 2011, Tepper & Taylor, 2003). Interactional justice reflects employees’ feelings of how fair they are treated by their supervisors (Blakely, Andrews & Moorman, 2005).
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Organizational Justice Perceptions and Views on Violence of Branch Teachers Working in Primary Schools

Organizational Justice Perceptions and Views on Violence of Branch Teachers Working in Primary Schools

The related literature doesn‟t include any previous researches, which have studied the relationships between justice and violence perception variables. Yet, there are some researches, which have studied the variables of the present research separately. Başar and Sığrı (2015) studied the effects of teachers‟ perceptions of organizational justice on their leaving their jobs, and found that the perception of organizational justice had a significant effect on maintaining the job. The violence at schools, and managers‟ attitudes towards violence are also effective in teachers‟ maintaining their jobs. Demir (2015) studied the effects of organizational justice and perceived organizational support on organizational citizenship perception, and reported that teachers, who experience fair practices and don‟t experience problems at their schools exhibit more citizenship behaviours. In this context, we can claim that teachers, who don‟t encounter violence at schools, and believe that necessary measures are taken with fair practices, exhibit more citizenship behaviours. Polat and Kazak (2014) studied the relationship between school managers‟ favouring attitudes and behaviours and teachers‟ perceptions of organizational justice, found that favouring behaviours of managers result in decrease in teachers‟ perceptions of justice. Accordingly, we can claim that managers‟ reactions to violent incidents and their fair behaviours in this subject can cause differences in teachers‟ perspectives of justice. Similarly, Tziner and Sharoni (2014) reported in their research that work related stress can result in decrease in organizational justice perceptions. Another research conducted by Elovainio, Linna, Virtanen, Oksanen, Kivimäki, Pentti and Vahtera (2013) found that low organizational justice perception and negative incidents at work organizations can result in psychological health problems among employees in the long term. From this perspective, we can suggest that, constant violence incidents at schools and the managerial approaches towards violence incidents, especially the different and negative approaches can damage teachers psychologically.
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A New Approach to The Organizational Justice Concept: The Collective Level of Justice Perceptions

A New Approach to The Organizational Justice Concept: The Collective Level of Justice Perceptions

AlthoughtheJudgement of Justice Model, offers a comprehensive view on, what rules should have to be implemented when individuals decide what in his or herindividual relation with an organization is equitable, neither the group influenceon the presented rules validation, nor useful approaches, to specifically explore the consequences of the interdependent perceptions associatedwith the justice outcomes seen through the collective perspective, where indirect experiences (for example: becoming a witness of a miscarriage of justice), complexsocial interactions having influence on expectations, have been suggested, although conceivably, it may be assumed, that such considerations have a key role to play, as anextension to the model and a factor measurably contributing tothe organizational justice perceptions concept. Therefore, this influential theory, indispensable for proper understanding of the rules underpinning the perceptions of justice in organizations, exhibits comparable with the theoryreviewed above limitations, with regard to the postulated here collective aspects affecting these perceptions.
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Relationship between Organizational Justice Perceptions and Organizational Commitment Levels of School of Physical Education and Sports Academicians

Relationship between Organizational Justice Perceptions and Organizational Commitment Levels of School of Physical Education and Sports Academicians

In the light of the foregoing information, the study has been conducted with the school of physical education and sports academicians, who constitute the sports-based human resource of the academic world that has a difficult environment, to determine their perception toward organizational justice and their organizational commitment levels and whether there is relation between their organizational justice perceptions and organizational commitment levels. It is considered that the study will, in this form of it, contribute to the sports-related units of both public and private universities to be a step ahead in the increasingly competitive environment; that it will provide the executives of such units with an idea for a good organizational management, implementation of the modern management principles and functions, and development of commitment, satisfaction, and performance levels by exhibiting a fair approach among the employees; and that it will guide them in terms of the steps that must be taken.
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To report or not to report: The impact of organizational justice perceptions on sexual harassment coping

To report or not to report: The impact of organizational justice perceptions on sexual harassment coping

They have found that few sexually harassed women decide to seek formal organizational support and file a formal sexual harassment complaint or grievance. As a result, more research int[r]

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ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: THE STUDY OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE (LMX) AMONG AUDITORS IN MALAYSIA

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: THE STUDY OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE (LMX) AMONG AUDITORS IN MALAYSIA

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship and to test the interaction effects of organizational justice (distributive, procedural, and interactional) and the dimensions of LMX (affect, contribution, professional respect, and loyalty) on organizational commitment. Three broadly hypothesized relationships were tested in a field study among auditors serving in audit firms across Malaysia, who were registered with the Malaysian Institute of Accountants (MIA). Based on the data from the survey, the results from the hierarchical regression provided moderate support for the hypotheses. The findings on direct effects revealed that predictor variables have a positive relationship with affective-normative commitment and only partial support for continuance commitment. Distributive, procedural and interactional perceptions of organizational justice, reciprocity, and contribution of LMX were found to be positively related to affective- normative commitment. Continuance commitment was significantly predicted by the contribution of LMX. The results provide partial support for the interaction effects of affective-normative and continuance commitment. One implication of the study’s findings is that human resources departments have to take a serious view of organizational justice and LMX when implementing human resource policies in order to encourage employees to manifest high levels of commitment.
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M10, M12, J53 The Impact of The Employees’ Organizational Justice and Burnout Levels on Perceptions of Organizational Silence

M10, M12, J53 The Impact of The Employees’ Organizational Justice and Burnout Levels on Perceptions of Organizational Silence

Abstract: Employees in organizations that are important actors of social life are the basic element of organizational success. Accomplishment of an organization is closely tied to the management applications to be followed. Perception of employees on justice of organizational operations and procedures affect their support and participation in the processes Employee’ perception of organizational justice may have impact on burnout levels. It can be argued that low employee perception of justice can lead to increase in the level of burnout and decrease of their support and attandance tol procedures and diminishs with the time being finally causes employee silence. This study has been made on 209 employees of three manufacturing company which are operating in İzmir, Bursa and Balıkesir. Obtained data has been evaluated by the corelation, regression analyzes and decriptive stastistics. In this study following results have been reached; sub-dimensions of organizational justice affected emotional burnout, depersonalization and decline in personal sense of achievement negatively and sub-dimensions of organizational justice affect the employee silence negatively, although depersonalization and sense of decline in personal achievement affect employee silence positively. It is thought that the number of studies that deal with these three subjects is very limited and it will contribute in this sense.
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Effect of Organizational Justice on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour at Barombong Maritime  Polytechnic Makassar City

Effect of Organizational Justice on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour at Barombong Maritime Polytechnic Makassar City

Justice is often the center of attention of organizations and human rights, because everyone in any situation and context wants fair treatment by other parties, as well as in organizations. Employees' perceptions of organizational justice are important predictors of employee positive work attitudes. Employees who feel treated fairly by the organization will hold commitment, have confidence in management and leadership, satisfaction, sense of belonging to each other and increase OCB employees so that they contribute to retaining employees in the organization (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001; Colquitt, Conlon, Wesson, Porter, & Ng, 2001; Cropanzano, Bowen, & Gilliland, 2007; Greenberg, 1990).
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Organizational citizenship behavior and perception of organizational justice in employees of a Turkish university hospital

Organizational citizenship behavior and perception of organizational justice in employees of a Turkish university hospital

This study tested the relationships between organizational citizenship behavior and perception of organizational justice among a sample of employees in Cukurova University Hospital, Adana city, Turkey. Toour knowledge, there are very few studies in OCB and organizational justice perception in the health sector in our country. Results of this study revealed that medical faculty workers’ level of organizational citizenship behavior was low whereas level of perceptions of organizational justice were at moderate-high level. Unlike the study by Nielsen et al. (2009) we found that age was significantly related to OCB and organizational justice perception. There was a significant relationship between gender and OCB. This finding agreed with Rubin’s (2009) research results. Occupation, time spend in this occupation and in this institution, daily workload seemed to be important factors in OCB and organizational justice perception levels of workers. Inconsistent with our findings, Podsakoff (2000) stated that demographic variables (e.g., organizational tenure and employee gender) have not been found to be related to OCB. Being aware of the factors that may influence employees’ perception of justice is very crucial for every organization. Further, studying on organizational citizenship behavior among health institutions is very important as employees have essential roles. Considering the findings of this study it is possible to recommend the health institutions to increase the level of justice to improve their engagement in organizational citizenship behavior.
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Why Didnt I Get The Job? White Nonbeneficiaries Reactions To Affirmative Action And Diversity Programs

Why Didnt I Get The Job? White Nonbeneficiaries Reactions To Affirmative Action And Diversity Programs

While past research has investigated African-American and Hispanic beneficiaries’ reactions to such programs using organizational justice to measure perceptions of distributive and procedural justice (McMillan- Capehart, Grubb, Philbrick, & Galy, 2008; Richard & Kirby, 1997), the purpose of the current study is to investigate how affirmative action and diversity program justifications for hiring procedures and hiring decisions impact fairness perceptions of white nonbeneficiaries. In doing so we address the call for research related to reactions to these programs. As such, this study makes an important contribution to the existing management literature. We provide insight for organizations making hiring decisions based on affirmative action programs or diversity initiatives. In particular, we draw upon equity theory and organizational justice theory to explain nonbeneficiaries’ reactions to hiring decisions.
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The Effect of Perceived Justice and Organizational Silence on Organizational Commitment

The Effect of Perceived Justice and Organizational Silence on Organizational Commitment

Previous studies have shown that Perceived justice of rewards, organizational procedures and interpersonal behaviors are related to individual's attitudes and behaviors and moreover, perceived justice in the organization can be associated with positive outcomes such as Organizational commitment. (Leow and Wei Khong, 2009). In fact, organizational justice represents managers and management's concern for his employees and builds a bridge of trust which ultimately increase and strengthen the employee's commitment to the organization (Bahary-far et al, 2011). Also organizational justice led to perceptions of organizational legitimacy. Lambert (2003) argues that employees who feel that the organization is fair and just in treatment of his employees are encouraged to trust on organizations and be faithful to it and ultimately this fact increases their organizational commitment. It could be stated that it is impossible for employees to have trust, belonging and commitment to such an organization which is fair and unequitable in his treatment (Bahary-far et al, 2011). Leow and Wei Khong (2009) found that employees tend to have more organizational commitment when consequences of practices used in an organization are considered fair (Leow and Wei Khong, 2009). Also On effect of organizational justice Colquitt et al (2001) found that relationship between organizational justice and organizational commitment in the field of distributive justice is stronger (Bahary-far et al, 2011). Bahary-far et al (2011) in their study evaluated the effects of procedural and distributive justice on organizational commitment and pointed out that both dimensions of justice has a significant effect on organizational commitment and represented that the effect of procedural justice in comparison with distributive justice is stronger (Bahary-far et al, 2011). With regard to the materials stated above first sub-hypothesis can be formulated as follows:
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Relationship of Organizational Trust and Organizational Justice with Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Female Teachers: Chain Mediation of Job Stress and Emotional Exhaustion

Relationship of Organizational Trust and Organizational Justice with Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Female Teachers: Chain Mediation of Job Stress and Emotional Exhaustion

The Social Exchange Theory states that an organization is the place where exchanges between leaders (directors) and employees take place. There are two dimensions to this exchange: economic and social. Its economic dimension deals with the existence of a definite clear agreement between the two parties (directors and employees). By this agreement, both sides commit to accomplishing a special task to receive benefits from the other side. The social dimension is usually unwritten and unclear and is mostly focused on individual perceptions. It is more of a psychological nature. According to this social agreement, when people feel the other side is treating them justly and morally, they also somehow try to gratify the other side. In the case of employees, this is achieved with enhancement of citizenship behavior as well as an increase in the extra-role performance (Niehoffand Moorman, 1993; quoted by Lavelle, Rupp, and Brockner, 2007).
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Effects of Organizational Justice on Organizational Commitment

Effects of Organizational Justice on Organizational Commitment

OJ, according to Greenberg (1990), refers to “the study of fairness within organizational settings” (p. 455). Colquitt, (2001) defined it as “the fairness in treatment of employees in organizations” (p. 458). Murtaza et al. (2011) defined the concept of OJ as “the employee’s perception regarding the fair and equal treatment in the organizations.” For example, the employees may perceive that their bosses treat them justly and without any discrimination (p. 74). Recent studies suggest that perception of justice is for the most part correctly categorized into four components: The justice in procedures in establishing outcome distributions (procedural justice); the fairness of resources and rewards distribution (distributive justice); the excellence of interpersonal treatment when certain course of actions is put into practices. (interpersonal justice); and the adequacy of information exchanged explaining the reasons for such procedures being used in a certain way or how such results were established (informational justice); (Colquitt, 2001). Researchers have reported that several significant organizational outcomes are influenced by these perceptions (Cohen-Charash and Spector, 2001). Employees believed that Justice in procedures and distribution of resources and rewards among them is a direct indication that their organization gives them respect and appreciates their efforts (Fuchs and Edwards, 2012). Justice is regarded a multi-dimensional and complex phenomenon (Colquitt, 2001). Owing to the fact, perception of justice has considerable behavioral and attitudinal results for instance, loyalty towards organizations, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, confidence and performance, researchers have shown a greater interest in OJ in recent years (Colquitt et al., 2001). Perception of justice is the focal point in the recent study on OJ (Colquitt, 2004; Colquitt et al., 2005). Literature overwhelms the significance of perceptions of justice that is leading to encouraging employee’s behavior towards organization in this area (Rodell and Colquitt, 2009). Up till now, researchers have focused in their research on the results of justice instead of its causes (Colquitt et al., 2002).
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Organizational justice perception as predictor of job satisfaction and organization commitment

Organizational justice perception as predictor of job satisfaction and organization commitment

Organizational justice has received substantial attention from scientists (Folger and Konovsky, 1989; Greenberg, 1990). Accumulated evidence supports the notion that a person's perception of organizational justice affects his or her attitude toward the organization (Konovsky, Folger, and Cropanzano, 1987; McFarlin and Sweeney, 1992) and extra-role behaviours (Moorman, Blakely, and Niehoff, 1998). If the perception of organizational justice is positive, individuals tend to be more satisfied and committed to their job. According to Masterson et al. (2000) reported field study findings indicating that employees' perception toward justice predicted supervisor-related outcomes, and that procedural justice perceptions predicted organizational commitment and intentions to leave the organization. On the other hand, researcher found that employee' perceptions toward justice were positively related to their commitment and citizenship behaviours directed at the supervisor, and that procedural justice perceptions were positively related to organizational commitment. According to Ansari et al. (2001) found that fairness in employees’ relations and compensation and training significantly related to all the organizational commitment dimensions.
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Occupational and organizational consequences of perception of perceived organizational justice and support among faculty members in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, in 2017

Occupational and organizational consequences of perception of perceived organizational justice and support among faculty members in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, in 2017

According to Colquitt et al., organizational justice has drawn much attention in management and psychological research (8). Organizational justice means that employees observe that the organizational behavior is fair. Based on the previous researches by different researchers and scholars (9-13), it has been discovered that there are three forms of organizational justice, distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. Distributive justice, as described by McDowall and Fletcher, is a term that describes the perceived justice of the consequences that people receive. Procedural justice is defined as individuals' perceptions of methods on which consequences depend (9). Bies and Moag have defined interactive justice as the quality of interpersonal interactions of organizational decision makers during organizational processes (13). These three dimensions of justice interacting with each other formulate perceived justice for people in the workplace. According to the theory of justice, distributive, procedural, and interactive justice information has been processed for the purpose of constructing and reforming the entire justice judgment. Based on this theory, some other attitudes such as job satisfaction, organizational
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