The **Peres** **gate** is a 3x3 reversible logic **gate** with the inputs to outputs mapping as (A,B,C) to (P = A, Q = A XOR B, R = A.B XOR C), where A, B, C are the inputs and P, Q, R are the outputs respectively [18]. An all optical **Peres** **gate** can be implemented using 4 MZI based switches, 5 beam splitters (BS) and 3

ABSTRACT: With the advancements in all-optical computing technology, researchers have been paying more attention towards designing low-power applications. Reversible logic has promising applications in dissipation less optical computing, low power computing, quantum computing etc. A circuit is said to be reversible if the input vectors can be recovered from the output vectors and there is a one to one correspondence between its input and output assignments. Reversible logic circuits in optical domain will play a major role in designing power efficient, high speed optical networks. Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) plays a significant role in the field of ultra fast optical computing, because of its features like high speed, fast switching time and ease of fabrication. There are number of universal reversible logic gates, i.e. any logical reversible circuit can be realized using these gates. Reversible logic gates like Toffoli **gate** and **Peres** **gate** are realized using optisystem software.

ABSTRACT: FFT is normally utilized in computerized flag preparing algorithms. 4G correspondence and different remote framework based correspondence are directly hotly debated issues of innovative work in the remote correspondence and organizing field. FFT is a calculation that speeds up the count of DFT. In the main stage, low multifaceted nature Radix-2 Multi-way Delay Commutator (R2MDC) FFT recurrence change method is created through Exceptionally Large Scale Integration System structure condition. Low power utilization, less zone and rapid are the VLSI primary parameters. Customary R2MDC FFT structure has more equipment multifaceted nature because of its escalated computational components. Two strategies are utilized to plan radix-2 FFT calculation. In firest strategy is plan radix-2 FFT with the help of reversible **Peres** **gate** and TR **gate**. Second method is design radix-2 FFT with the help of reversible DKG **Gate**. The all structure are usage vertex-4 device family Xilinx programming and looked at past calculation.

In the first design One Bit Arithmetic Unit is implemented with Fredkin reversible **gate** as control unit and **Peres** reversible **gate** as full adder. As seen in Fig.10 combination of Fredkin **Gate** and **Peres** **gate** is used to perform Arithmetic operation. There is only one constant input to **Peres** **Gate** Full Adder, there are four garbage output two from Fredkin **Gate** and two from **Peres** **Gate** as Full Adder.

ABSTRACT In current scenario, the reversible logic design attracting more interest due to its low power consumption. Reversible logic is very important in low-power circuit design. The important reversible gates used for reversible logic synthesis are Feynman **Gate**, Fredkin **gate**, toffoli **gate**, New **Gate** sayem **gate** and **peres** **gate** etc. This paper present a basic reversible **gate** to build more complicated circuits which can be implemented in ALU, some sequential circuits as well as in some combinational circuits. It also gives brief idea to build adder circuits using the basic reversible **gate** like **peres** **gate** and TSG **gate**. Keywords Low-power VLSI, Low-power CMOS design, reversible logic, quantum cost, reversible counters

ABSTRACT In current scenario, the reversible logic design attracting more interest due to its low power consumption. Reversible logic is very important in low-power circuit design. The important reversible gates used for reversible logic synthesis are Feynman **Gate**, Fredkin **gate**, toffoli **gate**, New **Gate** sayem **gate** and **peres** **gate** etc. This paper present a basic reversible **gate** to build more complicated circuits which can be implemented in ALU, some sequential circuits as well as in some combinational circuits. It also gives brief idea to build adder circuits using the basic reversible **gate** like **peres** **gate** and TSG **gate**. Keywords Low-power VLSI, Low-power CMOS design, reversible logic, quantum cost, reversible counters

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In our proposed design the number of **gate**, number of constant input are very less as compared to previous design. In our design we have low power and less area which is most important in designing area. In low power arithmetic circuits we have designed circuits using FREDKIN **gate**, **PERES** **gate** and FEYMAN **gate**, TOFOLLI **gate** and DKG **GATE**. We have compared these proposed designs with the existing designs in terms of number of gates used, Garbage outputs, constant inputs, logical & arithmetic functions, and hardware complexity. In future we can design complete computer architecture with the help of proposed designs.

ALU has 2 parts, 1st which has Double **Peres** **Gate** as base of the circuit and is selected when select line s3 is zero. The operations performed here are buffer, AND, OR, NAND, NOR, EX-OR, and EX-NOR. 2nd part has DKG **Gate** as base of the circuit and is selected when select line s3 is one. The operations performed here are add, increment, 2’s complement, set, subtract, decrement, not, and clear. The operations selected depending on various select lines are shown in the table 3.1.

This research has been done to improve the performance of 22nm n- MOSFET using two approaches which is **gate**-first and **gate**-last technology. **Gate**- first technology was initially developed by Sematech and the IBM-led Fishkill Alliance and found that it has flaws with their design. In **gate**-first technology, directly deposited **gate** has caused the **gate** damage due to the high temperature (over 1000°C) during the annealing process. To fix the flaws, **gate**-last technology has been proposed. **Gate**-last technology was introduced by Intel, implementing it in its 45nm technology. **Gate**-last technology overcomes the problem by depositing the dummy **gate** to withstand the high temperature throughout the annealing process then replace the **gate** with the real **gate** at the last process. Basically, metal **gate** is always pair up with high-k dielectric. Unfortunately, high-k dielectric is not defined by the simulation tools that we used. Thus, we use SiO 2 (silicon dioxide) as a dielectric

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Physical Model of Automatic Sliding **Gate** is being constructed in the Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics of UTHM based on method of Distorted and Undistorted Models of Hydraulic Scale Models. Size of model based on the result of Mathematical Model in Table 1. This model will be used to verify the result of the mathematical model in which mathematical model has been developed. Figure 2 shows the sketch of Physical Model of Automatic Sliding **Gate**.

The Brain **Gate** System is based on Cyber kinetics’ platform technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons. The System consists of a sensor that is implanted on the motor cortex of the brain and a device that analyzes brain signals. The principle of operation behind the Brain **Gate** System is that with intact brain function, brain signals are generated even though they are not sent to the arms, hands and legs. The signals are interpreted and translated into cursor movements, offering the user an alternate “Brain **Gate** pathway” to control a computer with thought, just as individuals who have the ability to move their hands use a mouse.

Finally, as shown in Table 10, **GATE** had no significant effect on self-employment earnings at Wave 1 and at Wave 2. Note, however, that the program’s impact was higher at Wave 2 than it was at Wave 1 for participants in all three race groups. This trend was sustained at Wave 3 when GATE’s impact was much higher than its impact at Wave 2 for whites and blacks. In fact, **GATE** led to a statistically significant increase of 184% in the self-employment earnings of black participants at Wave 3. Similar analyses for total earnings and household income (not shown) reveal no significant impact of **GATE** on those outcomes, overall or by race. Notably, the estimated treatment effect on total earnings and household income by race, although statistically insignificant, increased with each survey. These analyses are available upon request.

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RISC in fact enhances the performance of processor by taking into consideration the factors like simple architecture construction and instruction set, easy instruction set for decoding and simplified control architecture. With the use of **Peres** reversible logic gates in the proposed processor having RISC 32 bit wide architecture there may be size reduction when compare with the conventional architecture based on carry save logic adder approach. The RTL (Register transfer level) is designed based on VERILOG and the simulation and synthesis is performed by XILINX ISE 12.3i.

In this work, instead of on-chip high-frequency S-parameter measurement, simulated small-signal S-parameters are used with a RF MOSFET model (BSIM4 with GATEMOD = 3 [25]), which can reproduce RF and DC cha- racteristics well with many parameters for commercial 130-nm CMOS process. This can realize cost-effective verification of device models. As narrow **gate** width under 3 μm has an effect of the interface resistance on the **gate** resistance, NMOS devices with a single finger width of 3 μm and a both-side **gate** connection are used in this work. The embedded Z-parameter [ ] Z em matrix can be obtained from the simulated S-parameters of the

The Design of Combinational and Sequential Circuits has been going on in research for the past few years. Various proposals were given for the design of combinational circuits like adders, subtractors, multiplexers, decoders etc., the existing method consists design of 4x16 decoder whose Quantum Cost is less than the previous design. Replacing fredkin gates for designing 2×4 decoder reversible gates like **peres** **gate**, TR **gate**, NOT **gate** and CNOT **gate** are used. The whole design is done using Fredkin, CNOT, **Peres** gates which give better Quantum Cost when compared to the other reversible Logic gates. The number of gates required to design 4x16 decoder are 18 in which there are 12 fredkin gates, one **peres** **gate**, one TR **gate**, one NOT **gate** and 3 CNOT gates. The sum of all the quantum costs of each **gate** gives total quantum cost of 4x16 decoder and 16x4 encoder.Thus by using all these reverse gates all or total no of bits in the circuit and being used and the hence, the power consumption of the circuit is being reduced.

besgue measure. When Φ is also compact, it can be shown that the proof of Schief from [6] still applies, and one can show that the infinitely generated self-similar set must have non-empty interior. As such the motivating question of **Peres** and Solomyak has a natural analogue for infinite iterated function systems: Do there exist infinitely generated self- similar sets with positive Lebesgue measure and empty interior? The main result of this paper answers this question in the affirmative and provides an explicit example.

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In future work is to investigate the impact of doping concentration and **gate** length of donor layer thickness,**gate** length channel current, transconductance, **gate** to source capacitance and cut-off frequency by using double **gate** HEMT. But going to use same material on both barrierand channel substrate withdifferent mole fraction. After replacing InAs in substrate to perform high frequency in Terahertz

According to Landauer, computing machines inevitably involve devices which perform logical functions that have a single valued inverse . T he energy consumption in computer is due to logically irreversible operation where the information is erased or thrown away. For example, the commonly used AND **gate**, which has two input and one output, one bit is lost when the information goes through this **gate**, this loss is in the form of heat. About kT*ln 2 joules of energy is generated for every bit of information which is lost. In the design of integrated circuits many technologies like lower work voltage, putting the management of power supply and lowering the channel length of MOSFETS have been applied. However, the power dissipation is reduced in logical operations. But in future, where the size of MOSFETs is shrinking, we need to find the alternative method for lowering the power dissipation that will encounter the barrier of kT. There are two effective ways to overcome this problem, one is reducing the temperature of the computer and the other is by constructing the reversible computer on thermodynamics. According to the theory and analysis of Frank, when the temperature is reduced to 0 K, the power dissipation reduces two orders of magnitude but practically this cannot be maintained constant. Later Bennett showed that reversible logic can be used to reduce the power dissipation. The key point of reversible computing is that the electric charge on the storage cell consisting of transistors is not permitted to flow away when the transistor is switched. Then it can be reused through reversible computing, which can decrease the energy consumption. When there is no loss of information bits, then the system is reversible.

A reversible logic **gate** is an n-input n-output logic device with one-to-one mapping (the number of inputs are equal to the number of outputs). The outputs can be determined from the inputs and also the inputs can be recovered from the outputs. Reversible circuits should be designed using minimum number of reversible logic gates. The parameters to determine the complexity and performance of circuits in reversible logic are as follows:

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outputs and vice versa. A **gate** is considered to be reversible only if for each distinct input there is a distinct output assignment. The inputs to reversible gates can be uniquely determined from its outputs. A reversible logic **gate** must have the same number of inputs and outputs. A reversible **gate** is balanced, i.e. the outputs are 1s for exactly half of the inputs. A circuit without constants on its inputs and composed of reversible gates realizes only balanced functions. It can realize non balanced functions only with garbage outputs. Garbage outputs are those outputs that are not used as inputs to other circuit blocks. Some of the major problems with reversible logic synthesis are that fan outs cannot be used, and also feedback from **gate** outputs to inputs is not permitted [3]. Reversible gates have applications in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), quantum computation, Quantum dot Cellular Automata (QCA), and optical computing. The most prominent application of reversible logic lies in quantum computers. A quantum computer will be viewed as a quantum network (or a family of quantum networks) composed of quantum logic gates. The main objective of this project is to design and implement a floating point adder architecture such that,