minuman ayam untuk menghasilkan produk tersebut. Dari data yang diberukan oleh pihak Toko Holi terlihat bahwa masyarakat belum banyak meminati produk ini, banyak stock yang sisa setiap periodenya. Selama ini dalam menanggulangi masalah sisa stock pihak Toko Holi mengantisipasi dengan cara menurunkan grade telur rendah kolesterol menjadi telur biasa. Adapun tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis bullwhip effect dan menentukan safety stock yang optimal dengan menggunakan metode periodicreviewsystem. Periodicreviewsystem adalah suatu model persediaan produk dimana periode/interval pemesannya tetap, sedangkan jumlah produk yang dipesan berdasarkan dari perhitungan jumlah produk maksimum yang harus dipenuhi (Simchi-Levi, & Kaminsky, 2003).
2 The extended lead time
Like Zipkin (2000, Section 6.7.3) and Rao (2003), we model the times from the demand instants until the next review instant as realisations of a random variable U which, because of the Poisson demand process, is uniformly distributed over the interval from 0 to R. Similar approaches are used in Hadley and Whitin (1963, Section 5-3) and Axsäter (1993). The generic variable L' for the time from a demand instant until the delivery instant of the replenishment order triggered by this demand can be specified as U + L. Hadley–Whitin, Zipkin and Rao assume that lead time L is constant, while Axsäter considers lead-time uncertainty due to possible shortages at the upstream level in a two-echelon system with no order crossing allowed. Hence, these approaches all involve special cases of the sequential supply system referred to in the Introduction. We call L' the extended lead time and observe that like the ordinary lead times L, which we allow to be stochastic, the extended lead times for customer demands can also be seen as generated by an exogenous, sequential supply system. This observation provides that the exact results derived for the corresponding inventory system with continuous review can be used to derive similar results for the system with periodicreview (see also a similar remark in Yano, 1985). The results for the latter system are then obtained by focusing on customer demands and letting the lead times in the former system be distributed as L' rather than as L. This way the net inventory and hence the cost of the base-stock policy in the periodicreviewsystem are replicated exactly by the continuous reviewsystem in which the inventory position is constant at the base-stock level s.
A Simulation to Illustrate Periodic-Review Inventory Control Policies
Within an undergraduate or graduate operations management course, inventory management is a critical area of learning and understanding for all students. This teaching module usually includes a discussion of the differences between continuous (Q) and periodic (P) review inventory systems. In our teaching, we have found that the most difficult concept for students to grasp is the concept of the review interval for the periodicreviewsystem. Therefore, in this paper, we develop a simulation using Crystal Ball to demonstrate for students the importance of using the review period of P+L in a periodicreviewsystem and how using this interval protects a firm more adequately against stockouts. This tool also provides an opportunity to introduce simulation concepts into operations management courses that do not normally have time to present these concepts.
Jacobi constant C increases Sun centered periodic orbit and Saturn centered periodic orbits shift towards Saturn for a given perturbation due to solar radiation pressure q. It means Jacobi constant C acting opposite to gravita- tional force. For a given C, as q tends to 1, location of Sun centered and Saturn centered periodic orbits moves towards Sun. That is solar radiation pressure is responsible for shifting periodic orbits towards Saturn which is expected as solar radiation pressure is opposite to gravitational attraction of Sun. Thus, by decreasing perturba- tion due to solar radiation pressure, effect of gravitational attraction increasing and as a result periodic orbit shift towards Sun. For a given q, as C increases semi major axis increases and eccentricity of Sun centered periodic orbits decreases. For a given q and its corresponding maximum value of Jacobi constant C Saturn centered peri- odic orbit showing sudden change in semi major axis and eccentricity. It is observed that semi major axis in- creases uniformly up to certain value of C and then shows a sharp increase, where as eccentricity decreases uni- formly up to certain value of C and then shows a sharp increase. When the solar radiation pressure q tends to 0.9, this sharp change in the semi major axis and eccentricity graphs becomes smooth. Thus, it is concluded that perturbation due to solar radiation pressure reduces sudden change in semi major axis and eccentricity of Saturn centered periodic orbits. It is further observed that as q tends to 1, semi major axis and eccentricity of Sun cen- tered periodic orbit increases for given C. In other words, due to solar radiation pressure, semi major axis and eccentricity of Sun centered periodic orbit reduces.
Since all the electrons in the compositions of the atomic shells are structural compo- nents of S-Gravitons, i.e . are involved in the formation of the gravitational field, is fair the prediction of D. Mendeleev regarding the significance of the weight characteristics of the elements as basis for the formation of the periodicsystem of elements. Mean- while a Mendeleev had no idea nor of the S-Gravitons nor about the real physics of the gravitational field. However, namely the S-Gravitons, that determine the gravitational interactions of atoms with Earth, have been intuitively laid by Mendeleev in his period- ic system. It should be noted that the term “electromagnetic nature of the atomic shell” applies only to the S-Gravitons, so as the union of electric and magnetic charges takes place namely in the compositions these of spinor quasiparticles.
We arrange the rest of the paper as follows: In Section , we introduce one lemma and state the main results of this paper. The results are proved in Section . In Section , a suit- able example together with its numeric simulation is present to show the feasibility of the main results. We end this paper by a brieﬂy conclusion. For more works on the non- autonomous predator-prey system, one could refer to [–] and the references cited therein.
3. Existence of Periodic and Bounded Solutions of System (1.1) In this section, we investigate the periodic behaviours of solutions of System (1.1). Firstly we …nd out the two periodic solutions of System (1.1). Further, we determine existence of bounded of solutions of System (1.1). Moreover we study the periodic cycles of solutions of System (1.1).
S ECTION F IVE : E VIDENCE OF O RGANIZED AND S USTAINED P ROCESSES TO A SSESS S TUDENT L EARNING AND I NSTITUTIONAL E FFECTIVENESS American University of Beirut’s achievement of its mission and goals for its educational programs, services, and initiatives is determined through assessment processes designed to evaluate progress and inform decision-making. The Institutional Assessment Committee (IAC), the Office of Institutional Research and Assessment (OIRA), the Center for Teaching and Learning (CTL), the Office of the Provost, Assessment/ Accreditation Officers and Deans/Associate Deans, department chairs in Faculties/Schools, and now the Academic Assessment Unit (AAU) all play significant roles in guiding, supporting, coordinating, and monitoring assessment of student learning and institutional effectiveness of academic and administrative academic support units which take place across the University. See Appendix E-1 for a brief description of IAC member units and their roles in assessment at AUB. Over the last five years, AUB has made significant strides in the development and use of organized and sustained processes to assess student learning. Most academic programs and the General Education (GE) Program have developed Program Learning Outcomes (PLO) with the support of CTL and undergo regular PLO assessment. The Periodic Program Review (PPR) for academic departments which incorporates surveys and data from OIRA links assessment of student learning with assessment of institutional effectiveness of academic units. More work remains to be done to refine identified PLOs and assessment mechanisms, as well as in assessing affective learning outcomes (ethics, values, personal growth, etc.) that are by nature difficult to measure.
4 The PeriodicReview was conducted by a Panel chaired by the Faculty Director of
Teaching and Learning for the Faculty of Social Sciences, with two internal members of academic staff (from the School of Arts & Communication Design and the School of Agriculture, Policy and Development), and two external members of academic staff (from Queen Mary University of London and the University of Warwick). The Joint- Faculty Senior Administrative Officer acted as Secretary to the Review Panel.
not new in inventory theory it is their specific interrelation that gives rise to novel issues as we discuss below.
Well-established models in the inventory control literature that may help understand the impact of the above characteristics include repairable-item-models (see e.g. Nahmias (1981)) and two-supplier-models (see e.g. Moinzadeh & Nahmias (1988); Moinzadeh & Schmidt (1991)). Yet, neither model class fully captures the setting of product recovery. Repair-models, such as the classical METRIC-model (Sherbrooke (1968)), essentially rely on a closed-loop system structure, where each (defective) item return triggers an immediate demand for a replacement item. In a product recovery setting the correlation between the two item flows tends to be much weaker and mainly reflects the dependence of returns on previous demand. Since the time lag between both processes may be large, many authors claim that, for inventory control purposes, one may even assume independence. Two-supplier-models address the trade-off between procurement costs and lead times. Typically, the models include a slow yet cheap supplier and a faster but also more expensive one. In a product recovery context the reasoning is different. Rather than a lead time reduction it is the restricted availability of the (cheaper) recovery channel that calls for an alternative supply source.
132 1.2 Universal PeriodicReview as a Tool for Widening the Scope of Accountability Although States that are not a party to one or more of the human rights treaties cannot be held accountable for those obligations before the corresponding treaty body, those States could be held accountable for under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights during the review process. Whilst States have the discretion to reject recommendations, several States have responded to questions on and accepted recommendations to improve their human rights record on the ground level in accordance with standards set out within the Declaration, irrespective of whether the given State is a party to the corresponding human rights treaty. In this way, holding States accountable for human rights obligations set out in the Declaration expands the normative legal framework traditionally found in the human rights monitoring mechanisms of the United Nations. As mentioned in the previous sub-section, few States have pursued this avenue when holding States under review accountable. The Islamic Republic of Iran, for instance, is not party to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment and thus cannot be held accountable for committing acts of torture or cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment before the United Nations Sub-Committee on the Prevention of Torture. 538 In a written question submitted to the Republic of Iran, Sweden expressed deep concern over ‘credible reports that torture and ill-treatment regularly have been taking place in Iranian prisons and detention centres in the aftermath of the Presidential elections in June 2009.’ 539 Sweden noted that:
27 All 193 UN Member States are expected to cooperate and engage with this peer-review mechanism. Resolution 5/1 makes it clear that, ‘cases of persistent non-cooperation’ 168 will be
dealt by the Human Rights Council. However, there is no detail or explanation as to what exactly would be considered ‘non-cooperation’ of a ‘persistent’ nature. The Geneva based NGO, UPR-Info, has produced an outline of what this may be which includes non-participation and non-implementation of recommendations. Failure to engage with three or more of the following steps, according to UPR-Info, should be deemed as a persistent non-cooperation case: 1) submitting a national report; 2) selecting the troika; 3) participating in the interactive dialogue; 4) submitting an addendum; and 5) presenting midterm updates on implementation. 169 It must be noted here that selection of the troika is undertaken by the Human Rights Council, by the drawing of lots, so the aforementioned point two is incorrect. So far only one state, Israel, 170 has refused to engage with the Universal PeriodicReview. However, the HRC’s response was to simply postpone the review. The steps developed in Decision OM/7/1 were considered unsatisfactory and could set a precedent for other countries. A robust mechanism is needed to ensure full engagement with the process. 171
Although it is the oldest nuclear power plant in Korea, Kori Unit 1 was found to have maintained good operating conditions and continuously enhanced its safety by implementing post-TMI action plans and other safety issues, such as replacing steam generators and process/control system. It can be therefore confirmed that safe operation of Kori Unit 1 is guaranteed until next periodic safety review. Nevertheless, some corrective action items were recommended to further enhance its safety level, such as equipment qualification, additional ageing management program, strengthening of some procedures related to administration and human factor. The results of this research can be also used in the implementation of the corrective action items For instance, nickel plating and oxide layer analysis techniques can be used to control and mitigate the EAC-related damage for enhancing the plant safety.
This article argues that in specific circumstances, these recommendations have a legal status. This occurs in two ways; firstly some recommendations by their subject matter are indicative of an emerging consensus in international human rights law in relation to the scope and application of a particular right. Secondly other accepted recommendations deal with rights already protected by existing human rights treaties with the recommendation complementing or even completing the process of enforcing the obligation on a state to protect that right. Whether this has an impact on the ground is beyond the scope of this article. However, by accepting particular recommendations states are demonstrating on the international plane that they are willing to alter their human rights practices and laws. The first section of this article examines the process of issuing UPR recommendations within the context of the review process. Although the UPR has a role in encouraging compliance with international human rights law, as the second section argues this does not mean that it is engaged in law-making. However, as outlined in the third and fourth section, a series of UPR recommendations could be evidence of emerging opinio juris and some individual UPR recommendations operate in a manner that enhances the organisational capacity of the UPR process to act as an enforcement mechanism. What has been happening is that the nature of the UPR has been evolving over successive review cycles leading in turn to the evolution of the status of recommendations.
introduced and suitable Poincar´e operator is constructed. Showing the compactness of Poincar´e operator and using a new generalized Gronwall’s inequality with impulse, mixed type integral operators and B-norm given by us, we utilize Leray-Schauder fixed point theorem to prove the existence of T 0 -periodic PC-mild solutions. Our method is much diﬀerent from methods of other
• Discussion should take place within the School, and with the Student Lifecycle Project team, to ensure that, when the Campus Solutions system goes live in August 2011, the different subject areas, and their courses and programmes, within the School of Engineering are clearly identifiable [Paragraph 2].
18. These issues must be remedied, but frequent calls to increase legal abortion access as a necessary precondition to solving them are misguided. Legalizing abortion also does not guarantee that pregnancy and childbirth will become safer when the real problems with Barbados’ health-care system do not involve lack of access to abortion. Providing more access to abortion will mean more women will suffer from abortion complications.
3 UPR RECOMMENDATIONS AND THE SHAPING OF STATE BEHAVIOUR – ASSESSING THE REVIEW PROCESS AS A LAWMAKING PROCESS
Having the capacity to shape state behaviour does not necessarily mean that an institution creates international law. There is some considerable scepticism amongst critics of ‘soft law’ that institutional declarations, commitments or recommendations can have any legal effect, with one critic describing them as ‘informal standard setting’. 45 A rigidly formalist view such as this downplays the social way in which international actors react to recognised sources of authority and alter their behaviour. 46 Maintaining a sharp distinction between hard law, with the attendant qualities of its binding nature and precision, and soft law which is assumed to have none of those qualities, has come in for some criticism for engineering too binary a distinction between the two forms of law. 47 Most forms of international law are ‘soft’ in that they require high levels of voluntary state compliance and acquiescence in their implementation and ‘hard’ in the sense that there are reputational consequences for a state that fails to comply, leading some scholars to argue that rather than seeing hard and soft law as binary choices it is better to see them as choices along a continuum that at its extreme has fixed definitions of hard and soft law. 48 Constructivist scholarship has examined how socialising states within organisations makes them compliant with that organisation and can encourage a process of norm adherence generating a process of legalism where the organisation itself can be seen as a source of law. 49 An interactional account of international law, advanced by Jutta Brunnée and Stephen Toope, looks at how legal commitments ‘arise in the context of social norms based on shared understandings’ and argues that commitment to norms is maintained through continuing practices. 50 The interaction created by a state-state peer review mechanism, such as the UPR, over time builds up the authority of the process and results in states progressively complying with recommendations. The issue of whether an organisation produces soft law or hard law is not particularly important under an
An earlier existence result of the periodic solution was obtained by constructing a Bendix- son region proposed by Zeng and Chen on 2006. The method of successor function is a more convenient and popular method, which is applied to prove the existence in various fields[14, 16, 19, 24, 25, 35, 34]. For the stability of the periodic solutions, the famous Ana- logue of Poincar´e Criterion[2, 40] is applied widely, yet it is not convenient to calculate due to the dependence on initial conditions. E. M. Bonotto et al. investigated the Lyapunov sta- bility and Poisson stability of closed set in semi dynamical systems[41, 42], and extended the Poincar´e-Bendixson and LaSalle’s theorems to the semi-continuous dynamical systems[36, 43]. The more popular and convenient method, the method of successor function, is also used to s- tudy the stability of periodic solution. In the references [26, 25, 35, 34], the authors applied this method to obtain some stability results for the particular semi-continuous dynamical sys- tems. Based on these results, the authors in  classified the order-1 periodic solution into three types at first, and then presented a convenient and general stability criteria of the convex periodic solution by square approximation and a series of switched systems.