identified as a deterrent in our study. Participants reported that they enjoyed being active and engaged in activity to mitigate the health risks associated with their condition, which ties in with a person-centeredapproach that considers enjoyment and decisional balance as important factors in the uptake of physical activity. This was despite the fact that participants sometimes lacked the motivation to be active due to the additional burden that physical activity placed on maintaining effective diabetes control and feeling embarrassed by their diabetes. Participants did not stop being active, but were able to overcome these inhibiting factors.
H1 entails predicting what profiles will be found. The five profiles commonly found in the small number of studies that have tested self-determination theory using the person-centeredapproach were included in H1. Similar to the majority of past research, the profiles will be detected with the different types of motivation (no composite scores), specifically, intrinsic motivation, identified, introjected, and external regulation, and amotivation will be used. The subtypes of intrinsic motivation distinguished by Vallerand et al., (1992, 1993) will not be examined separately in the profile analysis due to the points raised earlier about the high correlations found between the subtypes in previous research, and that the original self-determination theorists, Deci and Ryan (1985, 2000), do not make this distinction. Support for the notion that the different types of motivation can be experienced at the same time would be supported by the detection of a high A-C profile or a moderate A-C profile.
The person-centeredapproach, with its emphasis on relational contact, may offer an important opportunity for personal control through moment-to-moment connection. For those clients who would dive into expressing their traumatic experience urgently, driven by a need to be released from their torment, care around psychological and physiological safety is important. Through attention to physiology, empathic resonance (Schmid & Mearns, 2006) and relational contact, the person-centeredapproach holds key contributions towards safety. I will tease these strands out a little further. Perception of ANS arousal may connect with empathic resonance such that accuracy of contact can be finely tuned. Perception may be visual, observing changes in skin coloration and tone. However, more likely, perception comes through a subceived sense of change in relational contact. Becoming overwhelmed suggests that internal experience overtakes the secure relational contact that underpins the therapy. If the counselor is conscious of the importance of the client not becoming overwhelmed, then equal attention to relational contact, the client’s physiology and to their phenomenological experience becomes necessary. This involves purposeful attunement to the client’s levels of arousal. The moment-by-moment internal experiencing of the counselor offers an additional and concurrent sense of distance or fluctuation in contact. This notwithstanding, achieving consistent psychological contact is a challenge for both counselor and client when the client’s need to be free of the trauma creates dissociative elements. Catching the point of fluctuation, just before arousal becomes so overwhelming that the hippocampus stops functioning fully, is a sensitive skill. And, of course, expressed observation of physiological fluctuation or relational contact may interrupt the client’s flow. My argument is that holding attention to the body, to relational distance and to empathic resonance, may offer sufficient range of contact and therapeutic presence to sustain or support the client’s integration of experience.
By investigating the possibility of CWB profiles, researchers may better understand the dispositional basis of CWB. For instance, separating the level, or amount, of CWB an individual engages in from the shape, or types, of CWB an individual engages in may allow scientists to advance extant process models of CWB (e.g., the stressor-emotion model; Fox & Spector, 2005). Furthermore, exploring profiles will demonstrate the various ways that the amount and type of CWB may combine, which could indicate important differences between counterproductive employees. Extant literature on employee counterproductivity assumes monotonic relationships among dispositional factors and CWB and, while the current study does not offer an explicit test of this, it does offer evidence as to whether the manifestation of CWB within-person is predicted by some of the most commonly studied dark personality traits. That is, the current study provides a nuanced contribution to the CWB literature by asking: a) are there profiles of CWB, b) are common correlates predictive of profile membership, and c) does profile membership relate to undesirable work and non-work outcomes?
have speculated openly about the meaning of the participants’ utterances trying to secure that the meaning is shaped by their own interpretation. The content and classiﬁ cation of categories were discussed and validated by the authors. The ﬁ ndings are consistent with other studies and the Norwegian Board of Health Supervision (NBHS 2007). Among the limitation, the informants represent a purposive sample, and the selection has shaped the sample. Such, our background as persons, with many years of experience in mental health care, multidisci- plinary work and client participation, might have inﬂ uenced the data. During the data analysis and discussion our clas- siﬁ cation into categories lays the platform, being aware of that the totality might not so easily be preserved. Qualitative studies are not applicable to the population at large, but rather as descriptions applicable within a speciﬁ ed setting (Polit and Beck 2004). The study has only scratched the surface in terms of an understanding of teamwork and person involvement. Moreover, multidisciplinary teams and leadership are complex phenomena that will need a closer examination. Still another suggestion would be to study what prevent mental health professionals from change of attitudes toward more user involvement. Lastly, a person-centeredapproach is needed to grasp their own voices and preferences.
Cooper and McLeod (2007, 2011) have suggested that the goals that clients have for therapy can – and should – serve as an orientating point for thinking about, practicing, and evaluating therapeutic work. A client, for example, may want “to feel a sense of self- worth,” “to not experience anger and distrust toward my husband,” or “to be able to think about work without feeling stressed or panicky.” From a more classical person-centered standpoint, there is a risk that such a goal focus can lead to an overly mechanistic and ends-oriented approach to therapy, but there are several reasons why it is also highly consistent with a person-centeredapproach. First, it fits strongly with the concept of the client as active, meaning-orientated agent (Bohart & Tallman, 1999), who is engaged in constructing his or her life and relationships. Second, it privileges the client’s perspective – regarding what he or she want both in life and from therapy – over the therapist’s. Third, it moves away from a diagnostic, or even problem-centered, understanding of the client and the therapeutic process toward a potentiality-centered one – based around where the client wants to “go” in their lives. Finally, an orientation around the client’s goals may be the most explicit way of meeting, and responding to, the client as a self- determined, agentic subjectivity, who has the right to choose for him- or herself how he or she would like to pursue their own process of actualization.
psychotherapist. Other participants were practicing in an exclusively client-centered way in the context of other roles such as support worker or mental health practitioner. The sample broke down into twenty UK based person-centered practitioners (fourteen female, six male) who had worked with at least one client in a psychotic process. Fifteen participants had completed person- centered diplomas. Other participants had substantial training in the person-centeredapproach, extensive Rogerian courses or creative expressive person-centered training. All practitioners described the way they worked with “psychotic process” as person-centered and most referenced literature and additional training beyond their diploma or core training.
Despite the importance of oral health as an integral part of overall health, oral health is frequently omitted from disease management plans and health education due to the historic separation between medicine and dentistry. Multiple person-centered care models are used globally but they lack consensus concerning a basic definition of person-centered care within dentistry due to varied inter- pretations and applications of the concept [32, 33]. Some suggest a conceptual-based approach while others propose a clinically-based model for person-centered care. Person-centered care and patient-centered care, though separate concepts, are used interchangeably without a clear distinction between the two [32–34]. Moreover, there is limited evidence demonstrating improved oral health outcomes with a person-centeredapproach in den- tistry, compared to medicine [33, 34].
We see consistent reductions in accuracy when moving from CNN to our dataset. The Attentive and Stanford Reader drop by up to 10% and the AS and GA readers drop by up to 17%. The ranking of the systems also changes. In contrast to the Atten- tive/Stanford readers, the AS/GA readers explicitly leverage the frequency of the answer in the passage, a heuristic which appears beneficial for the CNN and Daily Mail tasks. Our suppression of the most- frequent-person baseline appears to more strongly affect the performance of these latter systems. 5 Conclusion
These are either secondary reactive or primary maladaptive emotion responses, that is, either reactions to other more primary emotion response, or else automatic, overgeneralized and no longer useful emotion responses (Elliott et al., 2004). Such emotion responses are typically grounded in early attachment injuries, including abuse, rejection/bullying, or neglect/abandonment by primary caregivers, siblings or peers. These early injuries are internalized as anxiety splits between a vulnerable self experiencer and a harsh internal critic/coach self-aspect. The latter is the introject of early rejection, abuse, or neglect, but continues to prime the person to monitor for dangers in order to protect them from various kinds of harm. For example, Carol’s social anxiety emotion scheme consisted of a secondary reactive emotion deriving from a deep, highly general sense of primary maladaptive shame; this emotion scheme stemmed from multiple forms of early abuse by her mother and brother, was symbolized by words like “ugly” and “clumsy,” and made her want to hide her face and retreat to her bed.
2 clinical observation alone is insufficient. We therefore applied pattern classification to task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of the n-back working memory task, to test their predictive value in differentiating patients with BD (n=30) from healthy individuals (n=30) and from patients’ relatives who were either diagnosed with MDD (n=30) or were free of any personal lifetime history of psychopathology (n=30). Diagnostic stability in these groups was confirmed with 4-year prospective follow-up. Task-based activation patterns from the fMRI data were analyzed with Gaussian Process Classifiers (GPC), a machine learning approach to detecting multivariate patterns in neuroimaging datasets. Consistent significant classification results were only obtained using data from the 3-back versus 0-back contrast. Using contrast, patients with BD were correctly classified compared to unrelated healthy individuals with an accuracy of 83.5%, sensitivity of 84.6% and specificity of 92.3%. Classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity when comparing patients with BD to their relatives with MDD, were respectively 73.1%, 53.9% and 94.5%. Classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity when comparing patients with BD to their healthy relatives were
, without the presence of which life is impossible. Even the is a pain dominant vata illness, h, leg and foot. This may be Gridhrasi match with the By shifting the traditional disease-centered focus of centeredapproach, Functional Medicine addresses the whole person, not just It's the closest gap to help bridge Ayurveda and modern medicine since there is a lot ot of Neurological diseases like low back ache, the relationship to the Gut health
Education system has witnessed tremendous change in orientation styles from being subject centered to teacher centered to child centered, constructivist approach and cooperative learning have become mantra in teaching – learning process, thus for the same, teachers need to well oriented through teacher training courses.
The Functional Contentment Model (FCM) attains two objectives: 1) build- ing a relationship focused plan of care for nursing home residents diagnosed with dementia; and 2) maximizing and maintaining older adults’ content- ment, peace, and happiness while living in dementia care environments. There are three essential components within the FCM: 1) Person/Family Centered Care; 2) Slow Medicine; and 3) Team Care Management. The prin- ciples of “Person/Family-Centered Care” are coupled with the philosophy of “Slow Medicine,” and neither can exist without the engagement of “Team Care Management.” In short, the FCM maximizes the older adult’s potential functioning in activities of daily living, cognition, gross and fine motor skills, communication, and physical well-being, while maintaining the highest possible level of contentment, peace, and happiness. This is accomplished through dynamically utilized professional modalities adapted to the changing needs of the older adult resident—pharmacologic, physical and occupational therapies, family education and involvement, dietary, spiritual, stimulating activities, as well as any individualized modality. The lead for operationaliz- ing the Functional Contentment Model is the nursing home medical director, whose key role is assuring a team approach to care including the older adult resident, the family, and all staff (dietary, housekeeping maintenance as well as care and administrative staff). The FCM is a culture change model that has implications in practice and policy for each nursing home.
The current investigation has two primary aims. First, I will propose a model of racial socialization. Figure 1 shows the conceptual model that guides this research and the model will be described in detail. Second, parts of the model will be tested in a sample of African American families. In an attempt to better understand my measures of racial socialization, I examine the congruency of parent and child reports of racial socialization and parent-child relationship quality as a possible moderator of this congruency. To test the model, I will first examine child and parental antecedents of the frequency of parental racial socialization using variable-centered and person-centered approaches. Using a variable-centeredapproach, I will examine predictors of three types of racial socialization (cultural socialization, preparation for bias, and negative messages) separately. I will examine whether the content and frequency of the different types of racial socialization practices vary as a function of child gender and age as children progress from fifth to twelfth grade. Parental characteristics—in particular, parents’ own received racial
In keeping with theory building case studies data was gathered from multiple sources (Stiles, 2007) based on the work with one client over thirteen sessions of person-centered psychotherapy. First, close to verbatim session notes made by the first author who was also the therapist. Session notes were written immediately after the first eight sessions had ended; a practice encouraged for facilitating processing the session in supervision. Second, five sessions were also audio recorded and later transcribed. Third, three interviews were conducted specifically for the research project and involved the second author interviewing the first author about her experiences in therapy. Notes were made during these interviews that were later used to inform the interpretation of therapeutic process. Fourth, the first author/therapist and the client reviewed the findings of a draft version of the case study and discussed them together. The aim was to form a collaborative reflective process informing the development of the case study. The original case study was submitted in partial
So how might therapy help people to untangle – and, ideally, avoid – such interpersonal entanglements? Perhaps the most obvious answer to this question is that if people can be helped to be more transparent, direct and assertive in their communications with others, then the possibility of interpersonal entanglements should be attenuated (see also van Kessel and Lietaer, 1998, who argue that psychological difficulties are related to an incongruent style of communicating). In this respect, it could be argued that person-centered and experiential therapies are uniquely placed to help clients overcome such difficulties. Through creating a relationship in which clients can talk about any aspect of their experiential field without being criticized or judged, and through modeling congruent and transparent ways of being, person-centered and experiential therapists may maximize the extent to which clients can develop their capacity to communicate congruently. Indeed, whilst the benefits of the person-centered and experiential therapies are often articulated in intrapersonal terms – for instance, increasing trust in one’s organism (Rogers, 1961) or a reduction in maladaptive emotional schemes (Greenberg, Korman and Paivio, 2002) – their real value may lie as much on the interpersonal plane. Such an argument is supported by a recent finding that the primary area of differential effectiveness between process-experiential therapy and cognitive-
There are many challenges for implementing PBL that are not related to the teaching method per se, but to other factors such as faculty attitudes toward PBL, leadership, the culture, and infrastructures needed for PBL. For instance, the faculty attitudes toward PBL can play a role in weakening this teaching approach. Lim (2012) found that some PBL opponents believe that the only way to teach is through direct transmission of information by someone who is an expert in the content. Other instructors perceive PBL as time consuming for teachers because of the workload (Ribeiro, 2011). In addition, PBL opponents worry about the course content coverage (Ribeiro, 2011). Lee, Yoo, and You (2009), in a mixed method study, conducted at aUniversity in South Korea, examined why professors are not embracing any type of constructivist learning approach (PBL, Team Based Learning, or Case Study Learning). The qualitative part of the study started with six faculty members, then an instrument was developed to measure the phenomenon. Then, 86 faculty members were given the questionnaire. The results showed that most of the teachers believed that there is no need to change their lecture-based instruction since both the teachers and the students were satisfied with the current teaching method. Some teachers argued that PBL preventedthem from sharing their knowledge and experience with the students (Rakhudu, 2011), made their role passive (Raftery, Clyne, O' Nell, Ward, & Coyne, 2010), and caused the worry that not all students would be active participants in the group (Chiang, Champan, & Elder, 2010).