To conclude, this study demonstrated that MMT is as- sociated with altered processing of incidental, irrelevant cues that can impact personperception. The study de- sign allowed us to investigate the role of incidental cues in the immediate environment that had greater or less relevance to guide personperception. Although the test- ing room cues were completely irrelevant to the task at hand, they nonetheless exerted effects on those partici- pants with greater propensity to engage in media multi- tasking behaviors. This experimental design has ecological validity in that it simulates the type of com- mon, multi-cue contexts in which people often find themselves, such as working on a computer in a neat (or messy) office setting, or doing housework while checking one’s phone. Future studies would benefit from using crossed designs like the one here, in which both relevant and irrelevant environmental cues are manipulated. This would enable researchers to examine whether media multitasking is associated with altered cue processing as- pects of social cognition in which implicit processes are often at play, such as racial bias or stereotype formation. More broadly, the present work highlights subtle ways in which media multitasking behaviors are associated with altered perceptual processing of environmental cues.
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.812130 2044 Psychology ship between system justification and compensation effects in personperception based on two fundamental dimensions of social judgments. We revealed that the compensatory judgments that emerged when forming an impression of a newly introduced person are capable of creating an illusion of equality that justifies the current social system, which yields significant and illegitimate economic dispar- ity. Although a general tendency to perceive others in the compensatory manner based on the two fundamental dimensions of social judgments have been recur- ringly observed, it remained unclear how and why such effects emerge. Our study provides a clue to understand the underlying mechanisms and the social function of the compensatory effects. This is the main contribution of the present study. Moreover, our results indicate that people can easily accept the unjust status quo through the way of changing their style of impression forma- tion in everyday life. Such psychological mechanisms may hinder one’s willing- ness to change a problematic status quo. Understanding the processes through which an overarching social system is justified will lead us to uncover impedi- ments to system change motivation and find ways to encourage people to reform their society.
At best, the grant proposal’s four studies each suffer from conceptual shortcomings, and at worst, the experiments Milgram suggests undertaking contain serious design flaws. For example, in describing Study 1 (“Cyranic person”), Milgram fails to convincingly demonstrate why the cyranoid method is needed at all to explore the question of whether or not an expert source’s words are more persuasive to an audience when projected through a speech shadower than the shadower’s own words. The shadower could, for example, simply articulate two versions of a script (one expert, one non-expert). Furthermore, Milgram failed to notice a glaring confound in this proposed dual-condition experiment: two factors are actually being manipulated in the treatment condition (expert vs. non-expert, cyranic mode vs. non-cyranic mode), not one. The scientific justification Milgram provides for conducting Study 2 (“Application to emergency counselling”), meanwhile, is very weak. He briefly mentions developments in telemetered medical assistance (e.g., when a lay person is able to access experts within a call center in order to attend to a medical crisis) and suggests that shadowers could potentially relay this expert information when dealing with a crisis rather than resort to their own limited knowledge, but Milgram does not offer any reasons why the simulations he proposes would contribute anything of value to the discipline of social psychology. The proposal for Study 4 (“The cyranic continuum”), is very brief and limited to Milgram simply wondering aloud how “effective” a shadower would be in a given situation in relation to the level of input they received from a source (effective in terms of what, however, Milgram does not make clear). The strongest of the grant application’s four proposed studies is Study 3 (“Studies in personperception”), as Milgram offers various factorial experimental designs that aim to investigate how differences between inner and outer identity (e.g., a male source paired with female, and vice versa) impact perceived personality – a question with clear social psychological foundations. A significant flaw of Study 3, however, is that Milgram proposes using pre-recorded videos of cyranoids rather than have research participants interact live with a cyranoid. This design aspect undersells the power of the cyranoid method because, again, it could be argued that simply showing participants video-recordings of confederates speaking from scripts is a more controlled means of tackling the same research question.
Before continuing, it is important to reiterate the crucial theoretical issue to be considered in this section. The question is whether the perceptual processes that underlie the perceptual phenomenon of'seeing' a point-light display as a person, are in some form direct (or modular). As discussed in Chapter One, for a perceptual process to be modular (in Tudor's terms) it must possess a number of attributes. Firstly, it must be 'fast'. It must also be 'largely innate' and must have it's own 'dedicated neural architecture'. Additionally, it must be 'cognitively impenetrable' and be 'domain specific'. As I review a number of studies of person-perception which have used the point-light technique, it will become apparent that the majority of studies presented have examined (although not from a modularity viewpoint) the first two attributes of modularity: speed of processing, and 'innateness'. It will also become clear that other aspects of this form of personperception have not been so well researched. The third attribute - i.e. that this process may have it's own dedicated neuronal architecture, has been partly examined by studies of neurophysiology (see Perett et al, 1990 for research on neuronal processes in the perception of point-light displays by macaque monkeys), but there is little conclusive evidence from this form of research which would allow us to determine whether the processes had specific and fixed loci in the human brain. What is apparent is that the last two attributes, namely domain specificity and cognitive impenetrability, have not been explored experimentally thus far. Indeed part of the purpose of this thesis is to explore these issues by the administration of a number of point-light display tasks to individuals who are cognitively impaired (mentally retarded individuals).
It can be argued that a multisensory benefit on rec- ognition for paired associations between voices and faces is a consequence of learning from the natural statistical properties of the world. For example, Bare- nholtz, Lewkowicz, Davidson, and Mavica (2014) reported better learning for face and voice pairings that were congruent for gender than gender-incon- gruent pairings and argued that this occurred as a consequence of the frequency of the gender-congru- ent voice and face signals co-occurring in the real world. Indeed, von Kriegstein and Giraud (2006) also demonstrated that voices are better remembered when previously paired with faces but this multisen- sory benefit did not generalize to other object and sound pairings. Other findings suggest that inputs from face-processing areas seem necessary for optimal recognition of speech as well as the speaker (see von Kriegstein, Kleinschmidt, & Giraud, 2006; von Kriegstein et al., 2008). Consistent with these reports, our previous findings also suggested a privi- leged status for associations between faces and voices during learning (Bülthoff & Newell, 2015). Specifically, we found that unfamiliar faces, which had been previously paired with distinctive voices during a learning session, were subsequently better remembered than faces learned with a typical voice, although no such benefit was found with non-vocal sounds. Furthermore, other studies showing greater than chance performance in matching unfamiliar voices to unfamiliar faces (e.g., Kamachi, Hill, Lander, & Vatikiotis-bateson; Mavica & Barenholtz, 2012; Smith, Dunn, Baguley, & Stacey, 2016a, 2016b) suggests that redundant, multisensory information cues can enhance personperception in the absence of semantic knowledge.
- The VI customers also happy with the level of information about their transactions. But the customers response on the Bankers efforts on providing complete information on charges and interest rates wherever applicable apart from the response on updates and information received about their accounts are moderate. It is very difficult for the bankers to provide all the information in person, but whatever information received by them is clear as the response reveals.
expectations. Perception operates by employing prior probabil- ities that are efﬁciently deployed to reduce the processing requirements of treating each new experience as completely new. While explored mostly with basic object perception, Clark (2013) argued that it is applicable to social perception, and Otten et al. (2017) have applied it to social knowledge. For Clark (2014) perceiving is predicting. For example, we are able to quickly and efﬁciently recognize a friend we have arranged to meet outside a restaurant, even from quite a distance. Through repeated experience of the friend we have developed a sophisticated prediction based on a range of cues from their gait to their favourite coat. Usually, this prediction is correct and it is the person we expected. The dynamic of the predictive brain is to minimise the error of the prediction, that is, the difference between the prediction and the experienced event. Every now and again we are “surprised”—we mistake a stranger for the friend— and this instance of “surprisal” (an engineering term for the error) will also have an incremental effect on the probabilities (and we might be a little more careful when we next meet the friend). The brain seeks to minimise “surprisal” by a constant process of updating probabilities with each experience. However, an occasional error—as only one instance—will normally only have a small effect on the prior probabilities that have been developed over multiple successful perceptions. In this model of the brain, cognitive bias is not an inaccurate deviation from a “true” position, but an expectation or prediction based on the prior probabilities that have developed through experience. Prediction is not about being correct every time—but is about minimising error and maximising predictive accuracy. This process follows Bayes’ Theorem, which expresses a probability of one event (A) given that another event (B) has occurred (such as it being the friend, given the familiarity of the coat and hairstyle observed). This is referred as “likelihood”. Human perception operating according to Bayesian decision-making has been studied in both psychology and economics, so the predictive brain model is also referred to as the “Bayesian brain” (El-Gamal and Grether, 1995; Bubic et al., 2010). The implicit semantic associations of “bread” and “butter” or “table” and “chair” (Neely, 1977) have developed through their repeated co-occurrence during our experience of the world. Clearly in ancient Japan (without bread and butter or Western-style tables and chairs) these speciﬁc implicit associations did not develop. In social perception we can ask: what is the probability of this man being a basketball player given that he is a tall, Black professional sportsman? This likelihood is based on prior probabilities—which come from experience or knowledge of the culture—so the likelihood could be judged differently by a person from the USA compared with a person from Kenya.
representation mediates between users and geospatial phenomena. Compared with common cartographic products, this mediation process is fundamentally different in VR systems, as immersive applications merge map user and map space. A set of future research questions and further considerations on first-person cartography will close the text. These considerations on first- vs. third-person visualization shall facilitate a conceptually better integration of IVE into current cartographic theory and practice.
We adopt the conceptual assumptions of this work for our basic sentiment model, but our focus is on person-to-person evaluations and their social conse- quences. This involves elements of work on mod- eling political affiliation (Agrawal et al., 2003; Mal- ouf and Mullen, 2008; Yu et al., 2008), bias (Yano et al., 2010; Recasens et al., 2013), and stance on de- bate topics (Thomas et al., 2006; Somasundaran and Wiebe, 2010; Lin et al., 2006; Anand et al., 2011), but these aspects of belief and social identity are not our primary concern. Rather, we expect them to be predictive of the sentiment classifications we aim to make—e.g., if two people share political views, they will tend to evaluate each other positively.
Another construct involved in this study was person-vocation fit. Generally, person-vocation fit represents the broadest fit domain and focuses on the compatibility between an individual and his or her career choice. Based on vocational choice theory, which demonstrates the matching between various career paths and individuals’ needs, abilities and interest, person-vocation fit demonstrates that specific types of person are required for different type of vocations. In other word, this fit explains that individuals are best suited to occupations that are congruent with their self-concept. Person-vocation fit also conceptualized as interest congruence or the “degree of match between the individual’s vocational interests and aspects of their work environment” .
If the insured person has willfully or through negligence which cannot be deemed minor failed to observe the duty of salvage referred to above, the insurance company may reduce or disallow the compensation payable to him/her. The effect of the insured person’s failure to observe the duty on the occurrence of the loss or damage is taken into account in considering whether to reduce or disallow compensation. The insured person’s intent or type of negligence and any other circumstances will also be taken into account.
coffee that he is drinking only bears meaning to him because he drank coffee before. Memories are always present. We appropriate the present and make it ours. We have no choice but to do so. We cannot turn this appropriating off if we wish to as we cannot step outside ourselves. Consciousness is always active and selective, charged with feelings and meanings uniquely our own, informing our choices and blending into our perceptions. Sacks’ moment on Seventh Avenue itself will also be added to his basin of memories to become part of a continuum. Our experiences are never directly transmitted into our brain. They are experienced and constructed and that is subjective. The memories that we pull from are also not neutral. They are themselves to a great extent constructed and remodeled to fit the present. It is fascinating how there is a past and a present and that our minds create a route that connects these places to each other. We are able to tell a chronological and more or less logical story of our lives. It does not matter how many drawbacks or detours we have met on the way, in our minds we have always followed a track. Somehow in every moment that we experience, we manage to regard ourselves all the way back as one and the same, who despite years of growth and change always was more or less the same person. Our experience becomes part of our narrative truth and our narrative truth becomes part of our experience. Helen Chadwick’s Self-Portrait lays bare the fundament under this constructed reality. The artwork offers an entrance into the tractability of this presence. The artist pulls its latent presence up to the surface of consciousness. It shows how loaded with the personal past the present always is. Nothing in reality is uncut. Our only
intervention is rarely needed. Now imagine you proceed on to the next step, which is to check in, collect your boarding pass, and get on the plane. What if there were no arrival and departure boards? What if there was no central location for information on delayed flights? What if each and every person had to go to a different location to get his or her unique departure details? If a flight were cancelled, how would you find out about it before you get to the gate? What if you had to go back again to the check in to find out the new departure time and gate number? What if the line was huge? It would be a nightmare. Meanwhile, your bag is already on a flight. That’s the level of automation the IT industry has achieved so far for person-to-person processes in the majority of firms today.”
Horton Hears a Who! Is a novel by Dr. Seuss, which has recently become an award-winning animation feature film. In the story, Horton the elephant, a nature teacher, discovers life – no, an entire world! – inside a speck of dust in the forest. From then on, he vows to protect the small universe from those who think it is “nothing but a speck”, while he encourages his students to exercise imagination to create new possible worlds. Horton’s example should be followed by every legal practitioner: defending minorities, helping them build a better world. Thus, literature can be a strong ally to the law. The novel by Dr. Seuss can be summarized in the idea that a person
* Sensed parts of the body (with related actions/behaviours) becoming “existing in the environment” for the subject bring up self-consciousness as a third person perspective (behaviour of conscious system). * We propose to consider pre-reflexive self-consciousness as an unachieved and non explicit version of self-consciousness, as a by-product of the evolution of auto-representation toward self-consciousness and available for phenomenal consciousness. Pre-reflexive self-consciousness as part of a third person perspective of consciousness.
B. Survey Results and How They Differ from Court Opinions The study results show a strong consensus about what actions would dissuade a reasonable person from filing a complaint. More than ninety percent of the study participants thought that termination would or might dissuade them from filing a complaint. About eighty percent thought that a negative evaluation in their employment file or a demotion would or might dissuade them. More than half of the study participants indicated that the following consequences would or might dissuaded them from filing a complaint: threatened termination, a paid seven-day suspension, an office move to another location, social ostracism by coworkers, or a change in job responsibilities with the same pay.
In surveillance videos, it is difficult to parse the clothing information for reliably associating a person across multiple camera views due to unknown transformation in color and overall appearance of the person (people occupy few pixels relative to the entire image frame). Also, frequent exchange of raw image data to the central server imposes network bottlenecks and is not scalable for large networks. Existing approaches tackle the problem either with appearance based features alone or in combination with spatial-temporal information. However, appearance based features are insufficient for matching due to viewpoint, pose and lighting changes. Spatial-temporal information helps to an extent, and it requires complete knowledge of the network. Furthermore, existing approaches assume that global trajectories are available and accurate.