This study investigated 73 designed beginners who drew the Venus plaster and completed the 7- dimensional Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) test. Next, 5-point scales were used to com- pare the degrees of the facial similarity between the paintings and photos of the beginners who created the paintings. The results indicated that over half of the paintings were similar to the photos of the painters, and the similarity was significantly correlated with narcissism. For exam- ple, the painters with self-sufficient personalities were more likely to exhibit assertiveness, inde- pendence, self-confidence, and need for achievement; thus, they were automatically drawn to their own sense of personal feelings as projected onto the drawings, which naturally tended to look like themselves. These results might help the educators in the design field identify the likely NPI-asso- ciated psychological and behavioral outcomes of design beginners by observing the contexts of their paintings.
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classification of personality traits. The factor analytic approach has played a major role in uncovering the basic personality dimensions. For example, the Five Factor Model proposes that there are five dimensions of personality that are relatively independent of one another: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness (Costa & McCrae, 1992a, 1992b). There is great support for the replicability of the five-factor model of personality and numerous personality measures have operationalized these factors, most notably the NEO Personality Inventory - Revised (NEO-PI-R), which specifies six facets underlying each factor, so that there are 30 facets in total. Although the Five Factor Model has been empirically validated, an alternative six-factor model, known as the HEXACO (Ashton & Lee, 2007) has also received strong support.
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Introduction: The Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI) is based on Kernberg’s concept of borderline personality organization and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The BPI contains scales for assessing identity diffusion, impaired primitive defense mechanisms, reality testing, and fear of closeness. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of this scale.
This study was divided into six phases to better fit its objectives. We point out that this research paper adopted the same sources used in previous studies, namely: DSM Fifth Edition's Section 3 ([DSM-5]; Ameri- can Psychological Association 2013), Personality Inven- tory for DSM-5 ([PID-5]; Krueger et al. 2011) dimensions, Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure ([SWAP]; Westen and Shedler 1999) dimensions, and Anna Clark’s (1990) dimensions, included in the Sched- ule for Nonadaptive Personality (SNAP). However, these sources contain few of IDCP's Self-Sacrifice dimension typical elements. Due to that, we have also used refer- ences based on Millon's theory at first. The first phase consisted of literature review for verifying self-sacrifice construct-related characteristics based on Millon’s the- ory. This review considered the Self-Sacrifice dimension to be intimately related to the masochist personality dis- order. In other words, there is an excessive lack of con- cern for oneself (self ) and excessive concern for others, evidently presenting along with tendencies to self- sacrifice and help others while doing oneself harm.
Personality questionnaires such as the NEO-PI-R/3 ask likewise about people’s feelings, thoughts, habits, and values. When all personality ratings are aggregated, the country mean scores on personality traits are found. Unlike measures of happiness and religiousness, as stated above, personality averages are often treated with suspicion (Heine et al., 2008; Meisenberg, 2015; Perugini & Richetin, 2007). Indeed, some country rankings on personality traits look very puzzling (Allik & Realo, 2016) and they correlate with some external variables in a paradoxical manner (Heine et al., 2008; Mõttus et al., 2010). Perhaps personality questionnaires have limited reliability and validity when used at the level of country averages (Meisenberg, 2015), but this new analysis of NEO-PI-R/3 aggregate scores provides another explanation. Cross-country and cross-cultural differences in personality are very small compared to within-sample differences. Differences in personality between aggregate personality scores of countries/cultures are about 8 times smaller than differences between any two individuals randomly selected from the same sample. Because differences are small, it is difficult to establish “true” ranking of these
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Accordingly, Köhler and Kosanic  created an instru- ment to measure the personality variables initially reported by Wolf. Their data suggested there was no evidence of a single modal personality profile among migraine patients. Most studies in this clinical population have evaluated per- sonality using either the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) [5–10], the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire [11, 12] or the Zuckerman-Kuhlman’s Personality Questionnaire . In general these studies tend to find differences between PWM and controls in the scales related with neuroticism, stress, depression, anxiety and hostility [5, 11, 13]. However, others have failed to find these patterns [14, 15]. Furthermore, higher MMPI scores for neuroticism can be explained, at least partially, by the content of certain scale items that inquire about stomach and headache symptoms  and potentially as a conse- quence of the type of pain in migraineurs and the chronici- ty of this condition, as some authors have suggested . In a similar fashion, controlled studies using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) have found higher scores for neuroticism in PWM relative to controls [18, 19]. Other studies suggest this pattern of neuroticism could be typical of patients with tension-type headache but not with migraine .
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Material and Methods. Two hundred volunteers (100 female and 100 male) aged 20 to 25 (mean age: 23.4) under- went anthropometric measurements to calculate the anterior face height ratio N-Sn/Sn-Gn. For cephalometric analysis, standard right-profile images of the face were used. Calibration was performed with a 100-mm metal ruler placed next to each photographed individual. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), which includes 240 statements, was used for personality assessment in order to investigate the five main personality domains: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness and six facets within each domain.
Background: Patient-centered models of assessment have shown considerable promise for increasing patients ’ readiness for mental health treatment in general, but have not been used to facilitate patients ’ engagement in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. We developed a brief patient-centered intervention using assessment and feedback of personality data and examined its acceptability and efficacy to increase early engagement in residential SUD treatment. Methods: Thirty patients entering a 90-day residential SUD treatment program were randomly assigned to a feedback (n = 17) or control (n = 13; assessment-only) condition. Normal-range personality was assessed with the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R). Patients were re-interviewed one month after treatment entry to obtain information on their satisfaction with the intervention, as well as their adjustment to the residential milieu. Electronic medical records were reviewed to obtain information on patients ’ length of stay in the program and discharge status. Univariate ANOVAs and chi-square tests were conducted to examine group differences on outcomes.
In the Population Study of Women in Gothenburg 1968–69 , personality traits were studied with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and the Cesarec- Marke Personality Schedule (CMPS). The EPI measures the two personality dimensions extra/introversion and neuroticism . A high score on the EPI Neuroticism scale indicates emotional reactivity, low ego strength, guilt proneness and anxiety, whereas high scores on the Extraversion scale indicate sociable, outgoing, impulsive and uninhibited behaviour. The Lie scale included in the EPI reflects a tendency to present oneself in a socially desirable manner. The CMPS is based on Murray’s the- ory of personality . Murray defined two kinds of needs: primary, such as hunger, thirst and sexuality, and secondary, such as wishes and pursuits. From these sec- ondary needs an inventory was developed – the Edward’s Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS). The CMPS is a Swedish version of the EPPS [21-23].
The present study made an attempt t compare the mean score of students with high and low scores on different dimensions of Verbal Creativity with regard to their scores on Emotional Stability, Curiosity and Self-Concept. In the present study, random sampling technique was employed for collecting the data from 150 students. Descriptive Survey Method was used for the present study. „Verbal Tests of Creativity‟ by Prof. B.K Passi and Emotional Stability,Curiosity and Self-Concept „Singh‟s Differential Personality Inventory‟ by Arun Kumar Singh (2002) was employed. This shows that there exist no significant differences between students with high and low Verbal Fluency, Verbal Flexibility, Verbal Originality and Verbal Creativity with regard to their scores on Emotional Stability, Curiosity and Self-Concept respectively. Hence the Hypothesis namely- “Students in the high and low scores of Verbal Fluency, Verbal Flexibility, Verbal Originality and Verbal Creativity differ with respect to Emotional stability, Curiosity and Self-Concept” stand rejected at the high school stage.
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Inventory and Goldberg’s International Personality Item Pool were analysed using the Mokken Scaling Procedure for hierarchical scales. Items from two dimensions of the Eysenck Personality Inventory: Neuroticism and Extraversion produced hierarchical scales of 12 and five items, respectively. The Neuroticism items ran from items expressing mild to more extreme worry and the Extraversion items ran from mild sociability to more extreme ‘showing off’. The utility of hierarchical scales in
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Personality traits assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)  disclosed that pa- tients with CDH showed the so-called “neurotic MMPI-2 profile” characterized by high scores in the first three scales: Hs (Hypochondriasis), D (Depression), and Hy (Hysteria) [30,31]. A recent study  comparing MMPI scores in MOH, episodic headache patients and healthy controls, showed that MOH and episodic headache patients displayed similar patterns, differentiating only in Hypochondriasis scale, and that there were no differ- ences between the three groups in scales measuring dependence-related behavior. Another recent study  compared MOH sufferers and drug-addicted patients by means of MMPI-2 dependency scales showing that the two groups did not share personality characteristics linked to dependence. The authors argued that rather than a “true” addiction behavior, a different kind of “dependence” characterized headache patients related to the need to avoid pain. No study has hitherto explored if dependence behaviors in MOH patients are related to the psychiatric comorbidity often associated with CDH.
The current study is a two-year follow-up of trauma- related and personality disorders in patients who sought treatment at a regular Dutch mental health care center, GGZ Friesland. The purpose is to examine the two-year course of trauma-related disorders and personality disor- ders, i.e. (symptomatic) improvement of the (comorbid) disorders, as well as identifying predictors of a (non-) favourable course of these symptoms. The duration of the follow-up period is based on clinical experience in treating patients with childhood trauma and neglect. Furthermore, in determining the follow-up period, we have taken several factors into account: because trauma- related disorders and personality disorder mostly run a chronic course, a short follow-up period, e.g. 6 months or 1 year, will probably not be able to show significant changes; however to minimalize non-response, the follow-up period should not be too long, while patients are more likely to have ended their therapy, have moved, changed their telephone number et cetera.
High correlations among the STIPO dimensions occurred (.48 to .79) which means that the seven dimensions are not independent from each other. This is not astonishing since Kernberg conceptualized the dimensions of person- ality organization as different manifestations of an under- lying core pathology, namely identity diffusion as a result of disturbed development during early life due to genetic disposition and mainly adverse early relationships [5,6]. From a theoretical point of view it could be argued that one dimension would be enough for the determination of personality organization or functioning. This argument supports the development of a short version of the STIPO, which is currently being prepared by the authors of the instrument. From a clinical point of view one would be reluctant to relinquish the important detailed clinical information from each of the STIPO dimensions. As a consequence it will be recommendable to maintain both, a short and a long version; a short version for screening purposes and general scientific use and a long version for treatment planning in the clinical field and specific research questions.
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We hypothesized that all three groups would display elevations on the Borderline Features scale of the PAI. All three eating disorder groups had T-scores greater than 50, however, only the patients with anorexia ner- vosa and depression had scores above a T-score of 59 and therefore interpretable as above normal limits. Pa- tients with anorexia nervosa had significantly higher scores on this scale than patients with bulimia nervosa. A central feature of anorexia nervosa is confusion over identity [18,54,55]. For example, as children, patients with anorexia nervosa tend to have been denied the op- portunity to determine their own fate and were expected to perform according to familial expectations . In a sense, they have an identity that is defined by others ra- ther than by themselves [16,18,56]. This is consistent with the elevations on Borderline Features scale seen in the patients with anorexia nervosa in the current re- search, although it is important to note that the T-score was below 70 (i.e., below clinical significance). Other re- searchers [47,57] have found borderline personality dis- order to be associated with bulimia nervosa. This would suggest that patients with bulimia nervosa should also
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a serious and prevalent psychiatric condition characterized by affective instability, impulsivity, and significant deficits in the capacity to work and maintain meaningful relationships. Patients with BPD struggle with a profound fear of abandonment, identity disturbances, and paranoid idea- tions. They are at risk for suicide and repetitive self- destructive behaviors. BPD patients show a completed suicide rate that is 50 times greater than that in the gen- eral population [1,2]. The short- to medium-term out- come of BPD is poor. There is some evidence that the long-term follow-up course is more favorable, with re- mission rates of about 88% within ten years . How- ever, ‘remission’ means that diagnostic criteria are not fulfilled. Affective symptoms reflecting areas of dys- phoria, such as chronic feelings of emptiness, intense anger or profound abandonment, largely remain .
self focused appear more likely to develop a personal connection with nature which in turn predicts their pro- environmental attitudes (Bragg, 1996).The findings of significant positive co-relation between extraversion and PEB is also interesting, actually high scores in extraversion dimension indicates more assertive, talkative and thus pro-social. Thus there exists a connection between Extraversion dimension and PEB. Regarding the relationship between Conscientiousness and PEB, the researcher did not find any consistent study , but low Conscientiousness predicts the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviours such as smoking , substance abuse and poor diet and exercise habits ( Bogg & Roberts,2004, Hampson, Andrew, Barckley, Lichenstein &; Trull & Sher,1994). So the positive correlation between Conscientiousness and PEB may be due to the reason that participants who scored high in Conscientiousness might have also score high in Human health management dimension of PEB. Neuroticism is sometimes called emotional instability. According to Eysenck’s (1967) theory of personality, neuroticism is interlinked with low tolerance for stressor assertive stimuli. In fact high score in neuroticism dimension indicates nervousness, anxiety prone, depression etc. The findings of negative correlation between neuroticism and PEB indicates nervous and anxiety prone people cannot perform pro-environmental behaviour consistently. This findings also
Due to the long duration of the study a team of blind raters will be needed to cover all assessments. The rater team consists of clinical psychologists with a completed further education in psychotherapy or an advanced state of this education as well as master students of clinical psychology who receive standardized training for the pri- mary outcome interview and the WHO global functioning interview (WHODAS). The training for students and new clinical psychologists includes 2 to 3 interview sessions as an observer and a minimum of 2 interview sessions under life-supervision. Raters are only allowed to start with self-dependent interviews if the differences in ratings are reduced to a maximum of a one point difference not ex- ceeding three items, and the performance of the interview is correct. Regular supervision will be offered for the raters as well as re-analyses of audio recordings to keep up the inter-rater reliability. The comorbid diagnosis will be assessed with the SCID I and II by clinical psychologists with a completed further education in psychotherapy or are in an advanced state of this education. These raters are well experienced in the use of the SCID due to specific SCID training and to their clinical practice. Participants and their therapists are informed of the participants’ scores on all instruments except for the cost assessment and the working alliance inventory (so that patients also report negative feelings towards their therapists). This is standing practice (regularly assessing progress or lack of progress) and is used as feedback to help to improve treatment.
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The treatment in our inpatient personality disorder unit is certified by the German DBT Board of Certification (DDBT; consecutively certified since 2007, last certifica- tion: 22.03.2016). As common in DBT settings, patients were seen in outpatient consultations before DBT starts (DBT-briefing). The briefing includes examination of the patient, assessment of the treatment history, indication for treatment, assessment of inclusion and exclusion cri- teria for treatment. It lasted one hour. As often as pos- sible, the therapist who conducted the briefing also undertook the treatment, usually two to three months later. However, for organizational reasons this was not always feasible; in these cases a different therapist took over after DBT-briefing (documented as therapist change) between DBT briefing and treatment. A change of therap- ist was in no case caused by clinical considerations. There were no additional contacts after DBT-briefing and DBT- treatment. There was no change of therapist during treat- ment for any reason (organizational or clinical). The length of the inpatient stay was eight to twelve weeks, within the sixth week the discharge date was fixed de- pending on the patients ’ progress, aims, and needs.
interacting with peripheral/central neuroendocrine and immune changes, may induce symptoms of IBS, modulate symptom severity, influence illness experience and quality of life, and affect outcome. Personality traits like negative affects and anger have its role on pathogenesis and clinical expression of IBS (Maria Rosaria A Muscatello, 2014). Many IBS patients have psychological symptoms including depression, anxiety, tension, insomnia and frustration (Nagisa Sugaya and Shinobu Nomura, 2008).