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Corresponding Security Level with the Risk Factors of Personally Identifiable Information through the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Corresponding Security Level with the Risk Factors of Personally Identifiable Information through the Analytic Hierarchy Process

Abstract: Since Taiwan government has announced the New Version of Personal Information Protection Act , People began to pay attention to their personal information and privacy. Many industries significantly increased their responsibilities and faced more serious challenges. In order to cope with the requirements of the new law, BS10012 specification can help enterprises to reduce impact of personal data protection law. Enterprises need to rethink policy objectives, and make risk assessment of personally identifiable information (PII). This study using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to identify the security level of PII. Corresponding security level with the risk factors of personal information, so that find the suitable countermeasure to protect users PII. Rarely see research about risk assessment of PII by using AHP, therefore the feasibility of the application of AHP in this regard is worthwhile to explore.
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China’s Data Collection on US Citizens: Implications, Risks, and Solutions

China’s Data Collection on US Citizens: Implications, Risks, and Solutions

Executive Summary: The People’s Liberation Army of China has been linked to several major data breaches targeting the personal data of American citizens, including the hacks on the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), Marriott Starwood, United Airlines, and Anthem Health Insurance, amongst others. These data breaches include personally identifiable information on millions of American citizens, including full names, Social Security Numbers (SSNs), job and income data, passport numbers, and flight histories. The data breaches also included the loss of roughly 18 million copies of Standard Form 86, which included personal data, including individuals’ past substance abuse, gambling habits, and history of psychiatric care (Koerner 2016). The fact that the cyber intruders did not target financially valuable data, coupled with the long duration of these cyber espionage campaigns, indicate the involvement of a state-backed actor. Several post-breach investigations conducted by cybersecurity firms including ThreatConnect, and Mandiant, in addition to investigations undertaken by the US government, have attributed the attacks to a Chinese state-backed actor (Armerding 2016; Mandiant; Threat Connect 2015). It is believed that the information gathered from these data breaches is being compiled into a database by intelligence services in China, who seek to target US citizens for intelligence gathering purposes. Citing evidence from the goals and operations of Chinese intelligence services, this report makes the case that Chinese intelligence services will use this database to identify, target, and recruit US informants. The report finds that Chinese intelligence services, namely the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and the Ministry of State Security (MSS), were complicit in the creation and use of this database. While the PLA conducts the bulk of the cyber offensive operations to collect information for the database, the MSS, China’s premier foreign intelligence agency, is likely to make use of the database. Based on the operating goals of the MSS, it is likely the database will be used to aid in the agency’s informant recruitment process. The MSS’s informant recruitment process often begins with virtual communications and ends with actual “recruitment” occurring in mainland China. The report found that the MSS follows 5 key steps in its informant recruitment process, including (1) “spotting”; (2) “assessing”; (3) “developing”; (4) “recruiting”; and (5) “handling”.
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Internet of Things: Hindrance or Help

Internet of Things: Hindrance or Help

This class of products use sensitive information about the consumer to give benefits in the returns. For instance, smart health reports, it takes data related to consumer’s health as an input, keeps track of his/her health in reward. To resolve their concerns over privacy as it is an individual’s Personally Identifiable Information (PII), company should have to make consumers less concern about their privacy by giving assurance for the following things:

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Minimize Phishing Attacks: Securing Spear Attacks

Minimize Phishing Attacks: Securing Spear Attacks

A spear-phishing attack shows one or more following characteristics they are as follows: • Blended or multi-vector threat: Spear phishing uses a blend of email spoofing, dynamic URLs and drive-by downloads to bypass traditional defenses. • Use of vulnerabilities of zero-day: Advanced spear-phishing attacks leverage zero-day vulnerabilities in browsers, plugins and desktop applications to compromise systems. • Multi-stage attack.: The initial exploit of systems is the first stage of an APT attack that involves further stages of malware outbound communications, binary downloads and data exfiltration. • Well- crafted email forgeries: Spear phishing email threats are usually targeted to individuals, so don’t bear much resemblance to the high-volume, broadcast spam that floods the Internet. This means traditional reputation and spam filters routinely miss these messages, rendering traditional email protections ineffective. Stolen information included sensitive classified intelligence data, financial records, and personally identifiable information.
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JO_-AP.1D[1].pdf

JO_-AP.1D[1].pdf

In accordance with law, the district may disclose personally identifiable information from education records only on the condition that the person to whom the information is disclosed will not redisclose the information to other persons or entities without the prior consent of the parent or eligible student. When required by law, a party may be required to first sign a statement in which he or she agrees to abide by this provision and agrees to use the information disclosed only for the purposes for which the disclosure was made. This provision does not apply to disclosures made to the officers, employees and agents of the person or entity to which the information was released for the purposes for which the disclosure was made; disclosures made to the student or parents of a dependent or minor student; disclosures made to comply with a judicial order or subpoena; and disclosures of directory information.
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Ethical Considerations in Research With Socially Identifiable Populations

Ethical Considerations in Research With Socially Identifiable Populations

such projects are embraced by communities because of the perception in European cultures that scientific enterprise is likely to yield information that is poten- tially beneficial. However, there are communities in North America in which cultural perceptions and historical experience create a different, somewhat hostile view of Western science and research. Such communities commonly comprise persons of ethnic minorities who may be economically disadvantaged, culturally isolated, or politically underrepresented. They may include people with strong ethnic/tribal affinity living in relative geographic isolation (eg, American Indian/Alaska Native individuals living on reservations) or immigrants of common national origin living within a specific urban neighborhood. Although institutional review boards (IRBs) have de- veloped well-recognized procedures to minimize risk to individuals who participate in research stud- ies, collective risks to members of specific geo- graphic, racial, religious, or ethnic communities may
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CCTV code of practice Revised edition 2008

CCTV code of practice Revised edition 2008

code uses the terms ‘CCTV’ and ‘images’ throughout for ease of reference. Information held by organisations that is about individuals is covered by the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA) and the guidance in this code will help operators comply with their legal obligations under the DPA. The DPA not only creates obligations for organisations, it also gives individuals rights, such as the right to gain access to their details and to claim compensation when they suffer damage.

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Secure  Multi-Party  Computation  with  Identifiable  Abort

Secure Multi-Party Computation with Identifiable Abort

When there is no honest majority and the adversary is malicious, full security that includes fairness cannot be achieved [12]. Instead, one usually settles for the relaxed notion of security with abort: Either the protocol succeeds, in which case every party receives its output, or the protocol aborts, in which case all honest parties learn that the protocol aborted. (Because of the lack of fairness, the adversary can learn its outputs even when the protocol aborts.) The GMW protocol [21, 19] realizes this notion of security under standard cryptographic assumptions. Interestingly, this protocol also satisfies the following useful identifiability property: upon abort every party learns the identity of some corrupted party. This property is in the focus of our work. To the best of our knowledge, all protocols achieving this notion of security (e.g., [21, 7]) are based on the same paradigm of using public zero-knowledge proofs to detect deviation from the protocol. While elegant and conceptually simple, this approach leads to inefficient protocols that make a non-black-box use of the underlying cryptographic primitives. 1 The situation is even worse in the information-theoretic setting, where an impossibility result from [31] (see also [44, Section 3.7]) proves that information-theoretic MPC with identifiable abort is impossible even in the OT-hybrid model, i.e., where parties can make ideal calls to an oblivious transfer (OT) functionality [41].
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A survey of patient perspectives on the research use of health information and biospecimens

A survey of patient perspectives on the research use of health information and biospecimens

In general, these patient participants were supportive of medical research and very trusting of medical researchers. Most believed that consent should be sought for use of health information or biospecimens and most indicated they would always give consent for any medical research. This is consistent with the reports of others [11, 17, 21]. While some participants have discussed the need to retain control over their information or material through a con- sent process, our findings suggest that for a substantial proportion of people, knowing their information or bios- pecimens were being used for research purposes was suffi- cient. As noted by others, a wide range of opinions was given, making it difficult to suggest a single approach to engaging people in sharing of these valuable research resources [16, 18, 21].
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The Concept of Personal Information for Data Consumption, Use, and ProtectionJi-Yeon YOO

The Concept of Personal Information for Data Consumption, Use, and ProtectionJi-Yeon YOO

The British data protection supervisory authority Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) announced that it will apply regulations on prior agreement for website cookies to the privacy directive in the personal information process and telecommunications sector (2002/58/EC) beginning May 26, 2011. The ICO provided one year as a preparatory period for website owners to observe the law. The website had only to notify users of the cookie’s use and inform them of how to cancel before revision if they wanted; however, after revision, the website cookie was available only when users agreed to its use. The law requires obtaining agreement on cookie use, including action procedures such as confirmation of cookies in use, their operational procedures, and selection of solutions, pop- ups, and contractual questions (Aboutmyarea, 2011). However, these regulations are rather insufficient as standards for explicit consent of users and user control. Accordingly, the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) developed the “ICC UK Cookie Guide,” which put regulations that require prior consent for practically using cookies, based on the EU’s e-Privacy directive (ICC UK, 2012). The ICC UK Cookie Guide classified categories and procedures for cookies that require user agreement into four types:
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Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate Modeling

Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate Modeling

Many algorithms have been proposed to deal with the NP-hard DAG structure learning task. LiNGAM, discussed above, is the first fully identifiable approach for continuous data. All other approaches for continuous data use linearity and (at least implicitly) Gaussianity assumptions so that the model structure learned is only defined up to equivalence classes. Thus in most cases the directionality information about the edges in the graph must be discarded. Linear Gaussian-based models have the added advantage that they are computationally affordable for the many variables case. The structure learning approaches can be roughly divided into stochastic search and score (Cooper and Herskovits, 1992; Heckerman et al., 2000; Friedman and Koller, 2003), constraint- based (with conditional independence tests) (Spirtes et al., 2001) and two stage; like LiNGAM, (Tsamardinos et al., 2006; Friedman et al., 1999; Teyssier and Koller, 2005; Schmidt et al., 2007; Shimizu et al., 2006). In the following, we discuss in more detail previous work in the last category, as it is closest to the work in this paper and can be considered representative of the state-of-the-art. The Max-Min Hill-Climbing algorithm (MMHC, Tsamardinos et al., 2006) first learns the skeleton using conditional independence tests similar to PC algorithms (Spirtes et al., 2001) and then the order of the variables is found using a Bayesian-scoring hill-climbing search. The Sparse Candidate (SC) algorithm (Friedman et al., 1999) is in the same spirit but restricts the skeleton to within a predetermined link candidate set of bounded size for each variable. The Order Search algorithm (Teyssier and Koller, 2005) uses hill-climbing first to find the ordering, and then looks for the skele- ton with SC. L 1 regularized Markov Blanket (Schmidt et al., 2007) replaces the skeleton learning
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David Halberstam  A Case Study of a Journalist's Role and Vision on the Vietnam War

David Halberstam A Case Study of a Journalist's Role and Vision on the Vietnam War

sharing similar views on the conflict. With regards to Halberstam, one can point to the warnings he had been receiving from predecessor Homer Bigart before he went to Vietnam. Bigart was one of the main critics of U.S. policy in Vietnam, and it could very well be that Halberstam was influenced by his views and his articles. However, looking back at his first weeks in Vietnam, his tone was nowhere as critical as that of Bigart, and it wasn't until the first burning of a Buddhist monk that he started to become more critical in the pieces that he wrote. Another point of criticism lies in the fact that, according to Elegant, many reporters were seeking the approval of their editors. 38 When looking at Halberstam's relation with the editors at the New York Times, this doesn't seem to be the case. Halberstam himself explains in The Powers that be that he was fully aware of the influence that he had as he was writing for one of the biggest newspapers in the country. He aggressively pursued interesting stories, while trying to avoid getting expelled from the country. This infuriated president Kennedy, especially since Halberstam had such good connections. Through these connections, he was seemingly getting information at a faster rate than the U.S. embassy itself. So in a way it wasn't just the critical reporting that was bothering the administration, but also the freedom and power that someone like Halberstam had to gather any kind of information that he wanted to. But whereas Kennedy's administration clearly disliked Halberstam, the latter was also making his editor at the New York Times quite nervous. An excerpt from a conversation between Kennedy and New York Times-publisher Arthur Sulzberger is a perfect example of Kennedy's dislike for Halberstam:
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Study protocol for an evaluation of the effectiveness of ‘care bundles’ as a means of improving hospital care and reducing hospital readmission for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Study protocol for an evaluation of the effectiveness of ‘care bundles’ as a means of improving hospital care and reducing hospital readmission for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Once a hospital has expressed their interest in taking part in the research, they will be sent further information about the study including a link to the NIHR CRN Portfolio database (http://public.ukcrn.org.uk/Search/StudyDetail. aspx?StudyID=17828), a link to the study website hosted by the University of Bristol (http://www.bristol.ac.uk/ primaryhealthcare/researchthemes/copd/), a research summary, the full study protocol and a copy of the BTS COPD care bundles pilot study report [10]. Next, the hos- pital’s status as either an implementer of COPD care bun- dles or a comparator delivering standard care will be determined, and the site asked to sign a formal agreement to be a participate in the evaluation accordingly. Following this, a member of the research team will submit the rele- vant site-specific information (SSI) via the Integrated
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Privacy Rights, HIPAA, and the AAP: About Right; About Time

Privacy Rights, HIPAA, and the AAP: About Right; About Time

On the matter of medical education, the final rule is not ambiguous. A patient signs a one-time consent for the use of his information for health care opera- tions, and providers may condition treatment on this consent. This consent includes sharing information with student learners. This is not different from a patient’s current prerogative to exclude a student from his care. It merely codifies that right. The rule is quite explicit in its desire not to interfere with the informal arrangements between physician and pa- tient that have developed over the history of clinical practice.
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Identifiable challenges as global complexities: globalization, gender violence, and statelessness

Identifiable challenges as global complexities: globalization, gender violence, and statelessness

Although the definition of violence against women produced by the UN General Assembly in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women in 1993 has been adopted as a suit[r]

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Are women with major depression in pregnancy identifiable in population health data?

Are women with major depression in pregnancy identifiable in population health data?

At the time of this study, PBS prescription data was only collected for prescriptions that attracted a Govern- ment subsidy. Amendments to the Commonwealth of Australia National Health Act 1953, enacted on 23 No- vember 2010, require approved suppliers of Pharmaceut- ical Benefits Scheme medicines to provide the Australian Government, from 1 April 2012, with data on PBS pre- scriptions that are priced below the general copayment level (under copayment) [40]. The collection of under copayment information will capture all dispenses of PBS data, thus making the PBS dataset even more valuable for health policy planning, monitoring risk, management protocols, pharmacovigilance and monitoring the quality use of medicines (including polypharmacy) in the community.
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Taking foreign policy personally : personal values and foreign policy attitudes

Taking foreign policy personally : personal values and foreign policy attitudes

We therefore turn to nonparametric mediation analysis (Imai et al. 2011), estimating a set of nonparametric medi- ation models in which the effects of personal values are mediated by political ideology. Doing so not only serves as a means of mapping the ideological pathways through which personal values structure foreign-policy beliefs, but also offers a way to study the role of political ideology without inducing post-treatment bias (King and Zeng 2007): if personal values are truly pre-political, estimating their effects on foreign policy preferences while control- ling for ideology would bias our effect estimates. We esti- mate separate mediation models for high- and low- knowledge participants, based on how they performed on a political knowledge test in our survey. 2 If the public is truly as helpless as pessimistic readings of elite cue theory would suggest, low-knowledge respondents should have difficulty connecting their values to their foreign policy orientations; they should need information from trusted elites in order to structure their foreign policy preferences for them, to provide the “constraint” from above that is unavailable from below. If, in contrast, even low-knowl- edge individuals are capable of grounding their foreign
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Finite lives and infinite ends : an account of imperfect obligations to future generations

Finite lives and infinite ends : an account of imperfect obligations to future generations

to be able to point to 1.) a wrong done, and 2.) an identifiable person who is wronged. 14 There must be something that was owed that was denied, and a specific person to whom it was denied. Our obligations that do not depend on what is owed by one person to another are instead obligations of beneficence. “Now it is known that ethical writers divide moral duties into two classes, denoted by the ill-chosen expressions, duties of perfect and of imperfect obligation; the latter being those in which, though the act is obligatory, the particular occasions of performing it are left to our choice, as in the case of charity or beneficence, which we are indeed bound to practice but not toward any definite person, nor at any prescribed time. In the more precise language of philosophic jurists, duties of perfect obligation are those duties in virtue of which a correlative right resides in some person or persons; duties of imperfect obligation are those moral obligations which do not give birth to any right. I think it will be found that this
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Beneath an earthen countenance : the architecture and artifacts of the Moundville earth lodge complex

Beneath an earthen countenance : the architecture and artifacts of the Moundville earth lodge complex

Because the stratigraphic deposits’ fills were not developed in situ, they were classified as secondary contexts. It is likely that these fills were extracted from the immediate areas surrounding Mound V—herein referred to as Mound V’s peripheries—and might be indicative of activities related to Mound V and its structures. Pit feature fills are considered primary contexts. Unlike pit-feature artifacts, contents of postholes are not reliable indicators of how the earth lodge complex was used, but they do potentially provide evidence of the types of artifacts that were circulated within the general area of Mound V and the earth lodge complex (herein referred to as “the complex,” unless further distinction is required). Unless otherwise noted, specific architectural or feature measurements were derived from Knight’s unpublished field notes. A general overview of Mound V’s structures and stratigraphy precedes the descriptions of the stratigraphic deposits and integrates the architectural and stratigraphic information.
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Start Here to Activate and Learn to Use Your Treo™ 600 Smartphone

Start Here to Activate and Learn to Use Your Treo™ 600 Smartphone

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