Personhood of the Spirit

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The spirit of the sword and spear

The spirit of the sword and spear

I would argue that the anthropomorphic hilts of the short swords and the anthropomorphic stamps found on some long swords, spears and short swords signal the identity or personhood attributed to the weapons. Whether or not the short swords were actually weapons, their form indicates that they symbolized weapons, and their anthopomorphic hilts seem to indicate the importance of their identity or personhood. It might even be suggested that in some cases a non-anthropomorphic stamp might indicate the sword’s name, which would for example suggest that ‘boar’ (Fig. 4) was on occasion used to denote a sword in mid to late La Tène Europe, in the same way as ‘snake’ or ‘wolf’ was in the Nordic sagas (see above, Barnes’s (1972, col. 546) sword-name category 10). Likewise the lunar or solar symbols may also have conferred identity (cf. Barnes’s categories 10 or 11: 1972, col. 546). This identity may have been con- ferred at the moment of manufacture, setting stamped swords apart from those which were not chosen to bear stamps.
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A sense of place: matters of space, mind and personhood

A sense of place: matters of space, mind and personhood

Some models of learning from experience place the body, including the brain, between the mind and the environment as a kind of mediator of both input and output. The self is clearly defined by the boundary of our skin as different from others and from environment. Other models treat the spirit, mind, body and environment as a whole and draw a much fuzzier boundary between person and place if indeed a boundary is drawn at all. These models see place as tied up in our sense of ourselves and see our actions in place as an expression of our spirit. The self is everywhere you are, as well as everything you are (see Claxton 1984) . Heron provides a framework with which we can work with these insights and tacit understandings. He acknowledges our need to individuate and to attend to the inevitable wounds of this process. He also gives us the hope that through creative and spiritual development we can learn to transform our egoic selves and also participate in the world.
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Hegel on the personhood of God

Hegel on the personhood of God

Religion and philosophy agree, however, that God’s personhood must be understood as (or on the model of) “love” and that such personhood actually exists in the form of human communities founded on love and mutual recognition. In particular, as Williams notes, Hegel understands Christianity to be “a religion of love, forgiveness, reconciliation, and universal freedom” (RRW 305). Indeed, he takes the Christian God to be “self-sacrificing love” that “out of compassion identifies with and shares human finitude, and, by obedient suffering to the point of death, puts death itself to death, and is resurrected as absolute spirit” (RRW 295; see also 275, 297). The Christian God, in Hegel’s interpretation, thus exhibits most clearly the personhood that “surrender[s] its isolation and separateness” and realises itself “in friendship and love” (VRel III: 211; see also RRW 269).
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The Spirit of the Reformation

The Spirit of the Reformation

It is not my purpose here to give a detailed account of Erasmus, uut to show the influence he had upon the Church of England. We know that he differed from Luther in that he wanted to reform the Church from within, whereas Luther's methods were revolution­ ary. Erasmus had gifts which won him a European reputation, and his knowledge of Greek and the reformed teachings assured iiim as a lecturer in the Cambridge University, while the manner in which he poured scorn upon the "colossal absurdities" of the teachings of the Church of Rome made him one of the leading reformers. It was at Cambridge that we see Erasmus as the Greek scholar and his influence upon Cranmer. It was due to the writings of Erasmus "as being the author who first opened the eyes of Cranmer" to the reformed teachings and which gave him a know­ ledge of the original Scriptures. It was to the study of Scripture that Cranmer "Set himself resolutely to the examination of the Word of God, so that an appeal might be made to the Scriptures rightly interpreted on all matters of faith and doctrine." Other Continental reformers with whom Cranmer co-operated in the compilation of the Prayer Book were the German scholars Melancthon and Bucer, as well as the two English Bishops, Ridley and Latimer who both suffered martyrdom. It seems to have been the wish of these reformers that the Church's Scriptural faith should be embodied in a series of articles. This was particularly necessary as the divines of the Church of Rome were drawing up a series of Articles at the Council of Trent in which they embodied all that was most unscriptural in their mediaeval theology as taught in the Church of Rome. The Articles of the Church of England were finally reduced to thirty-nine and ratified by the Crown in 1562, and, subsequently by Act of Parliament, all Clergy of the Church of England were required to subscribe to them. The influence of Erasmus can further be seen in his paraphrases of the New Testament, a copy of which was ordered by Act of Parliament to be placed in every Parish Church in the land. Cranmer, as we have seen, became the chief architect of the Prayer Book, being then Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Spirit of the Reformation could not better be seen in any one more clearly than in Cranmer himself, who later was to suffer martyrdom for the reformed teachings as enshrined in the Word of God and upon which the Prayer Book is based. Article 6 states as follows : "Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to Salvation : so that whatsoever is not read therein,
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The Spirit of God, or is it?

The Spirit of God, or is it?

(South Africa), the word ‘umoya’ can be translated with breath, air, wind, spirit, soul or life (Oosthuizen 1967:57). It should further be noted that this close link between breath, wind and spirit is also evident in other world religions such as Islam, Buddhism and Taoism (Edwards et al. 2006:136). Another indication of the inseparable link between spirit and breath in many pre-scientific African cultures is the fact that spiritual healing is often associated with holistic transformations, which are related to ‘deep breathing’ (Edwards et al. 2006:135). In practice, this belief implies that the spirit can be healed or cleansed by either deep breathing or by a traditional healer blowing over a troubled patient. This curious fact, that even across cultures the same word is used to denote spirit, breath and wind, strongly suggests that the word may signify one undifferentiated concept within magico-mythical frames of reference, rather than three alternative concepts, as would be assumed by our modern scientific frame of reference. In all the above-mentioned cultures and languages, the word for spirit-breath can therefore be described as a case of polysemy.
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THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF ACTIVITY INTERNATIONAL PARLIAMENTARY ORGANIZATIONS

THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF ACTIVITY INTERNATIONAL PARLIAMENTARY ORGANIZATIONS

The competence to create the norms of international law is already a specific subjective right ...” 4 , “ the exclusion from the number of subjects of those entities that do not have the normative competence is very artificial and conditional today, because it contradicts those provisions that consolidation in the global legal system " 5 . In our opinion, international legal corporate personhood is a legal property acquired by international individuals by virtue of legal norms and is not only a legal, but also a sociopolitical property. The subjects of international law are political entities; their emergence and existence is conditioned both by social processes within individual countries and regions, although to a lesser extent also by global political processes. The basis of international legal corporate personhood is the free will of the social will of a political entity in the international arena.
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‘Do not quench the Spirit!’ The discourse of the Holy Spirit in earliest Christianity

‘Do not quench the Spirit!’ The discourse of the Holy Spirit in earliest Christianity

The case of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is exceptionally important to the present topic. This document is a Christian pseudepigraphon in which older, Jewish traditions have been reworked. It shows us not only the rich diversity of views of the 1st centuries of the Christian era, but also indicates that the discourse on the Holy Spirit that led to the establishment of the trinitarian dogma was not the only way in which early Christians spoke about the Spirit of God. The ideas we find here are very similar to what we saw in the Rule of the Community of Qumran: ‘Man is portrayed as possessing seven (or eight) spirits (i.e. the senses; TReu 2:2–9); these “are commingled” with seven other “spirits of error”’ (TReu 3:3–6) (Kee 1983:778). Joseph is described as ‘a good man, one who had within him the spirit of God’ (TSim 4:4), but God’s spirit is not exactly the only spirit around. Human beings have to shield themselves against ‘the spirit of deceit’ (TSim 3:1) and the ‘spirits of error’ (TSim 6:6). A telling example is found in TLevi 2:3, where Levi describes an insightful moment as follows: ‘a spirit of understanding from the Lord came upon me’.
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Non-normative bodies, rationality, and legal personhood

Non-normative bodies, rationality, and legal personhood

This is an active, context-specific suspension only referring to the legal decision in question – in this instance, the denial of surgery. Legal personhood remains in effect in terms of other rights and responsibilities. A view reflected by the BMA’s guid elines on elective amputation. 62 The temporality of suspension that Naffine notes is useful, as it takes into account the changes that an individual may experience over the course of their lifetime and the subsequent effect of these changes on legal personhood. It also highlights that individuals can simultaneously retain their personhood in some contexts, but have it suspended in others. Naffine’s approach in this regard has resonances with the work of Rosemarie Garland-Thomson. 63 Working in the area of disability studies Garland- Thomson introduces the term ‘material anonymity’ in reference to those who are able-bodied and therefore unaffected by the challenges of disability. Those who are able- bodied ‘fit’ in to society precisely because of their ability to navigate the everyday topography of our existence. Grosz 64 and Whitehead 65 both share similar thinking in regards to gender and the social invisibility of the male body. They argue accordingly that the paradigmatic legal subject is the able-bodied white heterosexual male. This paradigmatic actor is afforded material anonymity that is only available to individuals who share these characteristics. ‘ O thers’ are rendered culturally exposed.
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On discourse and materiality: personhood in the Neolithic of the Isle of Man

On discourse and materiality: personhood in the Neolithic of the Isle of Man

world is performed, constructed, reiterated, altered. While they feel safe talking about ancestors or rites of passage, they generally steer clear of discussing what past practices 'meant', because they do not agree with Hodder's assertion about finding the 'ideas in the minds of past people'. This would appear to extend to an avoidance of theorising the self or relations of personhood in the past, because this is something which we cannot know. The query I have is, 'is it any more dangerous to theorise past selves than past beliefs about the dead (ancestors) or the processes of social life (rites of passage)?'. The problem with many of these post-processual approaches is that they cannot do enough to challenge the
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Implications of a technoscientific culture on personhood in Africa and in the West

Implications of a technoscientific culture on personhood in Africa and in the West

positive. The introduction of Western technology has often been detrimental to Africa. “Western” science introduced a split in African personhood as well, although in a different way than was experienced in the West. Many Africans had to earn their daily living in a working place, characterised by Western technoscience. Schools and universities teach “Western” science, hospitals and doctors practice “Western” medicine. Similarly, many Africans converted to the Christian faith still cherish beliefs and practice rituals that are part of African traditional religion. This split in everyday experience in expressed by the distinction made between “Africa by day” and “Africa by night” (referring to the westernised lifestyle when in the workplace and the African-oriented lifestyle when at home). While “Africa by day” proves to increasingly influence the African world-view, the need remains to experience life in “Africa by night” where religious rituals (especially with funerals), initiation rites (for the young), sangoma’s (for ailments and to combat bad people and spirits) and the
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University Education for Personhood through Ubuntu Philosophy

University Education for Personhood through Ubuntu Philosophy

moral theory Metz (2009), which reconnects us with our past and connects us to the present in the process of informing our future, should permeate throughout all studies at university level. Just as Information and Communication Technologies have become a medium of learning in every discipline, the Unhu/Ubuntu principles, can and should be taught to all university students through a Centre for Unhu/Ubuntu philosophy. The same reason that only a small percentage of the community ever pass through the university gates as students, the same principle should hold true also for education for personhood. The ripple effect factor that is effective in the dissemination of engineers, doctors and other professionals should also hold true for promotion of personhood. If our significant others in the communities become morally upright, dispensing their duties as per the dictates of the Unhu/Ubuntu philosophy, then a great number of people who may never pass through the university will be positively impacted.
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Awen: flowing spirit

Awen: flowing spirit

Within my rendition of Duchamp’s Nude Descending a Staircase, I looked at the nude structurally, and spiritually. The act of walking up and down stairs incorporates so much body movement. Walking is such a simple gesture, but it also so infinitely full of complex motions within our bodies. Beyond the purely structural aspects of this work, movement in general creates a flow of spirit, especially from the most natural and uninhibited of the human form, the nude body. These thoughts directed the animation and editing of this work, with respect and

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Price and the person : markets, discrimination and personhood

Price and the person : markets, discrimination and personhood

The paper begins by briefly reviewing perspectives on price in economic sociology, and then contrasts these perspectives with ideas about price and pricing generated within marketing theory, where price is given a more active role in market formation than it is in either neoclassical economics or economic sociology. We show that in the marketing context, price – along with the other elements of the marketing mix: product, place and promotion – has always been involved in the ‘making up’ of persons in relation to markets (Hacking 1986; Carrier 1994), mainly through the operation of techniques of classification and segmentation. We then describe some of the ideal types of ‘market personhood’ produced in contemporary marketing practices. We show that as pricing strategies increasingly produce data-fied prices, and dynamic market subjects alongside more conventional socio-demographic ones (that is, as they mix ‘individuals’ with ‘dividuals’), the ability of consumers to recognize themselves as part of an identified social group decreases. At the same time, new pricing strategies often reconfigure the nature of the information available about possible prices paid by other people – that is, while price is widely understood to be a signal, the possibilities of understanding that signal in meaningful ways are changing. Both these factors, we argue, enhance the potential for price discrimination in markets, with discrimination being understood both in the sense of being able to see, or make, distinctions and in the sense of singling out a person or group for unfair treatment. The paper concludes by considering the implications for consumers of encountering markets that make up persons in terms of different but overlapping and constantly changing systems of classification.
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Skeuomorphic reassurance : personhood and dementia

Skeuomorphic reassurance : personhood and dementia

Thought experiments in the philosophy of personhood, meanwhile, such as Parfit’s (1971), have suggested that ‘persons’ might be surgically transferable in half-brain portions between different bodies, if only we were to understand such personhood as mere eliminable epiphenomena, dancing flame-like upon the ‘real’ activity of synaptic electrochemical pulsations. All that makes us human, for such ‘eliminativists’, is mere illusion, an insubstantial froth upon the reality of biochemical predetermination. To Churchland and his followers, “our common-sense conceptual framework for mental phenomena” (Churchland 1981:68) should be seen as a tacit theory that we absorb in childhood and make use of every day. This is to suggest that mental-state terms, (‘I feel happy’, ‘I want to dance’ etc.) in short, are theoretical terms. This folk psychology ‘theory,’ for Churchland, - known as FP - is both tacit and empirical - we don’t think about it, and it is neurological in origin. In its harshest form - ‘eliminative materialism’ - FP is, however, regarded as a seriously mistaken theory – a “degenerating research programme” in Lakatos’ terms (Churchland 1981:75). We have rested upon its tacit use for millennia without it seeming to progress. Churchland argues, moreover, that the posits of seriously mistaken theories – such as Stahl’s phlogiston (Churchland 1981:81) for example - do not exist. His conclusion, therefore, is that mental-state terms refer to things that do not exist, or in other words, that mental-states do not exist. Folk psychology, for
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The Holy Spirit and the early Church: The experience of the Spirit

The Holy Spirit and the early Church: The experience of the Spirit

Firstly, we look at the charisma of healing. This gift occurs in manifold forms within the New Testament. Not only in the Gospels, but also in Acts and the Epistles, healing is a sign of the power of God’s kingdom. The Apostle Paul mentions it thrice in 1 Corinthians 12 (v. 9, 28 and 30) and, in all instances, uses a double plural form: charismata iamatōn, ‘gifts for (or of) healings’. The plural of charismata seems to indicate that there were various kinds of healing. In a similar fashion, the New Testament distinguishes more than one type of curative prayer. There are prayers accompanied by the laying on of hands, prayers for an absent sick and prayers accompanied by the anointing with oil (Ja 5:14ff.). The plural form ‘healings’ probably indicates that many different diseases are meant, somatic as well as psychological, in all their different forms. Secondly, there is the charisma of prophecy. The New Testament mentions prophets such as Agabus, an itinerant prophet from Jerusalem (Ac 11:28; 21:10ff.) and the daughters of Philip (Ac 21:9), but Judas and Silas (Ac 15:32) are also called prophets, as well as John (Rv 1:3; cf. 1:9ff.; 22:7, 9f.). Prophecy occurs in almost all books of the New Testament as a sign of the eschatological presence of the Spirit. What does prophecy generally include? The New Testament writings refer to activities such as ‘speaking for the edification, exhortation and comfort’ of believers (1 Cor 14:3), sharing particular revelations (Ac 13:1f.; 1 Cor 14:26; 15:51; Rv 2–3; 22:6–19) and, closely linked to the former, foretelling future events (Ac 11:28; 21:10ff. and John’s Revelation). Yet, it is necessary to emphasise that, in this brief inventory of activities and selected texts, a very limited number of features related to the wide-ranging phenomenon of early Christian prophecy are indicated. Thematic studies reveal numerous
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The spirit of Europe: Heidegger and Valéry on the "End of Spirit"

The spirit of Europe: Heidegger and Valéry on the "End of Spirit"

It is my hope that with our brief outline of the disjunction of either the Greco-Latin or the Greco-Germanic at play in the question of Europe’s heading we have been able to display how Heidegger and Valéry might prove to be invaluable resources for our discussion of Europe. For, not only does each of these thinkers trace his origin back to his respective German and French context comprising the disjunction, which means that each has a particularly important perspective on his respective aspect of the disjunction, but, (to recall what I have suggested above) in that these two thinkers share a similar account of the significance and crisis of Europe, they can both as a crucial mochlos offering us the leverage to displace and as such to approach what would otherwise be an intractable either/or. In short, in Heidegger and Valéry we find ways of taking up the historical question of Europe anew in repeating it one more time differently. Furthermore, in carrying out a reading of Heidegger and Valéry as examples of readers of Europe, my aim is not only to illustrate how they (albeit in different ways) consider Europe as being essentially of spirit, but also to demonstrate how their exemplary illustrations of Europe bring into view an entire European discourse about Europe. Such a reading, in other words, is not a matter of ‘mixing everything together,’ as Derrida would have it, ‘but of analysing the traits that prohibit [interdisent] a simple break between the Heideggerian discourse and other European discourses’ (PS, 198/185) such as that of Valéry.
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SPIRIT Communications System SPIRIT Attendant Installer’s Guide

SPIRIT Communications System SPIRIT Attendant Installer’s Guide

Call transfers to extensions can be expedited when the SPIRIT Attendant knows which extensions are valid in the SPIRIT system. For example, if the customer has extension numbers ranging from 14 to 21, once a caller enters two digits, the SPIRIT Attendant quickly determines if it is a valid extension number, then transfers the call without further delay. Refer to the programming instructions following the table to change any of the values listed.

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The ecosystem commons

The ecosystem commons

Black’s Law Dictionary (2019) defines a legal person or entity as “a lawful or legally standing association, corporation, partnership, proprietorship, trust, or individual, which has legal capacity to (1) enter into agreements or contracts, (2) assume obligations, (3) incur and pay debts, (4) sue and be sued in its own right, and (5) to be accountable for illegal activities”. Both human and non-human entities can attain legal personhood and bear rights, where the former is referred to as a ‘natural’ person (Srivastava 2015). Corporations, on the other hand, are an example of non-human entities with legal personhood status, which provides security for the economic wealth and development of the corporate entity. One of the most critical features, limited liability, allows corporations to mitigate risk and attract investors. At the same time, providing the ability to own assets, capital and land in the corporation’s own name means no single investor or stakeholder has majority control, but rather control is vested in the name of the corporation itself. This specifically is what has given rise to the metaphor of ‘corporate personality’ and ‘corporate person’, in the sense that it asserts its own entity separate to that of stakeholders (Srivastava 2015).
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Recommendations and evidence for reporting items in pediatric clinical trial protocols and reports: two systematic reviews

Recommendations and evidence for reporting items in pediatric clinical trial protocols and reports: two systematic reviews

along with our sensitive approach to gathering evidence, maximized the applicable evidence that could be identi- fied. The qualitative nature of the data extraction process ensured that the context of the recommenda- tions and evidence were contained within the reviews. We believe this allows the results to be useable and translatable to guideline developers, informing the ne- cessary next step in creating pediatric reporting guide- line extensions. Such extensions will provide guidance to the authors of pediatric protocols, helping to alleviate concerns of incomplete protocol reporting and will an- swer the repeated calls for pediatric-specific trial report- ing to address the common repeated deficiencies in reporting of pediatric trial reports. Together, SPIRIT-C and CONSORT-C, when adopted by authors, will ensure that pediatric research is reported in a way that ensures it is useful to all stakeholders, that bias is minimized, and that the research is not wasted.
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Tabernacles of the Spirit

Tabernacles of the Spirit

This is where the model of the Shed can illumine the path. Members of a Shed come with all manner of skills and ills, diverse conditions of mind, body and spirit, not in search of miracle remedies, but in pursuit of a wholeness of self that comes from being a valued participant in shared activity. In working together, the members of the body support and uphold each other. This is in accordance with the biblical story of redeeming life through total spiritual solidarity, ‘a dynamic we- formation of fellowship in face to face groups committed to sharing and transforming their common burden of suffering.’ 25
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