Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

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A behavioral theory of alliance portfolio reconfiguration: Evidence from pharmaceutical biotechnology

A behavioral theory of alliance portfolio reconfiguration: Evidence from pharmaceutical biotechnology

We collected additional data to measure independent and control variables from the NBER Patent Data Project, Compustat, the Center for Research in Security Prices (CRSP) US Stock Databases, the Pharmaprojects ® data set of Informa Pharma Intelligence, Mergent Online, Mergent Archives, and firms’ 10-K filings and initial public offering (IPO) prospectuses. We applied listwise deletion in case of missing data and retained all firms with at least two years of available data, reducing the sample from 196 to 165 DBFs, which resulted in a final panel data set of 1,016 firm–year observations involving the formation of 1,340 alliances. This data set formed the basis for our empirical models predicting alliance portfolio reconfiguration in the years 1985–2000. The panel is unbalanced, reflecting a substantial increase in the number of alliances formed in pharmaceutical biotechnology during the sampling period (Frankort & Hagedoorn, 2019). To address left-censoring, we used information on alliance formation by the sampled firms during 1981–1984, from which we constructed initial alliance portfolios. Subsequently, we constructed the variables related to firms’ alliance portfolios based on a rolling four-year window. Our dependent variables take a one-year lead in our analyses, meaning that alliances formed from year t–3 to year t (i.e., the firm’s “existing alliance portfolio”) affected alliance formations in year t+1. This is consistent with the common assumption of a five-year horizon of alliances in biotechnology (Robinson & Stuart, 2007).
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A Critical Review of the Concept of Transgenic Plants: Insights into Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Molecular Farming

A Critical Review of the Concept of Transgenic Plants: Insights into Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Molecular Farming

Large-scale transient gene transfection, climate risk- free production systems, and biosafety considerations Plant biotechnology typically relies on two strategies for delivery and expression of heterologous genes in plants, including a) stable genetic transformation, and b) transient expression using viral vectors (Marillonnet et al., 2005). In recent years, the technological progression in virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a feasible platform for recombinant proteins (RPs) production, while RPs were only able to be produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells, previously. The plant-based RPs are more preferable in terms of versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms (Chen and Lai, 2014). In spite of being a faster method, the transient approach is hampered by low contagiosity of viral vectors carrying average- or large- sized genes. Fortunately, these drawbacks have been subject to troubleshooting by developing constructs for the efficient delivery of RNA viral vectors as DNA precursors. The mentioned efforts have tended to expanding systemic Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transfection of viral replicons for efficient transient expression in plants. As such, Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of the target constructs using results in gene amplification in all developed leaves of a plant simultaneously. This process is also referred to as "magnifection" that can be performed on a large scale and with different plant species. The mentioned technique incorporates advantages of three biological systems consisting of: a) the transfection efficiency of A. tumefaciens, b) the high expression yield obtained with viral vectors, and c) the post-translational capabilities of a plant. This procedure does not entail genetic modification of plants and is faster than other current methods (Marillonnet et al., 2005). Transient expression systems have been established to eliminate the long-time frame of generating transgenic plants, so that the transgene is not integrated into the plant genome but rather quickly directs the production of the RP while residing transiently within the plant cell. In addition to the significant acceleration of production timeline, this approach improves the recombinant proteins accumulation level by excluding the “position effect” of variable expression instigated by the random integration of transgene within the genome (Komarova et al., 2010). In another word, the climate risk- free molecular farming systems have become more achievable by conducting the transient gene transfection.
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Bactericidal activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against human pathogenic bacteria

Bactericidal activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against human pathogenic bacteria

2, 411–417 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13102818.2016.1267594 ARTICLE; PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Bactericidal activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against human pathogenic bac[r]

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Proteins and Peptide Drugs:  Different Routes of Administration for Their Delivery

Proteins and Peptide Drugs: Different Routes of Administration for Their Delivery

Proteins and peptides have the wide range of therapeutic agents emerged within and the administration is through needle and syringe i.e., parenteral delivery is the choice of route of administration, but it has drawn some drawback related to patient incompliance such as causing pain during administration, sterility and cost of the product though the bioavailability is 100%. The route of administration plays an important role as it have an impact on the therapeutic outcome of the drug, with the advancement in the branch of pharmaceutical biotechnology. Based on the biophysical and biochemical properties a delivery system was designed for protein and peptide based therapeutic and clinical application have come into existence through non-invasive delivery and in addition, this dosage form can be significantly self-administered by patients, manufacturing cost would be less compared to the injections. The main aim is to focus in this review article is the recent advances in the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides via different non-invasive routes and the barriers affecting the drug transportation, approaches, advantages, challenges.
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The Papain-Like Protease of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Has Deubiquitinating Activity

The Papain-Like Protease of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Has Deubiquitinating Activity

Baker1* Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois1; Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Department of Me[r]

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Interspecies Communication among Commensal and Pathogenic Streptococci

Interspecies Communication among Commensal and Pathogenic Streptococci

Interspecies Communication among Commensal and Pathogenic Streptococci Laura C Cook, Breah LaSarre, Michael J Federle Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pha[.]

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Empirical Study on the Distribution and Growth Trend of Biotechnology Patents in China

Empirical Study on the Distribution and Growth Trend of Biotechnology Patents in China

Firstly, the most of the biotechnology patents in China focus on the following IPC codes, C12M, C12N, C12P, and C12Q. These four technological fields’ patents ac- count for 81.36% percent of total patents. Secondly, the spatial distribution of biotechnology patents in China is extremely unbalanced, several comparatively developed locations, including Shanghai, Beijing, Jiangsu, Guang- dong, Zhejiang and Shandong, account for 66.06% per- cent of total biotechnology patents. Thirdly, the trend of biotechnology patents number varying with time from 1985 to 2010 in China can be explained by quintic over- determined equation of one variable. The fitting degree is well. Under the F-test, the significance level of the simu- lation model is also good. From the simulation model, we can get the forecast data about the several coming years. It is helpful for decision support. And finally, the simula- tion curve is steep, especially after 2000, it shows that self-innovation strategy of China has taken great effect in the decades.
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The Effect of Contractual Complexity on Technology Sourcing Agreements

The Effect of Contractual Complexity on Technology Sourcing Agreements

We find a positive and significant relationship between the presence of milestone payments, Milestone dummy, and the probability of a technologically deep contract. Marginal effects range from 0.1264 to 0.1767 and are significant at least at the 10 percent level. We interpret the use of milestone payments as one way pharmaceutical firms are able to help mitigate potential moral hazard issues surrounding alliance agreements. Since research funds are fungible, theoretically, biotechnology firms could use research funds for other internal projects. Milestone payments limit the financial exposure of the pharmaceutical firm while providing an incentive to the biotechnology firm to meet specific, verifiable research goals. Jensen and Thursby (2001) find that royalties and equity are important in dealing with the moral hazard issue surrounding inventor effort. While neither Royalty dummy nor Equity dummy are significant, we believe milestone payments are acting in much the same way. 18
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‘PATENT ASPECTS FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY INVENTIONS – TRADITIONAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY’

‘PATENT ASPECTS FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY INVENTIONS – TRADITIONAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY’

The inventions of biotechnology, in the present day, are very much useful in different sectors, specifically and substantially. Biotechnology is being used vastly in agriculture, Environment, medical, Pharmaceutical, chemical industry, animal husbandry, and many others. Biotechnology has brought up innovative medical treatments and surgical procedures that are useful for the society. Biotechnology inventions are useful in treating pollution, fisheries, forestry, and others. This technology has got enormous importance in present-day life.The debate on biotechnology has come a long way since it first drew the attention of the patent specialists. They called into question the patentability and unpatentability of living and the natural phenomenon. It now commands the attention of a wide range of legal and non-legal communities embracing a variety of issues some ranging from the past, questions like the nature of the invention, to the present, like the patent jurisprudence and methodology due to the manner in which modern
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PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING STUDY AND CONSTIPATION ACTIVITY OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA L  (RUBIACEAE) BY USING ALBINO RATS

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING STUDY AND CONSTIPATION ACTIVITY OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA L (RUBIACEAE) BY USING ALBINO RATS

Hindu Addala 5 Department of Medicinal Chemistry 1, Department of Pharmacology 2, Department of Biotechnology 3, Vijaya Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences for Women, Vijayawada-521 108[r]

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Isolation of the Bacteria Producing Antibiotic from the Phylosphere of two Families of Fabaceae and Asteraceae

Isolation of the Bacteria Producing Antibiotic from the Phylosphere of two Families of Fabaceae and Asteraceae

MSc of Biotechnology, Drug Design and Bioinformatics Unit, Medical Biotechnology Department, Biotechnology Research Center, Pasteur Institute, Tehran,. Iran[r]

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GM crops: The socio-economic impacts

GM crops: The socio-economic impacts

relations within and among communities directly and indirectly. The introduction of mechanized farming during the Green Revolution increased the inequity between small-scale and large-scale farm communities is a known example of indirect impact of new technologies (Conway, 2003) As an example of current direct conflicts, for unknown reasons, organic certification standards generally do not allow GMO contents. Agricultural products containing even small traces of GMOs do not merit the organic label. In countries where GMOs are already legally commercialized, organic agriculture certification may be in trouble. This has been controversial issue in the US and Canada where some organic farmers have filed legal suits demanding damages (Nature Biotechnology, 2002). Such a situation is expected to be much more complicated in most developing countries where landholdings are much smaller and distances between farms are much shorter. This problem necessitates establishment of regional policies to pave the way. Freedom of choice
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COMPARITAITIVE SCALE STUDIES ON COMMERTIAL GREY WATER THROUGH VERMIFILTRATION

COMPARITAITIVE SCALE STUDIES ON COMMERTIAL GREY WATER THROUGH VERMIFILTRATION

through vermiculture biotechnology. Vermiculture biotechnology is an aspect of biotechnology involving the use of earthworm as versatile The reuse of grey water for non-potable water application is a potential solution for water deprived region world- wide .Therefore an attempt is made to reuse greywater, so as to reduce demand of fresh water. In present study, laboratory scale single stage filters were designed. Commercial grey water was passed through vermifilter and non- vermifilter. Domestic grey water was collected from the hotel and mess. Study is aimed to test the suitability of vermifilter and non-vermifilter for parameters viz. pH, efficiency removal of BOD and COD as well as Suspended solids in effluent grey water. From the experiment data it was found that percentage reduction in concentration of BOD and COD in vermifilter was more efficient than non-vermifilter. In vermifilter suspended solid are trapped on the top of the vermifilter and proceed by earthworm and fed to the soil microbes immobilized in the vermifilter. pH was changed from acidic to neutral by earthworm in vermifilter while pH remain same in effluent as in influent in non-vermifilter.
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Patents and Medical Biotechnology: an Empirical Analysis of Issues Facing the Australian Industry

Patents and Medical Biotechnology: an Empirical Analysis of Issues Facing the Australian Industry

First, it is often said that a patent actually gives the patent holder a negative right: the right to prevent others from exploiting the invention. If another person makes use of the invention without the permission of the patent holder, the patent holder has the right to sue for infringement. In terms of liability, it is irrelevant whether or not the person alleged to be infringing knew about the patent, although lack of knowledge is relevant when the court determines whether or not damages should be awarded. 83 As such, a patent does not give the patent holder the absolute positive right to exploit an invention. Other legal and regulatory requirements have to be complied with. For example, the exploitation of pharmaceutical patents requires compliance with all of the detailed safety and efficacy requirements of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 (Cth). Hence, the right to exploit the invention is limited by other legal and regulatory requirements. Secondly, although s 13 states that the patent holder has the right to exploit the invention, in fact, the patent holder has the right to exploit what has been claimed in the patent. It is often the case that the claims made in the patent are much broader than the true scope of the invention. This is particularly the case for gene patents, where variants of the gene sequence, gene products, diagnostic tests, and therapies all might be claimed, when the true scope of the invention is merely the disclosure of the gene sequence. We will consider this issue again later.
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Profile of Public Research Activity in Ireland 1998 – 2006, December 2010

Profile of Public Research Activity in Ireland 1998 – 2006, December 2010

1. Financial input and staff information on the Higher Education Sector was based on Forfás Higher Education Research and Development (HERD) survey‟s 1998 – 2006 and input from the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). The OECD original FOS classification was used in earlier survey‟s to collect data and the 2006 data was available by both the original and revised FOS classification. To facilitate comparison across years, the OECD original FOS classification was used for all years, including 2006, and mapped onto the 19 mFOS in the trend analysis. This means that for some of the 19 mFOS there was no trend analysis because data for these fields was not available under the OECD original FOS classification (i.e. Biotechnology, Nanotechnology and Mechanical Engineering). There were two categories where data was collected together in a combined category in the OECD original FOS classification (i.e. Computer & Information Science and Mathematics).
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Dynamics of firm size in healthcare industry

Dynamics of firm size in healthcare industry

given point in time by reference to steady state argu- ments. The dynamics in question have been relatively ignored however. The main objective of this paper is to help fill this gap by introducing a stochastic model that allows to incorporate dynamics which are typically neg- lected when looking at distribution of firm sizes. We consider a representation for the dynamics in the evolv- ing distributions where the growth distribution of firm sizes can be generated by a single stochastic process in which firm size follows a Brownian motion. A cross- industry empirical analysis, comparing dynamics of firm size in Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology industries fills a second gap in the literature, as only few diffusion stud- ies have employed real statistical data when analyzing firm size dynamics. The applicability of the proposed method suggests that diffusion may be a preferable tech- nique for the analysis of spatial dynamics in firm size. It is a more transparent way to quantify dynamics, as it avoids the complications associated with dynamic infer- ence and statistical regression fallacy inherent in stan- dard cross-section tests [1-3].
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Chemical profiling and antibacterial activity of Punica granatum L  against pathogens causing Bovine Mastitis

Chemical profiling and antibacterial activity of Punica granatum L against pathogens causing Bovine Mastitis

Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Institute of Technology, Bengaluru 2 Department of Biotechnology, Singhania University, Rajasthan ___________________________________________________[r]

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Marine Biotechnology A European Strategy for Marine Biotechnology

Marine Biotechnology A European Strategy for Marine Biotechnology

development and subsequent control of such bioremediation processes in shaping new applications in environmental biotechnology. Moreover, in addition to biodegradation, marine microorganisms frequently produce environmentally friendly chemicals such as biopolymers and non-toxic biosurfactants that can also be applied in environmental waste management and treatment. Recent findings into the basis of cell-cell communication have shown that this process is involved in biofilm formation leading to environmental corrosion and plugging. This has generated a search for new bioactive molecules that prevent such communication and control subsequent fouling. In addition, further understanding of the interaction of marine microbes with toxic heavy metals or radionuclides has suggested their use in various biosorption,
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EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF N HEXANE EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF NAPOLEONEAE IMPERIALIS FAMILY LECYTHIACEAE

EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF N HEXANE EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF NAPOLEONEAE IMPERIALIS FAMILY LECYTHIACEAE

Napoleonaea imperialis is used to treat wounds in most parts of Nigeria. Against this background, N-hexane extract of the leaves were screened against some microorganisms to ascertain this claim and to recommend it for further investigation for possible inclusion into official compendium. The plant leaves were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with N- hexane for 24hours. Phytochemical screening was done for alkaloids, saponin, steroidal nucleus, simple sugar, starch, glycoside, proteins and flavonoid using standard procedures. Antimicrobial screenings were carried out using agar diffusion technique. Antibacterial activity was conducted by screening against six pathogens comprising both Gram positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella, E. coli and S. typhi) obtained from pharmaceutical Microbiology laboratory stock. The extract was screened against 24hour broth culture of bacteria seeded in the nutrient agar at concentrations 400, 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25and 3.125 mg/ml in DMSO and incubated at 37 0 C, for 24 hours and measuring the inhibition zone diameter - IZD. The positive controls were ampicillin 20µg/ml for bacteria. The organisms were very sensitive to ampicillin. DMSO was used as negative control. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and proteins whereas flavonoids, resins and steroids were absent. N-hexane extract exhibited activity against all the test bacteria at 400mg/ml and 200mg/ml. The N-hexane extract exhibited varying activity as the concentration is reduced, to Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, B. subtilis, P. saeruginosa, Kleb pneumonia, Salmonella typhi with minimal inhibitory concentration of 50, 25, 200, 50, 400 and 200 mg/ml of N-hexane extract respectively. The extract demonstrated activities against certain bacteria confirming the use of the plant in ethno pharmacology and since the root extract are more often used, it is yet to be confirmed if it has more activity than the leaves against the test organisms. Taking the least inhibition zone diameter (IZD) of the standard (Ampicillin) as the breaking point, most of the extracts passed the breaking point.
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Competition Strategy and Geographical Proximity of Contract Research Organizations

Competition Strategy and Geographical Proximity of Contract Research Organizations

We collected data for CROs’ locations from the web directories of contract re- search organizations [19] [20]. We collected data for their location, age and ex- pertise. Some firms started as producers of reagents or medical devices and later transformed into CROs. We defined their age from the time they became CROs. Many CROs perform services in addition to direct research and development. For example, some firms provide contract assistance, FDA regulatory require- ments checks, auditing, managing of the CRO-pharma relationship, trial man- agement, data management and monitoring services (project management). These firms are also listed in the directory as CROs. We select only those CROs that directly work for Pre-clinical, Phase I-IV or drug development services and not those that merely provide consulting services. CROs that only perform test- ing of the safety of medical instruments and/or supply raw materials to pharma- ceutical companies are also eliminated from the data set. CROs working only as research firms are being selected for this analysis. This paper focuses in the re- search outsourcing of pharmaceutical companies. Only CROs in the U.S. have been selected. In future studies, it would be interesting to incorporate non-North American firms. In Figure 3 1 , CROs are plotted according to their level of con-
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