pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)

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The use of constructed wetlands as secondary wastewater treatment for the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products:  A review

The use of constructed wetlands as secondary wastewater treatment for the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products: A review

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) represent pollutants of emerging concern, originating in surface and drinking waters largely from their persistence in wastewater effluent (Oulton et al., 2010.) These pharmaceutical metabolites, conjugates, and the parent compound are excreted with urine and feces into sewage systems (Li et al., 2014). The presence of pharmaceutically active compounds in waste water, ground and surface water, drinking water, and soils and sediments is continuously reported (Camacho-Munoz et al., 2012). Although research has yet to establish a concrete link between the presence of these compounds with adverse effects to humans, numerous studies have demonstrated the negative effects these compounds have on aquatic organisms (Conkle et al., 2012). The long term effects of human exposure to trace levels of pharmaceuticals is not known. Therefore, applications of the
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PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN GROUND WATER FROM MUNICIPAL LAGOON TREATMENT

PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN GROUND WATER FROM MUNICIPAL LAGOON TREATMENT

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are biologically active, organic chemicals found in the environment at trace concentrations (Daughton 2004; Kummerer 2004; Heberer 2002; Ternes and Joss 2006; EPA 2008; USGS 2002). Due to their unknown potential for carcinogenicity, biological activity, and promotion of antibiotic resistance in certain organisms, PPCPs are an emerging concern (Daughton 2004; EPA 2008; USGS 2002). PPCPs are introduced into wastewater streams through household drains and subsequently enter municipal wastewater treatment systems (EPA 2008; Richards 1996; Bound and Voulvoulis 2005). Subsequently, wastewater enters the environment through seepage from all types of treatment facilities or direct discharge of treated water to the environment (EPA 2008; Kummerer 2004; Ternes and Joss 2006). This transmission of water from household to treatment system to ground water represents a major potential pathway for PPCPs to enter the environment (EPA 2008; Dingman 2002; Domenico and Schwartz 1998; USGS 2008a).
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Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products: A Review Based in Oman

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products: A Review Based in Oman

Despite these questions were asked on university level students, as it can clearly be seen from the survey results, people are unaware of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and their hazards and danger to the environment. Awareness of public must be increased by writing more about these on newspapers and talking about PPCP and their hazards on environmental platforms on TVs. Mass changes are necessary to create a real impact, and this can only be done by motivating people from the platform they have access to most, like social media and advertisements on TVs as well. On the other hand, Pharmacist must give indications on what to do with extra/unused or expired medicines while handling them to patients. The reason why, students knew more about pesticides than PPCP is because it's in the syllabus and in text books. With new emerging diseases and cures, the syllabus in schools must be updated to nowadays issues.
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Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products: The effects of Boron Exposure on crayfish (Faxonius virilis) Motor Function and Behavior

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products: The effects of Boron Exposure on crayfish (Faxonius virilis) Motor Function and Behavior

Many PPCPs are synthetic, some contain material found in nature that are harmful with increased dosages, such as the naturally occurring element Boron (Farer, 2017). The use of boron in makeup products has been patented for reducing wrinkles (Dreher, 2003). As well as several other uses including: make-up foundation to cover blemishes, antibiotics, hygiene products, sunscreen, estrogen supplements, and many others (Richold, 1998) (Hunt et al., 1991). Studies have demonstrated the verge of observable effects of boron exposure on aquatic organisms and evidence demonstrating the toxicity of boron to aquatic and terrestrial organisms above certain concentrations (Butterwick, de Oude, & Raymond, 1989). Many of these studies used boron in reconstituted water and found a variety of results for the lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) (Butterwick et al., 1989). The LOEC of boron has been evaluated for invertebrates, amphibians, algae, and other aquatic organisms, however none have examined crayfish. LOEC for freshwater fish was found to be .1 mg/L in reconstituted water (Birge & Black, 1977).
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Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Product (PPCP) Occurrence, Distribution, and Export at a Forest-Water Reuse System.

Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Product (PPCP) Occurrence, Distribution, and Export at a Forest-Water Reuse System.

. Subsets of emerging contaminants widely studied over the last decade include pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and, more recently, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). These contaminants can individually and collectively elicit detrimental effects on aquatic biota 5-7 and can propagate antibiotic resistance. 8 Conventional, large-scale tertiary wastewater treatment plants do not effectively remove many emerging contaminants from wastewater before discharge into receiving surface water bodies, resulting in continuous influx of emerging contaminants into surface waters. 3 Concentrations of PPCPs and other emerging contaminants downstream of conventional wastewater treatment effluent discharge are typically reported in the ng/L range
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Environmental Pharmacology: An emerging concern

Environmental Pharmacology: An emerging concern

The steady increase in use of pharmaceuticals increase the amount of generated pharmaceutical waste. 1 Environmental pharmacology is defined as the effect of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) on the environment and ecosystem. 2 It includes studies of PPCPs irrespective their doses and route of entry into the environment which responsible for disturbance in the balance of ecology. 1 Various other terms can be used interchangeably with environmental pharmacology such ecopharmacology, pharmacoenvironmentology, ecotoxicology. 3 However, the term 'Pharmacoenvironmentology' deals with environmental impact of drugs given to humans and animals at therapeutic doses. 4 Environmental pharmacology involves the study of environmental science, medicine, ecology as well as chemistry. 3 According to WHO, about a quarter of diseases faced by humans are due to continuous exposure to environmental pollution. 1
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Effective approaches to minimize the problem of pharmaceuticals and other personal care products in the environment

Effective approaches to minimize the problem of pharmaceuticals and other personal care products in the environment

accumulated after disposal in the environment due to their resistant nature to biological degradation process and sometimes their adverse effects on non-target receptors 3 can not be identified, even unpredictable, due to their low concentration applications. As for example, reproductive hormones like estrogen which is used for birth control in human also interfere with reproduction and development stages in reptiles. This estrogen hormone also results in widespread sexual disruption in male fishes. Similarly, some antidepressant pharmaceuticals like serotonin reuptake inhibitors inhibit growth rate in frogs and fishes. Sometimes, exposure to these accumulated PPCPs result in the
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Adsorption of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products on Granular Activated Carbon

Adsorption of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products on Granular Activated Carbon

as evaluated from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements. The adsorbates used were two pharmaceuticals, Cbz and Sil, and a personal-care product, Mp, of pharma- copeia quality (Parafarm Drugstore, Saporiti, Argentina). Table 1 lists the physico- chemical characteristics of the three compounds. Stock 1000 mg/L solutions were pre- pared by dissolving the compounds in 99.9% methanol, from which stocks the appro- priate volumes were taken and diluted with distilled water for the calibration and ad- sorption experiments.

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Adapting Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Domestic   Wastewater for New Reuse Applications.pdf

Adapting Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Domestic Wastewater for New Reuse Applications.pdf

The following cases are compared to assist the selection of an optimum design for a wetland in Chapter 3 so as to achieve maximum treatment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products[r]

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Emerging Pollutants in Aquatic Environment: Source, Effect, and Challenges in Biomonitoring and Bioremediation- A Review

Emerging Pollutants in Aquatic Environment: Source, Effect, and Challenges in Biomonitoring and Bioremediation- A Review

Furthermore the elimination of these EDCs by MBRs before disinfection may result in removal effectiveness of 96% in municipal waste-water, as compared to 85% efficiencies obtained in a conventional treatment plant, However, MBRs may be ineffective for the removal of several compounds if the sludge retention time (SRT) is extended [Caliman & Gavrilescu, 2009; Spring et al., 2007]. As there is growing cases of outbreaks of infectious waterborne diseases, these are becoming a challenge to both the water and public health sector. Therefore there is urgent need of the development of new (bio) technologies for water treatment and monitoring biological micro pollutants and in this regard novel concepts are starting to emerge [Forrez et al., 2011; Poynton et al., 2008]. The co-metabolism of estrogenic compounds during nitrification may be useful in the removal of pollutants of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs), While usage of other heterotrophic bacteria may be beneficial to further degrade the intermediate metabolites of these micro pollutants produced by the action of aerobic nitrifiers [Forrez et al., 2011; Stahl & de la Torre, 2012].
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The Presence of Compounds from the Personal Care Products Group in Swimming Pool Water

The Presence of Compounds from the Personal Care Products Group in Swimming Pool Water

The global production of several thousands of Personal Care Products (PCPs) every year makes the release of PCPs to the environment an unavoidable by-product of a modernized lifestyle. Multiple studies have detected PCPs worldwide in various aquatic environments, including swimming pools. In the presented work, the concen- trations of three selected compounds from the PCPs group were examined in 15 swimming pools with different functions. The aim of the study was to show the influence of various factors on the concentration levels of selected micropollutants. Two UV filters: BP-3 (oxybenzone), BP-8 (dioxybenzone) and one antioxidant BTH (dibutylhy- droxytoluene) were selected for the research. The extraction of micropollutants from the swimming pool water matrix was carried out by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE). The extracts were analyzed using a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled to the mass detector (MS). BHT was the most common compound. Its concentration ranged from 3.8 ng/L to 5.5 ng/L. The most rarely occurring compound was BP-3. The concentration of this compound varied the most, from 18.5 ng/L to 1178.6 ng/L. BP-8 was present in 10 from 15 tested pools at the concentration level of 49.9–226.9 ng/L. The frequency of occurrence characterizing different micropollutants from PCPs group was higher in recreational pools than in sports pools. It was also observed that the applied water treatment technology may affect the presence of Personal Care Products in the swimming pool water. No impact of basic water quality parameters on the levels of tested pharmaceuticals has been shown in this research.
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Naturally toxic: natural substances used in personal care products

Naturally toxic: natural substances used in personal care products

Table 3 shows examples of plant species from the INCI list which are used also in other applications but personal care or which are wild herbs. Some are widely used aro- matic herbs, e.g. Laurus nobilis (laurel), Myristica fragrans (nutmeg), Piper nigrum (pepper), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Others are food plants, e.g. Allium cepa (onion), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Citrus aurantium (bitter or- ange), Coffea arabica (coffee), Daucus carota (carrot), Gly- cine soja (soybean), Theobroma cacao (cacao), Triticum vulgare (wheat), Vitis vinifera (grape), and Zea mays (corn). There are other plants known for their use as phyto- pharmaceuticals, e.g. Arnica montana (arnica), Calendula officinalis (calendula), Chamomilla recutita (matricaria, chamomile), Valeriana officinalis (valerian), and Viscum album (mistletoe). Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) is also among the plant species used, as well as many wild or Table 1 Overview of the number of substances analyzed
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MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF DIFFERENT BRANDS OF TALCUM POWDER IN INDIA

MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF DIFFERENT BRANDS OF TALCUM POWDER IN INDIA

The international Microbiological standards recommended limits for bacterial contamination in cosmetic products are 1.0 x 10 3 CFU/g for bacteria. High bacterial load observed in the present study could be due to poor manufacturing practice and improper storage. Identification of isolates obtained from samples was done by morphological characterization, microscopically by Gram staining, and various biochemical tests recommended in the Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (Table 2). [13,14] According to the tests, the organisms in sample-1 may be Citrobacter, sample-2 and 4 may be Staphylococcus, sample-3 and 5 may be Enterobacter (Table 2).
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LEVEL OF CONSUMPTION OF FAST MOVING CONSUMER GOODS BY RURAL CONSUMERS – AN ANALYTICAL STUDY 

LEVEL OF CONSUMPTION OF FAST MOVING CONSUMER GOODS BY RURAL CONSUMERS – AN ANALYTICAL STUDY 

Customers decide to purchase products and services to satisfy their personal, social and environmental needs. The Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCGs) sector is surging ahead in rural markets due to modern communication. It has attracted Indian villagers. When the urban demands for the goods are getting saturated, the manufacturing companies look at this development as an opportunity. Large FMCG companies including Multinational Companies (MNCs) have their own strategies to enter this large and developing rural market. This attracted the investigators to carry out investigation about the level of consumption of rural consumers towards FMCGs.
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Is Brand Variety Replacing Brand Loyalty

Is Brand Variety Replacing Brand Loyalty

personal particulars of the sample respondents and their opinion on the various services that have been rendered by the personal care products in Coimbatore District. The researcher used questionnaire for the purpose of collecting data from the respondents. The secondary data relating to the study are obtained from various published and unpublished records, bulletins, journals and magazines and from the net resources. FRAME WORK OF ANALYSIS

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Crossover Control Study of the Effect of Personal Care Products Containing Triclosan on the Microbiome

Crossover Control Study of the Effect of Personal Care Products Containing Triclosan on the Microbiome

For this double-blind, randomized crossover study, we hypothesized that oral micro- biome composition would be altered by repeated, direct exposure to a triclosan- containing dentifrice and that gut microbiome composition would perhaps be affected as well due to systemic exposure to TCS via multiple products, as evidenced by detection of triclosan in the urine. However, in comparing microbial compositions between the TCS and nTCS phases, we observed neither a loss of species richness nor a shift in overall diversity. Although levels of a few taxa previously associated with oral diseases were reduced in the TCS phase, the differences in abundances between phases did not achieve significance in multiple testing. This lack of difference could have been a consequence of the fact that the subjects had been exposed to TCS for an extended period of time throughout their lives and their microbiota had already adapted to TCS exposure—a trend then not reversed with a lower exposure to TCS for several months. However, a washout period of at least 16 days prior to beginning the study was used in an attempt to control for this factor. Another possible reason for a lack of difference could be that the levels of TCS that were attained were not high enough. Overall, though TCS appears to both perturb environmental systems and have multiple toxic- ities in animals, it has not been shown to adversely impact human endocrine function health at levels achieved from commercial HPCPs (31, 32). In other circumstances, TCS does not appear to have the intended or expected antimicrobial effects (33). The differences in TCS effectiveness were likely due to the use of different concentration levels in different contexts (32, 33). However, though the levels might be low in the urine, they could have been much higher in the mouth, where toothpaste is directly applied. The oral flora was where we expected to find the greatest effect, but we still saw none.
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Evaluation and Prospects of the Cluster Model of Industrial Development

Evaluation and Prospects of the Cluster Model of Industrial Development

In clusters Technopolis «New Star» (Perm Territory), Sarov Innovation (Nizhny Novgorod region.), «Dubna» (Moscow region), «Ulyanovsk- Avia» (Ulyanovsk region.), Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk Territory) Biopharmaceutical (Novosibirsk region.) Shipbuilding (Arkhangelsk region). «Zelenograd» (Moscow), IT and Electronics (Tomsk region) the volume production output per worker in 2011 was at the level of 1-2 mln. rubles per year, and it should be increased to 1.5-3.5 mln. rubles per person per year by 2016. Clusters Biotechnology (Moscow reg.), «Trinity» (Moscow), Radio electronics (St. Petersburg), nuclear (Ulyanovsk region), Aerospace (Samara region), Pharmaceuticals and Medical Appliances (Tomsk region), Effective lighting (Mordovia) Radiation Technologies (St. Petersburg), the IT cluster (St. Petersburg) the volume of production output per worker in 2011 was at the level of 0.5-1 mln. rubles per person per year, it should be increased to 0.7-2 mln. rubles per person per year and by 2016. Generally, almost half of the average volume of the cluster production output per worker in the period from 2011 to 2013 should be increased by half
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The dynamics of brand choice behaviour in selected personal care products in urban Philippines

The dynamics of brand choice behaviour in selected personal care products in urban Philippines

Respondents belonging to bigger families (FSIZE) prefer Pantene over Ivory. However, Ivory is preferred over Naturals and Pantene for its g~ntleness and dandruff control. This co[r]

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BRAND LOYALTY’S INFLUENCE ON WOMEN’S BUYING BEHAVIOR WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS

BRAND LOYALTY’S INFLUENCE ON WOMEN’S BUYING BEHAVIOR WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS

Women today are extremely aware of the various brands in the market and are conscious of the products they use or consume. They pick and chose carefully according to their needs, style preferences, etc. They also exercise a lot of independence in decision making and influence the family buying behavior.Companies have realized that selling to brand loyal customers is less costly than converting new customers. Brand loyalty provides companies with strong, competitive weapons. This study provides an insight of Chennai women’s brand loyalty towards personal care products. While purchasing personal care products the factors which influence high brand loyal women consumers are ingredients of the product, Product should serve the purpose, innovative features, manufacturer’s reputation, and the product should be medically tested, and women with low loyalty consider primary benefit viz., price, quality and quantity while purchasing personal care products. It is evident from the study that brand loyal consumers don’t think about primary benefit when it comes to purchase of personal care products. Hence marketers need to provide additional benefits to their loyal consumers in order to retain and sustain them for their future business.
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A STUDY ON FACTORS INFLUENCING POST-PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN CHENNAI CITY

A STUDY ON FACTORS INFLUENCING POST-PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR OF PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN CHENNAI CITY

This created a boom in the Personal care sector across the world. Generally Personal care products are those products which consumer uses for her personal purpose. It includes different types of cosmetic and skin care products like talc, cold cream, fairness cream, toothpaste, tooth brush, perfume, deodorant, hair oil, soap and all types of baby care and beauty care products. Now a variety of cosmetic and toiletries ranging from natural to sophisticated items are available in the market. The pattern and preference of use of these items vary according to different segments and socio-economic class.
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