Background: Medical educationists claim that pharmacology is a crucial discipline that endows medical students with knowledge about rationality of prescribing a drug. For any teaching-learning program to be effective and updated, constant review and evaluation of curriculum through feedback from students and modification of the teaching methodologies accordingly, becomes very important. Objectives: The study was conducted with the intention to provide some light about the knowledge of CPT among interns in a tertiary care teaching institution so as to assess how adequately their medical undergraduate (UG) teaching in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (CPT) had prepared them for safe and rational prescribing. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital, Karnataka in 81 randomly selected interns. A structured pre-validated questionnaire was used seeking information about their demographics, confidence to prescribe for common illnesses, experience of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) since the start of their internship. The questionnaire also provided them an opportunity to suggest teaching methods which could be adopted to train undergraduates in the area of CPT. Results: 88% of interns attributed their knowledge of prescribing to their UG CPT training. Majority of them would confidently prescribe antihistaminics, antibiotics and NSAIDS without supervision. Only handful of them (9.6%) had reported ADRs to hospital authorities during internship. According to interns,
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Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT) envis- ages undergraduate (UG) medical students being able to plan, select, communicate, and guide patients throughout their illness to use medicines and other devices. The main goal of CPT is to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes so that a student is able to weigh the potential benefits and risks of treatment along with cost-effectiveness, understand the sources of variability in responses to medicine, base prescribing decisions on sound evidence, and monitor medicine effects appropriately. 4 CPT has been integrated
compared to treatment-refractory mouse prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) (Figure 3A). These findings are consistent with the vast majority of patients with prostate cancer (Gleason Score 7 & 9) having intratumoral copper levels well within the normal range . Enhanced copper uptake by prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and in xenografts mouse models, mediated by copper transporter 1 (hCtr1) protein, elevates intracellular copper and has been suggested to underpin copper-ionophore anticancer activity [17, 18, 23]. Our results establish that surplus copper does not govern the pharmacological facility of copper-ionophores, but may heighten clinical activity in the small subset of patients found to have elevated intratumoral copper . Additionally, surplus copper is not required for the altered metabolic requirement of prostate cancer. Consistent with malignant transformation causing a loss of cell specialization, zinc levels were found to be significantly lower following adenocarcinoma onset in TRAMP mice (ventral lobe) (Figure 2G) [33, 36]. Healthy prostate (includes BPH) contains an extremely high concentration of zinc, more than any other soft tissue in the body (Figure 2E–2H)  and requires zinc to change metabolism in order to produce citrate, an important component of semen. Prostate cancer malignancy necessitates the reduction of intracellular zinc to activate mitochondrial aconitase and in turn induce citrate oxidation and ATP production (Krebs cycle) [33, 36, 56]. Accordingly, zinc-ionophores have recently emerged as potential therapeutics for prostate cancer . Together, copper and zinc levels in TRAMP mice mirror those seen in patients with prostate cancer (tissue and serum) (Figure 2A–2H) [33, 36, 57], positioning TRAMP mice as being clinically relevant to investigate ionophore pharmacology.
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Despite the extensive use of Atovaquone-Proguanil, there remains a considerable knowledge gap concerning its pharmacology. The rollout of generics following the expiry of the patent will undoubtedly see an increase in Atovaquone-Proguanil usage that will be closely followed by an increase in the treatment failures. Clearly, if the community is to manage this issue and develop improved derivatives, more effort needs to be placed into understanding the PK-PD mechanisms underpinning Atovaquone-Proguanil treatment failure.
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In spite of the pitfalls in traditional teaching of pharma- cology [2,3], it remains the only method of teaching phar- macology in Nigeria . The traditional teaching is in the form of didactic lectures and bench work practicals. The teaching method often leaves the students to memorize drug information [2-4] and poorly prepare them to pre- scribe rationally [3,5]. Clinical pharmacology and thera- peutics (CPT), the speciality responsible for training doctors in the safe, rational and efficacious use of drugs, has been progressively integrated into the undergraduate curriculum in the USA , United Kingdom , Nether- lands , India  and Nepal  as a way of improving the prescribing knowledge and skills of junior doctors. The integration involved teaching pharmacology in the preclinical year and all through the clinical years in organ system-based manner. This teaching method has focused
data collection reduces the lecture time and may lead to fake attendance by some students. The biometric method for recording classroom attendance is preferred. This study also did not evaluate student performance in other domains, including skills and their ability to inte- grate pharmacology concepts with other basic and clin- ical disciplines. A mixed-methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methods would have been helpful to delineate the role of factors other than class- room attendance in explaining test performance. There is a considerable lag between the data collection and publication; thus, the findings may not necessarily reflect the current situation in the institution in which the study was performed. Moreover, the associations found in the study may not be robust because a multivariate analysis was not used to exclude confounding factors that could affect absenteeism and performance.
Eighty-three percent of the study respondents feel retrospectively that Pharmacology and Therapeutics course should be improved to ensure rational prescribing. They have suggested some means for improvement and also identified a number of area. This outcome is correspondingly quite comparable with a number of studies done in European countries and Canada (Heaton et al., 2008; Tobaiqy et al., 2007; Han and Maxwell, 2006; Franklin et al., 2007; Fijn et al., 2002, Qayyum et al., 2012). Although majority of the interns’ demanded they are competent enough to prescribe safely (80%) and rationally (65%). Furthermore same study population has identified at least 12 areas they have specific problems which include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchial asthma, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, rational use of analgesics and antibiotics, paediatric doses, duration of drugs. They also made a long list of drugs they are quite reluctant to prescribe. Therefore, it is unlikely that Bangladeshi interns have developed enough skill of good prescribing for their rest of the life within one year of training in hospital placement.
The authors thank all the GRAC consultants (a full list of consultants for the Fifth Edition of GRAC can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381. 2011.01649_2.x/full). The authors thank all members of NC-IUPHAR and its global network of subcommittees for their ongoing support. NC-IUPHAR members: S.P.H. Alexander, T.I. Bonner, W.A. Catterall, A. Christopoulos, A.P. Davenport, C.T. Dollery, S. Enna, D. Fabbro, A.J. Harmar, K. Kaibuchi, Y. Kanai, V. Laudet, R.R. Neubig, E.H. Ohlstein, J.A. Peters, J.P. Pin, U. Ruegg, P. du Souich, M. Spedding and M.W. Wright. The work of NC-IUPHAR is supported by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Servier, GlaxoSmithKline, Pﬁzer, Actelion, AstraZeneca, DiscoveRx, Abbott and Merck Millipore. The authors also acknowledge the support of the British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence Award (RE/08/001).
The main aim of any pharmaco therapeutics is the attainment of an effec- tive concentration at the site of action for a sufficient period of time to elicit the re- sponse. In practice, therapeutic effect is found in all types of kriyakalp. It is up to the science to correlate the observations with their scientific explanation. Here in present review article, it is tried to corre- late the Ayurvedic ocular therapeutic i.e. kriyakalp on the basis of modern phar- maco-therapeutic. Various drugs can be selected according to the stage and types of the disease and can be used in various Kriyakalp procedures according to need. In the light of above fundamentals of modern pharmacology, all the Ayurvedic ocular
Metals and minerals are known to human beings since pre-vaidic period. Earliar they were used for domestic purposes as to make household things like knife, utensils, hunting tools e.t.c. Later on their use was started to procure health. After that therapeutic properties of metals were also recognized and their use was started to treat the diseases. Rajata is also well known metal used in ayurvedic therapeutics since samhita kala. With the development of Ras Shastra processing technologies of metals developed. Various methods of shodhan and marana were introduced and use of Rajata bhasma in many formulations was started to treat severe diseases. In this paper effort have been made to compile ayurvedic formulations indicated in many acute and chronic diseases in which Rajata is an important ingredient.
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He has worked as a pharmacist in more than 50 pharmacies in South Africa and Namibia. He specialised in his chosen career path through obtaining two doctoral degrees, one in Pharmacology and one in Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry in the fields of in vivo cerebral perfusion pharmacology and in drug discovery, respectively. He was Professor and Head of Medicinal Chemistry at the University of Pretoria, Head of Pharmacology at North-West University, Research Director of Drug Research and Development
Religious traditions are the backbone of anthropological knowledge for any country. Sometimes in disguise they become an integral part for the general wellbeing for a specific community. The tradi- tion of taking ‘Choddoshak’ (leaves of fourteen leafy vegetables) during the season of autumn by Bengali people of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh may be a ritualistic event by them but in con- trary this fourteen herbs may have synergistic effect to collectively fight against the common health problems that occur particularly during the season of autumn. This review discusses the possible eth- no pharmacological role and pharmacology of the individual plants of ChoddoShak and helps to jus- tify the intake of ChoddoShak in the particular season of autumn by Bengali community.
There are a number of limitations of this study one of which is the lack of reliability data in relation to the phar- macology questionnaire used. The questionnaire was only distributed to students on a single occasion so test-retest reliability was not possible. Similarly in order to keep the questionnaire at a manageable length for students who are already asked to complete both module and teaching evaluations, the questions were limited in number and a measure of internal consistency was not possible. A fur- ther limitation is the fact that the study was based in a sin- gle institution and as such we are only able to assess the value of this educational intervention in our own setting. It remains to be seen whether this educational interven- tion retains its value in other institutional settings where pharmacology may be provided by staff from different professional backgrounds. This issue is however coun- tered to some degree by comments received through the on-line evaluation of these open access RLOs from stu- dents at other institutions nationally and internationally. 'I wish there were more of these. A great way to bring pharma- cology to LIFE'
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RNA interference (RNAi) was discovered less than a decade ago and already there are human clinical trials in progress or planned. A major advantage of RNAi versus other antisense based approaches for therapeutic applications is that here cellular machinery that efficiently allows targeting of complementary transcripts is used, often resulting in highly potent down-regulation of gene expression. Despite the excitement about this remarkable biological process for sequence specific gene regulation, there are a number of hurdles and concerns that must be overcome prior to making RNAi a real therapeutic modality, which include off-target effects, triggering of type I interferon responses, and effective delivery in vivo. This review discusses various types of siRNA, mechanistic aspects of RNAi & the potential areas where RNAi therapeutics are applied. It is anticipated that RNAi will be a major therapeutic modality within the next several years, and clearly warrants intense investigation to fully understand the mechanisms involved.
19. Bepari A, Parashivmurthy BM, Shaik KN, Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of volatile oil extract of Nigella sativa seeds by chemically induced seizure model in albino rats. International Journal of basic and clinical Pharmacology July – August 2016, Vol – 5, Issue – 4, Page 1300-1307.